Nanotechnology ama 3_11_2011


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Nanotechnology ama 3_11_2011

  1. 1. Is nanotechnology the gateway to the future forhuman beings on Earth? Where does our imagination take us? 2
  2. 2. Definition“Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications.”“Encompassing nanoscale science,engineering and technology, nanotechnologyinvolves imaging, measuring, modeling, andmanipulating matter at this length scale.” (National Nanotechnology Initiative, 2007) 3
  3. 3. What is Nanotechnology? Nanotechnology is: Comprised of nanomaterials with at least one dimension that measures between approximately 1 and 100 nm Comprised of nanomaterials that exhibit unique properties as a result of their nanoscale size Based on new nanoscale discoveries across the various disciplines of science and engineering The manipulation of the nanomaterials to develop new technologies/applications or to improve on existing ones Used in a wide range of applications from electronics to medicine to energy and more 4
  4. 4. HistoryThe concepts of nanotechnology are not inherently new to nature or to thehistory of mankind. Science and nature have taught us that biologicalsystems are built using small cells and proteins that follow an intrinsicplan dictated by infinitesimally small genetic coding (Roukes, et al., 2002).A well documented and early example of a manmade nanoprocess is the workof Medieval stained glass makers who used small nanosize gold particlesof varying sizes to create the different color hues found in stained glasswindows of Medieval churches and structures. Hence, gold particles display adifferent form of color depending on their size at the nanoscale (Ratner andRatner, 2003). Gold at the larger scale, the macro scale, such as a gold brickreflects the well known yellowish color.Stained glass windows. Picture of gold nano particles. 5
  5. 5. Structural design of “Tattoo Needle” 6
  6. 6. Birth of Nanotechnology In contemporary times, manufacturing tolerances of parts have approached nanometric dimensions, especially in the manufacturing of semiconductor devices. However, the term “nanotechnology” was not used until 1974 by Professor Norio Taniguchi, whose work and research was in the area of high precision machining. Professor Taniguchi of Tokyo Science University used the word “nanotechnology” to describe the science and technology of processing or building parts with nanometric tolerances. Essentially, Professor Taniguchi’s theoretical concepts involved the use of electron, ion beam, and laser beam processes for machining tolerances at the nanoscale. 7
  7. 7. Dr. Richard P. Feynman•The first well documented talk on the possibilities ofnanotechnology was made by one of the most distinguishedAmerican physicists, Richard Feynman(1918-1988).•Dr. Feynman’s talk was called There Is Plenty of Room atthe Bottom, and he delivered it on December 12, 1959, beforethe American Physical Society meeting held at Caltech. Inhis talk, Feynman challenged the scientific community tothink small in terms of solving future problems.•Feynman stated:“Why cannot we write the entire 24 volumes of theEncyclopedia Britannica on the head of a pin?” . 8
  8. 8. Feynman’s vision previewed the collaboration betweenthe sciences, the need for more powerful measurementtools such as the electron microscope that could allowatomic viewing and manipulation. He believed thatengineers and scientists had to work together todevelop tools that would have the ability to see andmanipulate atoms and molecules in order to solveproblems using nanotechnology.Feynman said:“The problems of chemistry and biology can be greatlyhelped if our ability to see what we are doing, and to dothings on an atomic level, is ultimately developed–adevelopment which I think cannot be avoided.”(Zyvex, 2007) 9
  9. 9. Atomic Scale • Following figure shows a computer image of the nano ice double helix. • In the nano ice image, oxygen atoms are blue in the inner helix, purple in the outer helix. Hydrogen atoms are white. Feynman also discussed how matter at the atomic scalebehaves differently than matter at the macroscopic scale since, hementioned, at the atomic scale atomic size particles respond toforces governed by quantum mechanics as opposed to largersystems which are governed by classical Newtonian mechanics. 10
  10. 10. Eric Drexler Engines of Creation•Coined the term “GreyGoo”…the potential The Coming Eraproblem of self-replicating of Nanotechnologyand autonomous artificialintelligence machines. By K. Eric Drexler [Eric Drexler’s book, Engines of Creation, first published in 1986, popularized the innovative possibilities of nanotechnology. Drexler talked about the dangers of nanotechnology and specifically mentioned the “Grey Goo” phenomena. Grey Goo is the term given to the potential problem of self-replicating and autonomous artificial intelligence machines that can take over the world and wipe out life as we know it DNA damage. today.] 11
