Classification of malocclusion gallois 06 final bw

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  • 1. What’s going on here? Classification of How would you describe this? Malocclusion Dr. Robert Gallois REFERENCE: Where Do We Begin? ESSENTIALS FOR ORTHODONTIC PRACTICE By Riolo and Avery Chapter 6 pages 163-178 Why do we need to classify malocclusion? Orientation Planes First we need to“Classification is the morphological description establish planes ofof the dental, skeletal and soft tissue deviations reference in order tofrom the norm…” communicate which dimension our problem lies.Morphological deviations from the norm can becompiled into a problem list which is essentialfor treatment planning. 1
  • 2. Sagittal PlaneA.K.A. MEDIAN PLANE Soft Tissue An imaginary planethat passes longitudinally Relationshipsthrough the middle of thehead and divides it intoright and left halves. Used to describeanterior-posteriorrelationships. Frontal Plane BRACHYCEPHALIC describes an individual with a larger than average cranial width and usually presents with a broad,A.K.A. VERTICLE square head shape and low mandibular plane angle.PLANE BRACHYFACIAL is an individual characterized by a broad An imaginary plane square face with a strong chin, flat lip posture, low mandibularthat passes longitudinally plane angle and a straight profile.through the headperpendicular to thesagittal plane dividingthe head into front andback. Used to describesuperior-inferiorrelationships. Transverse Plane DOLICOCEPHALIC describes an individual that has a narrower cranial width and usually presents with a long, narrow shape and high mandibular plane angle.A.K.A. HORIZONTALPLANE DOLICOFACIAL is an individual that has a long, narrow An imaginary plane face with a high mandibular plane angle, convex profile, poorthat passes through the chin development and an anterior-posterior face heighthead at right angles to imbalance.the sagittal and frontalplanes dividing the headinto upper and lowerhalves. Used to describeright to left relationships. 2
  • 3. MESOCEPHALIC describes an individual that falls Facial Midlinebetween the brachycephalic and dolicocephalic types and has anaverage cranial width.MESOFACIAL is an individual who has well balanced facial A line drawnfeatures. perpendicular to the interpupillary line from glabella to the tip of the nose, passing through the philtrum of the upper lip, and the midline of the chin Dental Midline Maxillary Dental Midline A line drawn perpendicular to the maxillary Frontal Facial View occlusal plane through the proximal contacts of the central incisors. Mandibular Dental Midline A line drawn perpendicular to the mandibular occlusal plane through the proximal contacts of the central incisors. Asymmetry Lip Line The amount of tooth and/or gingival tissue that is exposed at A reduction of rest. proportion between the left and right sides of the face. Smile Line Often associated with The amount of syndromes which can tooth and/or gingival complicate tissue exposed upon treatment. smiling. 3
  • 4. Lip Incompetence Straight Profile The inability of thepatient to have the lipscontacting in the restposition withoutshowing muscle strain. Convex Profile Profile Facial View Concave Profile Profile Facial View The profile facial view is use to evaluate the the nose, chin, lips and facial convexity. There are three profile types: Straight Convex Concave 4
  • 5. Arch Forms Elliptical Dental Relationships Square Tapering Terms to Consider Crowding Arch form= Shape of the individual dental arches. Crowding= Dental misalignment caused by inadequate space for the teeth. Diastema=A space between two or more teeth in the dental arch. Supernumerary teeth= Extra teeth that usually erupt ectopically. Anodontia= Congenitally missing teeth. Arch Form Diastema Arch Length 2 1 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 5Mesial 1st Mesial 1st Molar Molar Arch Width 6 6 5
  • 6. Terms used to describe theSupernumerary Teeth position of teeth. Mesioversion A tooth in the arch located more mesial than normal Distoversion A tooth in the arch located more distal than normal Labioversion An incisor or canine outside of arch towards the lips Buccoversion A posterior tooth outside the arch toward the cheek Linguoversion A tooth inside the arch form toward the tongue Infraversion A tooth that has not erupted to the occlusal plane Supraversion A tooth the has over-erupted Torsiversion A tooth rotated on its axis Transversion Teeth that are in the wrong sequential order. (Transposition)Supernumerary Teeth Sagittal Dental Relationships Anodontia Angle Classification • In 1890 Edward H. Angle published the first classification of malocclusion. • The classifications are based on the relationship of the mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary first molar and the buccal groove of the mandibular first molar!!!!!! • If this molar relationship exists then the teeth can align into normal occlusion. 6
  • 7. Normal Occlusion Class II MalocclusionThe mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary first molar isaligned with the buccal groove of the mandibular firstmolar. There is alignment of the teeth, normaloverbite and overjet and coincident maxillary andmandibular midlines. Class I Malocclusion Class II Malocclusion Class II Malocclusion has two divisions to describe the position of the anterior teeth. Class II Division 1 is when the maxillary anterior teeth are proclined and a large overjet is present. Class II Division 2 is where the maxillary anterior teeth are retroclined and a deepA normal molar relationship exists but there is overbite exists.crowding, misalignment of the teeth, cross bites, etc. Class II Malocclusion Class II Malocclusion Division 1 Division 2 A malocclusion where the molar relationship showsthe buccal groove of the mandibular first molardistally positioned when in occlusion with themesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary first molar. 7
