Instruction Designe for e-Content Development;UK-India Prospective
Designing effective learner- centric e-content for ODL: Indian perspective Professor Santosh Panda Indira Gandhi National Open University www.santoshpanda.netSantosh Panda 1
Designing contextualised learner-centered learning for learner engagement, collaboration and reflection, and link to world of work.Santosh Panda 2
Learning Design: Individual-paced /-based learning integrated to the whole. (If not: Resulting in linear self- paced learning, but not relating to integration)Santosh Panda 3
Models of distance education delivery • Examination preparation model (University of London, UK) • Correspondence education model (University of South Africa) • Group distance education model (CRTVU, China; University of the Air, Japan) • Learner centred model (Empire State College, SUNY, USA) • Multiple mass media model (UKOU; IGNOU) • Network-based distance education model (FernUniversitat, Germany; UKOU; SUNY) • Technologically-extended classroom teaching model (University of Maryland University College, USA) • Virtual university model (University of Phoenix Online, USA) [Peters, O. (2003). ‘Models of open and flexible learning in distance education’. In S. Panda (Ed.), Planning and Management in Distance Education. London/ New York: RoutledgeFalmer.]Santosh Panda 4
IGNOU: Second largest mega university• Established in 1985; programmes offered: 1987.• Students : 3.2 million (12% of total higher education; about 50% of total distance education)• Graduates: 11,08,452• Academic programmes: #445• Courses on offer: #3,000• Audio: 1549; Video: 3569• Regional centres: 62+• Study centres/tele-learning centres: #3107• TV Channels: 6; FM Radio stations: 32• Teachers & academics: 447; Admin staff: 1219• Tutors/counsellors: # 36,000• Offer outside India: 36 countries / 67 centres
Existing:• National Policy on ICT in Schools• National Mission on Education through ICT Need for:• National policy on ‘distance education’• National QA framework for distance education for in- country and cross-border offer (DEC accreditation indicators for ODL—only guidelines for OLL)• Norms for ISO certification for distance/open/flexible/online/blended learning # Confused interpretation of distance education: Distance learning; Open learning; Flexible learning; Online learning; Blended learning (Face-to-Face within Distance Learning)Santosh Panda 7
• Supplementary (non-integrated) use of various media (transferred to Blended Learning )• Stand-alone provisions of modes of learning(Therefore, benchmarks of all components are taken to online/ blended learning (without integration)Santosh Panda 8
Design Framework for Online Instructional design for e-learning Learning (PGCMMR) •Pparticipation in discussion forums •Email contact •Reading of lessons •Assignment/ quiz Learning Activities•Objective-basedcourse units•Self-assessmentonline Constructivism Behaviourism Cognitivism Content Learner Support •Learner guide •Mentor support online •Online library •Social interaction 15 •Synchronous chat-counselling
Reflection• Designing content in print and in asynchronous learning is as important as designing technology- enabled learning environment.# Indivisualised learning with pre-produced (mass-based) courses/ learning resources VS. provision of learning environment for individual meaning making and group negotiation of meaning.# Some students need more interaction while some others need less (Vrasidas & Glass), and even none.# Some student-teacher interaction will migrate to student-content interaction; and this can be individualised to meet learner competency level, needs, and personalised interaction (Anderson, 2003)
Reflection• Design for facilitating student learning VS. Design of technology use for learning.# Some learn by independence. Some learn by interaction. Some others learn through networks.# Different media for addressing different learning tasks (Laurillard).# Design of authentic activities.
Reflection• Pedagogic repurposing of open content/ resources with contextualised networked learning.# Technology is not value free: creation within open technologies and open resources need to be viewed from critical design vis-à-vis culture.
Blending strategy Open Occasional Web 2.0: Education Physical Informal Resources, Presence and Network and Formal Meetings E-CoursesSantosh Panda 23
Online reflective resources framework: Home page
Self-study of Open Education Resources on the Web with copyright clearance). Doing online activities, Collaborative discussion at Discussion Forum, assignments on Moodle LMS.* Interaction through specially created Google Groups. IGNOU/STRIDE Post- Graduate Diploma in E- Weekly/fortnightly teaching/lecture and Learning interaction online (Virtual Class) through Blended Learning Adobe Connect.* Compulsory F2F hands-on for a week for media, technology, software, open resources/open technologies design.* Exam through projects, e-portfolios, and presentations online to external examiners through Adobe Connect.* * All these are evaluated for grading (formative & summative). 25Santosh Panda
Reflection• Social technologies and networks:# Authentic knowledge; comprehensive learning environment.# Facilitating leaner control over creation of own network through a recursive process of internal dialogue with self and external dialogue with peers/ teachers.# Access & equity: Pedagogic and assessment strategies towards identity congruence (exclusion vs inclusion).# Technology support and facilitation: Community-
________________________________________________________________ Social Networking Technologies _______________________________________________________________________ Distributed, participatory, collaborative, Blogs, moblogs, wikis, podcasts, open, student-centred, constructivist, vodcasts, RSS feeds, search social learning engines, mobile learning, intelligent publishing, etc. Social software, open software, open Communication over Internet education resource, social networking Protocol (CIP) Text + Voice + Video , Internet Cell phone PDAs ComputersSantosh Panda 27
Online CoP with social networking tools 28Santosh Panda Gunawardena et al, 2009
Reflective space Collaborative Blog space WikiPersonal space Negotiation of Community space meaning Figure: Learning spaces and negotiated meaning. (Steve Wheeler, Future Internet, 2009) Santosh Panda 29
Sakshat: National learning resource repository and interactive learning platformTechnology, ODLand LLL: Social Technologies and Social Networks:EduSat, eGyankosh,digital FM radio, Self-learning, non-online broadcasting, governmentvirtual education organizations,and training, mobile voluntary sectorslg, IGNOU wiki Networked and converged lifelong learning scenario
Concluding reflections• Teacher pedagogic beliefs and philosophies are of utmost importance.# Teacher as designer—continuing professional development and action research—reflecting on practice.# Teaching presence: Teacher as subject expert, and designer of learning sequence and interaction (Garrison et al).# Teacher’s technological-pedagogical-content knowledge.# Students undertaking some of the functions relating to: subject expertise, design of sequence and interaction.# Teacher as researcher—reflective practitioner; and research on own context.
CPD: TPACK (Extended rectangle) Pedagogic knowledgeTeachers’ values Curriculum Learning Knowledge of and beliefs knowledge environment learners ICT knowledge
The golden triangle Quality Assurance Staff Action development researchSantosh Panda 33
Thank you . www.santoshpanda.net Santosh Panda 34Santosh Panda