  11. 11. Metrology: Measurement equipment or metrology tools, as they are often called, havebeen the foundation stone of nanotechnology because they have allowed us to see whatwe are doing at the atomic scale. Tools such as the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM),Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) and the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)provide the bridge between the macro world and the nano world. The ability to seeand characterize matter at the atomic scale began the work that Feynman imagined. In 1981, two gentlemen, Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer of IBM Zurich,invented the scanning tunneling microscope for which they received the Nobel Prizein Physics in 1986. The scanning tunneling microscope works by sliding a very smalltip, about the size of an atom, over a surface at an extremely close proximity – within a fewatomic layers - and uses electronics to translate the surface topography into a visualimage (Ratner and Ratner, 2002). In this manner, the scanning tunneling microscopeproduces a visual representation of the material being scanned much like a keycutting machine traces and makes a copy of the original key. 12
  12. 12. Buckyballs: Three gentlemen—Harold Kroto from the University of Sussex, Robert Curland Richard Smalley from Rice University—were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistryin 1996 for their discovery of a new composition of carbon, i.e., Carbon 60. This new compound, which only measures about one nanometer in diameter,was called a Buckminsterfullerene or “Buckyball.” Carbon 60 (C 60) has 60 carbonatoms covalently bonded and forming geometric 12 pentagons and 20 hexagons—thesame geometric configuration found in most foot balls (Booker & Boysen, 2005). Buckyballs are produced through a low pressure carbon vaporization process. Theoriginal technique only produced small quantities, but current processes produce Carbon60or buckyballs at a much higher rate. Buckyballs are also used to form carbon Nanotubes.These Nanotubes can be used to form transistors and, depending on their configuration, theycan be made to be conductors or insulators (Ratner & Ratner, 2002). Carbon is a veryinteresting element because it has four electrons in its outer shell, just like silicon,and is allotropic—which means it can take on different forms. Both diamond and graphiteare made from carbon.Carbon-60 buckyball isshaped like a Foot ball. 13
  13. 13. Fullerenes:Carbon 60 (C60) was named after Richard Buckminster Fuller, who went by thenickname “Bucky.”Fuller’s most noted architectural design was the geodesic dome. The geodesicdome is a sphere which is made up of geometric triangular shapes. It is a veryrigid construction and very strong in terms of its weight to volume. The C60Buckyball was named in Fuller’s honor (Wikipedia, 2007) A “Buckyball.” Dome over biosphere in Montreal. 14
  14. 14. Thus we can say that……. ………..Nanotechnology isuniversal and persistent. It is an emerging field in allareas of science, engineering and technology. Now you are Welcome to NanoWorld! 15
  15. 15. 1 Nanometer = 1 x 10-9 meter = 1 x 10-3 μm = 3.281 x 10-9 feet = 39.37 x 10-9 inches 16
  16. 16. Equivalence of A Nanometer: There are 1 billion (1,00,00,00,000) nanometers in 1 meter There are 1 million (10,00,000) micrometers (or microns) in 1 meter A line of ten hydrogen atoms lined up side by side is 1 nanometer long Our finger nail grows 1 nanometer in 1 second The diameter of our hair is approximately 50,000 nanometers The abbreviation for nanometer is “nm” 17
  17. 17. Scale of Things—Nanometers 18
  18. 18. Particle size classification 19
  19. 19. Nanotechnology LanguageYow! •Nanobio •Nanodots •Nanowires •Nanoelectronics •Nanobots •Nanomaterials Searching for nanotechnology. 20
  20. 20. Nanomaterials are not simply another footstep in the miniaturization ofmaterials. They often require very different production approaches.Two approaches of producing nanotechnology systems: Top-down and bottom-up.1) Top-Down Fabrication:•Start with a large piece of material•Remove sections of material to “carve” a specific pattern or shape•Has been used for centuries to manufacture artwork, tools and devices This method is used by computer chip manufacturers (Booker &Boysen, 2005). The producers of chips begin the process with large bulk siliconwafers and then manufacture the devices on top of them through a series ofprinting, layering, doping and removal steps that ultimately lead to afunctional device. The printing is done through a reduction process calledphotolithography. This process has evolved since the 1960 s, into one that is nowprinting line width dimensions at the nanometer scale. Photolithography 21
