Presentation on GIS Application of GRASS() ( Geographic Resource support Analysis System ) Mayur Patil.(J-39) Sanket Bhatagalikar.(J-06) Aakash Surywanshi.(J-56) Umakant Thorat.(J-61) Guided By: Prof G. D. Bhutkar. VISHWAKARMA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (An Autonomous Institute affiliated to University of Pune) PUNE – 411037 2011-2012
AGENDA INTRODUCTION HISTORY WHAT IS GRASS ? SERVICES PROVIDE BY GRASS HOW TO USE GRASS ? FEATURES SUPPORTS PRACTICAL USAGE REFERENCES
INTRODUCTIONGRASS: GEOGRAPHIC RESOURCE ANALYSIS SUPPORT SYSTEM Developed since 1984, always Open Source, since 1999 under GNU General Public License Written in C programming language, portable code (32/64bit) International development team, since 2001 coordinated at ITC-irst, since 2008 at OSGeo.org Distributed as source code, precompiled binaries for various platforms, CDROM MS-WindowsGNU/Linux Mac OSX iPAQ
INTRODUCTION(CONT…)GRASS: Geographic Resources Analysis SupportSystem Free software GIS(“software libero”): GRASS master web site is in Italy: Portable: Versions for GNU/Linux, MS Windows, MAC OSX, SUN, etc. Programming Programmers manual Web site(PDF,HTML) generated weekly. Code is documented in source code files(doxygen) Mailing list in various languages Sample Data Commercial Support
HISTORYGRASS: more than 20 years of free GIS GRASS 1.0 U.S. CERL (1984-1995) 1989: civil Internet1984 GRASS 4.1 1994: first WWW 1993 GRASS 4.2 1997 University of Baylor GRASS 4.2.1/4.3 1998 University of Hannover 1998 GRASS 5.0 GRASS Development Team 1999 (1997- today) 2000 G 2001 ITC-irst R GRASS 5.1/5.7 2001 A O S p S e GRASS 6.0 I n 2005 n G t R e A r S Open a S GIS g 1990 1992 1994 Open 1997 2004 e Geosp n F atial c o y u Conso S n rtium t d (OGC)
WHAT IS GRASS GIS ? Geographic Resources Analysis Support System, commonly referred to as GRASS GIS, is a Geographic Information System (GIS) used for data management, image processing, graphics production, spatial modeling, and visualization of many types of data. It is Free (Libre) Software/Open Source released under GNU General Public License (GPL) >= V2. GRASS GIS is official project of the Open Source Geospatial Foundation. The new GRASS 6 release introduces a new topological 2D/3D vector engine and support for vector network analysis. Attributes are now managed in a SQL-based DBMS. A new display manager has been implemented. The NVIZ visualization tool was enhanced to display 3D vector data and voxel volumes. Messages are partially translated (i18N) with support for Free Type fonts, including multi-byte Asian characters. New LOCATIONs can be auto-generated by EPSG code number. GRASS is integrated with GDAL/OGR libraries to support an extensive range of raster and vector formats, including OGC-conformal Simple Features.
SOME THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUTGRASS• Import of data: GRASS always import the complete map● Export of data:● Vector maps: always the entire map is exported (cut before if needed)● Raster maps: r.out.gdal always exports entire map at original resolutionr.out.tiff (etc.) export at current region and resolutionWhats a region in GRASS?● The default region is the standard settings of a GRASS location which isessentially independent from any map● A region is the current working area (user selected resolution and coordinateboundaries)● All vector calculations are done at full vector map● All raster calculations are done at current resolution/region. To do calculationsat original raster map resolution/region, the easiest way is touse g.region first to setcurrent region to map GRASS Mapset(see next slides) “northeast” GRASS Mapset “sardegna” GRASS Location “italy”
SERVICES PROVIDE BY GRASS Web Map Service (WMS1.3) Provides three operations protocols (GetCapabilities, GetMap, and GetFeatureInfo) in support of the creation and display of registered and superimposed map-like views of information that come simultaneously from multiple sources that are both remote and heterogeneous. Web Coverage Service (WCS) Extends the Web Map Server (WMS) interface to allow access to geospatial "coverages" that represent values or properties of geographic locations, rather than WMS generated maps (pictures). Web Feature Service (WFS) The purpose of the Web Feature Server Interface Specification (WFS) is to describe data manipulation operations on OpenGIS® Simple Features (feature instances) such that servers and clients can communicate at the feature level. Web Map Context Documents (WMC) Create, store, and use "state" information from a WMS based client application
HOW TO USE GRASS ?•GRASS supports raster and vector data intwo and three dimensions•The vector data model is topological,meaning that areasare defined by boundaries and centroids;boundaries cannot overlap within a singlelayer•GRASS is designed as an environment inwhich tools that perform specific GIScomputations are executed• GRASS user is presented with a UNIXshell containing a modified environmentthat supports the execution of GRASScommands (known as modules)
GUI OF GRASS
GRASS GIS: NEW GUI – PYTHON BASED
SUPPORTS• fully integrated 350+ modules• add-ons managed on wiki• raster: map algebra, DEM analysis, flow, buffers, solar,• image: rectification, multispectral, reclassification• vector: buffers, overlays, networks,• DBMS: attribute management, SQL• transformations: projections, raster-vector, interpolation• visualization: 2D, 3D visualization, ps maps• WMS support, Google earth through v.out.ogr
SUPPORTS(CONT...) Supported Spatial Data Types 2D Raster data incl. image processing 3D Voxel data for volumetric data 2D/3D Vector data with topology Multidimensional points data DistancesOrthophoto Vector TIN 3D Vector buildings
SUPPORTS(CONT…)GPS support, Printing Editor ...
FEATURES GRASS (Geographic Resources Analysis Support System) is a raster/vector GIS, image processing system, and graphics production system. It’s features are: GRASS contains over 350 programs and tools to render maps and images on monitor and paper. Manipulate raster, vector, and sites data. Process multi spectral image data; and create, manage, and store spatial data. GRASS uses both an intuitive windows interface as well as command line syntax for ease of operations. GRASS can interface with commercial printers, plotters, digitizers, and databases to develop new data as well as manage existing data.
GRASS: Person walking distance 10 minutes 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1m 0 i n
GRASS: Person walking distance 30 minutes 0 3 6 9 1 2 1 5 1 8 2 1 2 4 2 7 3m 0 i n
PRACTICAL GIS USAGEStart a “terminal”to enter commandsStart GRASS 6 withinthe terminal:grass61 helpgrass61 gui
GRASS GIS InteroperabilityData models and sources Ra st e r Ve ct or CAD W e b GIS GeoTIFF DGN DXF Web Map Serv ice (WMS) Erd as IMG ESRI-SHAPE DWG Web Cov erag e Serv ice (WCS) MrSID GML ... Web Feat u re Serv ice (WFS) ECW Sp at ial SQL Web Map Con t ex t Docu m en t s (WMC) JPEG2 0 0 0 ... UMN GDAL OGR openDWG MapServer GRASS PROJ.4
WebGIS: Integration of data sourcesGRASS in the WebReal-time monitoring of Earthquakes (provided in Web by USGS)with GRASS/PHP: http://grass.itc.it/spearfish/php_grass_earthquakes.php