  • 8. Class III Malocclusion Transverse Dental RelationshipsA malocclusion where the molar relationship showsthe buccal groove of the mandibular first molarmesially positioned to the mesiobuccal cusp of themaxillary first molar when the teeth are in occlusion. Class III Malocclusion Posterior Crossbites A Posterior Crossbite is present when posterior teeth occlude in an abnormal buccolingual relation with the antagonistic teeth. Posterior Crossbites can be the result of either malposition of a tooth or teeth, and/or the skeleton. Examining the transverse dimension allows us to evaluate the intermolar and intercanine widths and determine which arch is the offending unit. Posterior crossbites can be unilateral or bilateral. A Functional Crossbite results from an occlusal interference that requires the mandible to shift either anteriorly and/or laterally in order to achieve maximum occlusion. Anterior Tooth Positions Posterior CrossbiteOverjet is a term used todescribe the distance between thelabial surfaces of the mandibularincisors and the incisal edge of themaxillary incisors. Anterior Crossbite is amalrelation between the maxillaryand mandibular teeth when theyocclude with the antagonistictooth in the opposite relation tonormal. 8
  • 9. Posterior Crossbite Overbite The amount of overlap of the mandibular anterior teeth by the maxillary anterior teeth measured perpendicular to the occlusal plane. Normal Overbite Deep Overbite Descriptive Crossbite Terms Open BiteBuccal Crossbite Buccal displacement of the affected posterior tooth or teeth as it relates to the antagonistic posterior tooth or teeth. An open bite is present when there is no verticalLingual Crossbite Lingual displacement of the mandibular affected overlap of the maxillary and mandibular anterior tooth or teeth as it relates to the antagonistic tooth or teeth. teeth or no contact between the maxillary and Palatal displacement of the maxillary affected mandibular posterior teeth.Palatal Crossbite tooth or teeth as it relates to the antagonistic tooth or teeth.Complete Crossbite When all the teeth in one arch are positioned either inside or outside to all the teeth of the opposing arch.Scissor-bite Present when one or more of the adjacent posterior teeth are either positioned completely buccally or lingually to the antagonistic teeth and exhibit a vertical overlap. Ankylosis Vertical Dental The fusion between the teeth Relationships and the alveolar bone. Ankylosed teeth do not erupt with the vertical growth of the patient and are seen in the infraversion position. 9
  • 10. Skeletal Patterns Skeletal Pattern I II III Cephalometric Analysis Hyperdivergent Skeletal Pattern A skeletal pattern that Used to evaluate the relationships between the deviates from the norm in teeth, soft tissue and the skeleton. that there is an excessive divergence of the skeletal planes (determined by the The Lateral Cephalometric Radiograph analysis used.) gives the orthodontist a sagittal view of the Characterized by a steep skeletal, dental and soft tissues. An analysis can mandibular plane angle, a then be performed by tracing or digitizing the long anterior lower face radiograph and making the appropriate height with open bite measurements. tendency, lip incompetence and often associated with Class II malocclusion. Skeletal Patterns Hypodivergent Skeletal PatternCephalometric analyses reveal to the orthodontistthe skeletal component of the patient’s malocclusion. A skeletal pattern inWe can classify patients as a : which the skeletal planes are more parallel to each Class I Skeletal Pattern other. Class II Skeletal Pattern Characterized by a low Class III Skeletal Pattern mandibular plane angle, short lower facial heightThese patterns often correspond with the Angle and is often associatedClassification but not necessarily all the time. with Class II Division 2Understanding the skeletal pattern is essential for malocclusions.choosing the proper treatment mechanics. 10
  • 11. Prognathism Retrognathism Retrognathism is a skeletal retrusion.Prognathism is a skeletal protrusion. Bimaxillary Retrognathism (Retrusion) isBimaxillary Prognathism (Protrusion) is present when both jaws are posterior to the normalpresent when both jaws protrude forward of the limits of the face.normal facial limits. Maxillary Retrognathism (Retrusion) isMaxillary Prognathism (Protrusion) is present present when the maxilla is posterior to the normalwhen the maxilla protrudes forward of the normal limits of the face.limits of the face. Mandibular Retrognathism (Retrusion) isMandibular Prognathism (Protrusion) is when present when the mandible is posterior to thethe mandible protrudes forward of the normal normal limits of the face.limits of the face. Prognathism Retrognathism Normal Bimaxillary Prognathism Normal Bimaxillary Retrognathism Mandibular Prognathism (Protrusion) Mandibular Retrognathism (Retrusion) 11
  • 12. Dentoalveolar Protrusion Dentoalveolar RetrusionDentoalveolar Protrusion is present when Dentoalveolar Retrusion is present when thethe anterior teeth are positioned forward of the anterior teeth are posterior to the normal limits ofnormal limits of the basal bone. the basal bone.Bimaxillary Dentoalveolar Protrusion is Bimaxillary Dentoalveolar Retrusion ispresent when the anterior teeth of both jaws present when the anterior teeth of both jaws areare forward of the normal limits of the basal posterior to the normal limits of the basal bone.bone. Maxillary Dentoalveolar Retrusion is presentMaxillary Dentoalveolar Protrusion is when the anterior teeth of the maxilla are posteriorpresent when the maxillary anterior teeth are to the normal limits of the basal bone.forward of the normal limits of the basal bone. Mandibular Dentoalveolar Retrusion isMandibular Dentoalveolar Protrusion is present when the anterior teeth of the mandible arepresent when the mandibular anterior teeth are posterior to the normal limits of the basal bone.forward of the normal limits of the basal bone. Dentoalveolar Protrusion Dentoalveolar Retrusion Normal Bimaxillary Dentoalveolar Normal Bimaxillary Dentoalveolar Protrusion Retrusion Bimaxillary Dentoalveolar Protrusion So what does this all mean? 12