  21. 21. 2. Bottom-up Fabrication:•Start with catalyst particles and/or a substrate•Expose to a gas or liquid•Reaction leads to the growth of a solid nanostructure or nanoscale self-assembledlayer•Properties such as temperature, pressure, surface quality, composition, catalystsize, etc. influence growth characteristics The bottom-up approach to nanomanufacturing is analogous to the waybiological systems are made. In biology, cells grow tissue, organs, plants, hair, etc.through the process of self assembly. This approach is now being studied innanotechnology. Drexler wrote about self assembling nanoparticles, and this typeof research is already taking place, even though at a elementary level as comparedto Drexler’s vision. The use of biological microorganisms to synthesize or form nanoparticlesis being studied. This is an interesting concept since it maintains to use organicmaterial to grow inorganic metals. In several studies, certain types of bacteria areshown to produce gold or silver particles. Researchers also found that “theexposure of lactic acid bacteria present in the way of buttermilk to mixtures ofgold and silver ions can be used to grow alloy nanoparticles of gold and silver”(Mandal, et al., 2005).An example of a molecular selfassembly through hydrogen bonds. 22
  22. 22. Nanostructures/Nanomaterials Nanostructures are materials that, in at least one dimension, measure approximately 1 – 100 nm Nanostructures or nanomaterials exhibit properties different from their macroscale counterparts (their “big brothers”) such as: Mechanical strength (how hard they are to break) Electrical conductivity (how fast electrons flow through them) Thermal conductivity (how fast heat flows through them) Chemical reactivity (how well/fast they react with other chemicals) Transparency (how well you can see through them) Magnetism (whether or not they are magnetic) … and many more… Microstructures, the cousin to nanostructures, typically measure between 100 nanometers and 100 micrometers in at least one dimension, but likely do not exhibit unique properties like nanostructures. 23
  23. 23. Why does this happen? Nanostructures obey the same fundamental laws of the universe as everything else in nature But… some things that are negligible (can be ignored) at big scales cannot be ignored at small scales For example: Imagine we are an electron moving through a “big” copper wire 1 cm in diameter – we may never see the boundaries of the wire because we are so small compared to its diameter Imagine we are an electron moving through a “small” copper wire 1 nm in diameter (more comparable to the electron’s size) – now we strike to the boundaries of the wire often, which affects how we move through that wire Therefore, the 1 nm diameter copper wire exhibits different electrical properties than its macroscale counterpart! 24
  24. 24. Science of Nanostructures/NanomaterialsNanoscale in One Dimension: Thin films , Layers and Surfaces- One dimensional nanomaterials, such as thin films and engineered surfaces, have been developed and used for decades in fields such as electronic devices manufacture, chemistry and engineering. Monolayers (layers that are one atom or molecule deep) are also routinely made and used in chemistry. Engineered surfaces with tailored properties such as large surface area or specific reactivity are used in range of applications such as fuel cells and catalysts. 25
  25. 25. Two Dimensions of Nanoscale: Two dimensional nanomaterials such as tubesand wires have generated considerable interest among thescientific community in recent years. Carbon Nanotubes Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were first observed bySumio Iijima in 1991. CNTs are extended tubes of rolledgraphene sheets. There are two types of CNT: 1) single-walled (one tube) 2) multi-walled (several concentric tubes) CNT are -mechanically very strong with Young’smodulus over 1 terapascal, i.e., CNT are as stiff asdiamond. -flexible about their axis and -can conduct electricity extremely well. Models of different singlewall nanotubes:Inorganic Nanotubes, Nanowires and Biopolymers etc… 26
  26. 26. Three Dimensions of Nanoscale: nanoparticles : Three dimensional nanomaterials such as nanoparticles ofless than 100 nm in diameter. Fullerenes (Carbon 60): In the mid-1980s a new class of carbon materials wasdiscovered called carbon 60 (C60). Harold Kroto, Robert Curland Richard Smalley, the experimental chemists who discoveredC60 named it “Buckminsterfullerene”. C60 are sphericalmolecules about 1 nm in diameter, comprising 60 carbonatoms arranged as 20 hexagons and 12 pentagons: theconfiguration of a football. Several applications are envisaged for fullerenes, such asminiature ‘ball bearings’ to lubricate surface, drug deliveryvehicles and in electronic circuits. Dendrimers: Dendrimers are spherical polymeric molecules, formedthrough a nanoscale hierarchical self-assembly process. 27
  27. 27. Quantum Dots: Nanoparticles (2–10 nm in diameter) ofsemiconductors were theorized in the 1970s and initiallycreated in the early 1980s, emit light in a specificwavelength range. Recently, QDs have found applications incomposites, solar cells (Gratzel cells) and fluorescentbiological labels (i.e., to trace a biological molecule) whichuse both the small particle size and tuneable energylevels. Recent Advances in chemistry have resulted in thepreparation of monolayer-protected, high-quality,monodispersed, crystalline QDs as small as 2 nm indiameter, which can be conveniently treated andprocessed as a typical chemical reagent. 28
  28. 28. Some Current Applications of Nanotechnology 29
  29. 29. Solar Cells:Nanotechnology enhancements provide: Improved efficiencies: Novel nanomaterials can harness more of the sun’s energy Lower costs: Some novel nanomaterials can be made cheaper than alternatives Flexibility: Thin film flexible polymers can be manipulated to generate electricity from the sun’s energy 30
  30. 30. Computing:Nanotechnology enhancements provide: Faster processing speeds: Miniaturization allows more transistors to be packed on a computer chip More memory: Nanosized features on memory chips allow more information to be stored Thermal management solutions for electronics: Novel carbon-based nanomaterials carry away heat generated by sensitive electronics 31
  31. 31. Clothing:Nanotechnology enhancements provide: Anti-odor properties: silver nanoparticles embedded in textiles kill odor causing bacteria Stain-resistance: nanofiber coatings on textiles stop liquids from penetrating Moisture control: novel nanomaterials on fabrics absorb perspiration and wick it away UV protection: titanium nanoparticles embedded in textiles inhibit UV rays from penetrating through fabric In addition to above ….. -Sunscreens and Cosmetics applications -Composites, -Clays, -Coatings and Surfaces, -tougher and Harder Cutting Tools, -Paints, -Remediation -Fuel Cells, -Displays, -Batteries,-Fuel Additives,-catalysts 32
  32. 32. Batteries:Nanotechnology enhancements provide: Higher energy storage capacity and quicker recharge: Nanoparticles or nanotubes on electrodes provide high surface area and allow more current to flow Longer life: Nanoparticles on electrodes prevent electrolytes from degrading so batteries can be recharged over and over A safer alternative: Novel nano-enhanced electrodes can be less flammable, less costly and less toxic than conventional electrodes 33
  33. 33. Sporting Goods and Equipment:Nanotechnology enhancements provide: Increased strength of materials: Novel carbon nanofiber or nanotube-based nanocomposites give the player a stronger swing Lighter weight materials: Nanocomposites are typically lighter weight than their macroscale counterparts More “perfect” fabrication of materials: controlling material characteristics at the nanoscale helps ensure that a ball flies in the direction of applied force and/or reduces the chance for fracture of equipment 34
  34. 34. Cars:Nanotechnology enhancements provide: Increased strength of materials: novel carbon nanofiber or nanotube nanocomposites are used in car bumpers, cargo liners and as step-assists for vans Lighter weight materials: lightweight nanocomposites mean less fuel is used to make the car go Control of surface characteristics: nanoscale thin films can be applied for optical control of glass, water repellency of windshields and to repair of nicks/scratches 35
  35. 35. Food and Beverage:Nanotechnology enhancements provide: Better, more environment friendly adhesives for fast food containers: Biopolymer nanospheres instantly staple surfaces together Anti-bacterial properties: Nano silver coatings on kitchen tools and counter-tops kill bacteria/microbes Improved barrier properties for carbonated beverages or packaged foods: Nanocomposites slow down the flow of gas or water vapor across the container, increasing shelf life 36
  36. 36. The Environment:Nanotechnology enhancements provide: Improved ability to capture groundwater contaminants: Nanoparticles with high surface area are injected into groundwater to bond with contaminants Replacements for toxic or scarce materials: Novel nanomaterials can be engineered to exhibit specific properties that mimic other less desirable materials 37
  37. 37. Some Future Applications of Nanotechnology 38
  38. 38. Body Armor:Nanotechnology enhancements will provide: Stronger materials for better protection: Nanocomposites that provide unparalleled strength and impact resistance Flexible materials for more form-fitting wearability: Nanoparticle -based materials that act like “liquid armor” Lighter weight materials: Nanomaterials typically weigh less than their macroscale counterparts Dynamic control: Nanofibers that can be flexed as necessary to for soldiers or stiffen to furnish additional protection in the face of danger 39
  39. 39. Drug Delivery:Nanotechnology enhancements will provide: New vehicles for delivery: Nanoparticles such as buckyballs or other cage-like structures that carry drugs through the body Targeted delivery: Nano vehicles that deliver drugs to specific locations in body Time release: Nanostructured material that store medicine in nanosized pockets that release small amounts of drugs over time 40
  40. 40. Cancer:Nanotechnology enhancements will provide: Earlier detection: Specialized nanoparticles that target cancer cells only – these nanoparticles can be easily imaged to find small tumors Improved treatments: Infrared light that shines on the body is absorbed by the specialized nanoparticles in the cancer cells only, leading to an increased localized temperature that selectively kills the cancer cells but leaves normal cells unharmed 41
  41. 41. Molecular Manufacturing:Nanotechnology enhancements will provide: Ability to build structures, materials, devices and systems from the “bottom-up” atom by atom or molecule by molecule “Nanobots” or “nanomachines” that can position atoms or molecules to build with atomic accuracy Zero to little waste because atoms are placed exactly where they should go 42
  42. 42. Sensors:Nanotechnology enhancements will provide: Higher sensitivity: High surface area of nanostructures that allows for easier detection of chemicals, biological toxins, radiation, disease, etc. Miniaturization: Nanoscale fabrication methods that can be used to make smaller sensors that can be hidden and integrated into various objects 43
  43. 43. Next Generation Computing(Quantum, DNA, Molecular)Nanotechnology enhancements will provide: The ability to control atomic scale phenomena: quantum or molecular phenomena that can be used to represent data Faster processing speeds Lighter weight and miniaturized computers Increased memory Lower energy consumption 44
  44. 44. Nanorobotics:Nanotechnology enhancements will provide: Miniaturized fabrication of complex nanoscale systems: nanorobots that propel through the body and detect/ cure disease or clandestinely enter enemy territory for a specific task Manipulation of tools at very small scales: nanorobots that help doctors to perform sensitive surgeries 45
  45. 45. Water Purification:Nanotechnology enhancements will provide: Easier contamination removal: Filters made of nanofibers that can remove small contaminants Improved desalination methods: Nanoparticles or nanotube membranes that allow only pure water to pass through Lower costs Lower energy use 46
  46. 46. More Energy/Environment Applications…Nanotechnology enhancements will provide: Improvements to solar cells Improvements to batteries Improvements to fuel cells Improvements to hydrogen storage CO2 emission reduction: nanomaterials that do a better job removing CO2 from power plant exhaust Stronger, more efficient power transmission cables: synthesized with nanomaterials 47
  47. 47. Scope ofNanotechnology in India 48
  48. 48. The scope for nanotechnology in India is quite huge.Numerous Indian firms use nanotechnology in themanufacturing of their products.In addition to this, the Council of Scientific and IndustrialResearch (CSIR) has started about 30 laboratories(dedicated to research in Nanotechnology) just to increasethe research possibilities of nanotechnology in India.Students of nanotechnology have the opportunity to getjobs as soon as they finish their education in thisinteresting field.This technology will be used in diagnostic kits, improvedwater filters and sensors and drug delivery. The researchis being conducted on using it to reduce pollutionemitted by the vehicles. 49
  49. 49. Looking at the progressive prospects of Nanotechnology inIndia, Nanobiosym Inc., a US-based leadingnanotechnology firm plans to set up India’s first integratednanotechnology and biomedicine technology park in HimachalPradesh. Nanotechnology has certainly acquired an essential position inthe Indian Economy and Scientific Research Department and itis expected to reach the pinnacle of Development therebymaking India a role model for the countries of the world. 50
  50. 50. Top Nanotechnology Firms in IndiaThese are a few firms of Indian origin that employs nanotechnologyin their day to day projects: Auto Fibre Craft NanoFactor Materials Technologies Bee Chems Nanoshel Bilcare Neo-Ecosystems Cranes Software Quantum Corporation Dabur Pharma Quantum Materials Corporation Eris Technologies Reinste Nano Ventures Icon Analytical Equipment Saint-Gobain Glass Micromaterials (India) United Nanotechnologies Micromaterials (P) Ltd U-Shu Nanotech Mittal Enterprises Velbionanotech Mp3s Nanotechnology Yashnanotech Nano Cutting Edge Technology NanoCET NanoBio Chemicals 51
  51. 51. Career opportunities available in the field of nanotechnology 52
  52. 52. The career opportunities existing in nanotechnology are quite great.The applications of nanotechnology range from complex medicaldiagnostic devices to building better batteries and cosmetics etc.It is also applied in the field of aircraft manufacturing and research.Because of these many applications available in Nanotechnology, the jobopportunities are not at all scarce.Job opportunities are at hand in areas such as: Auto and aerospace industries Medical fields Biotechnology Military Electronics/semiconductor industry National security Environmental monitoring and Optoelectronics control Pharmaceuticals including drug Food science including quality delivery, cosmetics control and packaging Sports equipment Forensics University and National research Materials science including textiles, labs. polymers, packaging, among other 53
  53. 53. Academic Scope of Nanotechnology in India:Nanotechnology originated in India around 20 years back.It is in its early development phase and therefore the industry keeps a keenwatch over the students who pursue M. Tech. in nanotechnology.There are several career opportunities for such students in domestic as well asinternational markets.Higher Studies including Research:Indian Institute of Science, BangaloreIndian Institute of Technology, KanpurIndian Institute of Technology, DelhiIndian Institute of Technology, MumbaiIndian Institute of Technology, ChennaiIndian Institute of Technology, Guwahati,National Physical Laboratory, DelhiAligarh Muslim UniversityAmity Institute of NanotechnologyBanaras Hindu University 54
  54. 54. Delhi UniversityBiosys Biotech Lab & Research Centre, ChennaiAmity Institute of Nanotechnology, NoidaNational Institute of Technology, RourkelaUniversity of Madras, Tamil NaduNational Institute of Technology, KrukshetraJawaharlal Nehru Center for Advanced Scientific Research,Bangalore;Solid State Physics Laboratory, Delhi;National Chemical Laboratory, Pune;Central Scientific Instruments Organization, Chandigarh;Defense Materials Store Research & DevelopmentOrganizations, Kanpur 55
  55. 55. List of different Courses available in India: Doctor of Philosophy in • Nanotechnology • Nanoscience & Technology Master of Technology in • Nanotechnology • Science & Technology • Nanomedical sciences • Healthcare Nanotechnology Master of Science in • Nanotechnology • Nanoscience • Nanobiotechnology • Nanoscience & Nanotechnology B.Sc. Nanotechnology Diploma in Nanotechnology Certificate course in Nanotechnology Advanced P.G. Diploma in Nanotechnology 56
  56. 56. Recent government job notifications in the nanotechnologysector:• Scientist C-B jobs at Nanotechnology Application Centre ofAllahabad University• Nanotechnology Laboratory Assistant – Central University ofJharkhand In addition to these organizations, the followingorganizations are engaged in research activities in thenanotechnology sector and candidates can find employmentopportunities in these organizations as well:• Central Scientific Instruments Organization, Chandigarh• National Chemical Laboratory, Pune• National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi• Nano Mission, Department of Science & Technology, New Delhi 57
  57. 57. Anyone with an M.Tech. degree inNanotechnology is able to get a salary of approximatelyRs. 20,000 to Rs. 30,000 per month. This is a field thathas variety of scope for performance, incentives andother benefits. Depending on the performance, experienceand nature of work, the pay package may vary from Rs.6,00,000 to Rs. 12,00,000 per annum. 58
  58. 58. Foreign aspects of Nanotechnology Career prospects: There are various associated career prospects when it comes to theNanotechnology course. The USA as well as the UK is the prime sites wherevarious job opportunities such as in the field of medicine, in the field oftreating cancer or other plaque and such others. Also there is huge scope forthe research oriented jobs as the government in these countries pumpsmillions of funds into these projects which in the end are all dedicated to theprime look out of the general’s health and condition. Furthermore, the workalso include the general aspects of the candidates’ orientation and method.Thus, the foreign countries provide ample area where the candidate can turnout their career in the right direction. Conclusion: Thus, looking at these criterion, one can easily identify the variousinvolved prospective aspects and conclude the overall development of one’s lifein these conditions. Hence, the foreign do offer lots of potential that covers theoverwhelming thoughts of the candidates. Therefore the foreign countries areexcellent places to build one career and provide the ideal situation forblooming of one’s career. 59
  59. 59. Key differentiators betweenNanotechnology and Nanoscience•Nanotechnology is the engineering field which manipulates andutilizes the nanoscale objects for manufacturing various usefulproducts whereas Nanoscience is the field which involves thestudy of behavior and related issues of nanoscale materials andthus deriving the governing laws and theoretical explanations.•Nanotechnology is the field which utilizes the knowledge innanoscience and is applied to diverse areas whereas Nanoscience isall about the study and observations of nanoscale materials.Although Nanotechnology and Nanoscience are the research areaswhich deal with the same materials, there are lots of differencesbetween them. 60
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