Making Change Happen: Building a Policy Agenda Naomi Alboim 2010 ALLIES Learning Exchange  May 7, 2010 Halifax
Session Overview <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>What is Public Policy?  </li></ul><ul><li>The Policy Development C...
Introduction <ul><li>Objective: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to enhance participants’ understanding about how governments make pu...
Assumptions <ul><li>Public Policy matters </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimate but not exclusive Government role </li></ul><ul><li...
What is Public Policy? <ul><li>A public policy is a  deliberate decision  made by  government(s)  that addresses  identifi...
… What is Public Policy?  <ul><li>Public policies best expressed as vision and goals, associated strategic objectives, wor...
The Policy Development Cycle <ul><ul><ul><li>identifying the issue  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>research and consu...
Policy Development Cycle
Policy Development Cycle <ul><li>Organic vs linear/cyclical </li></ul><ul><li>Iterative, parallel vs sequential processes ...
Issue Identification, Recognition and Agenda Setting <ul><li>Most important to get the issue right </li></ul><ul><li>Must ...
Timing and Context are Everything <ul><li>International and domestic context </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution and jurisdicti...
Research and Consultation <ul><li>Have the facts </li></ul><ul><li>Primary and/or secondary research </li></ul><ul><li>Pla...
Option Development, Analysis and Recommendation <ul><li>Always more than one option to achieve objective </li></ul><ul><li...
Influencing Decisions <ul><li>Building and maintaining relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Know what you want </li></ul><ul><l...
Implementation <ul><li>Implementation is key to good policy </li></ul><ul><li>Often range of implementation options can be...
Monitoring and Evaluation <ul><li>Measurable inputs, activities, outputs, outcomes identified at outset </li></ul><ul><li>...
Who or what kicks off the action in Ottawa/Provincial capitals? <ul><li>Policy initiatives are triggered by a variety of f...
Who should we influence? Who’s responsible for what? <ul><li>What level of government? </li></ul><ul><li>Who in government...
Constitutional Division of Powers: Who’s Responsible for What? <ul><li>Jurisdiction quintessential Canadian issue </li></u...
Labour Market Integration of Skilled Immigrants: Whose responsibility? <ul><li>Federal departments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Who influences decision-making? POLICY MP/ MPPs/ Sena-tors Parliamentary/Legislative Committees Parliamentary Secretaries ...
The Main Events – What are the key decision-making points in government ? <ul><li>Party Platform </li></ul><ul><li>Speech ...
Public Policy Instruments and Processes <ul><li>Federal and provincial governments have variety of levers available to eff...
… Public Policy Instruments and Processes <ul><li>Not all instruments necessary or equally effective for different issues ...
Why does the community voice matter? <ul><li>Early warning system and first to respond in a crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Creat...
Now over to you… <ul><li>What are some  policy issues  you think need to be addressed to expedite labour market integratio...
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2010 ALLIES Learning Exchange: Naomi Alboim - Making Change Happen: Building a Policy Agenda

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2010 ALLIES Learning Exchange: Naomi Alboim - Making Change Happen: Building a Policy Agenda

  1. 1. Making Change Happen: Building a Policy Agenda Naomi Alboim 2010 ALLIES Learning Exchange May 7, 2010 Halifax
  2. 2. Session Overview <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>What is Public Policy? </li></ul><ul><li>The Policy Development Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Who’s Responsible for What? </li></ul><ul><li>Federal/Provincial Government Structures and Decision Making </li></ul><ul><li>Public Policy Instruments and Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Over to you… </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Objective: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to enhance participants’ understanding about how governments make public policy decisions so that you can participate more effectively in the public policy process; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Continuum of involvement in policy process from being informed, being consulted, initiating, collaborating, to participating in decision making </li></ul>
  4. 4. Assumptions <ul><li>Public Policy matters </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimate but not exclusive Government role </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Society involvement improves policy </li></ul><ul><li>Better understanding of how governments make policy= more influence </li></ul><ul><li>Better policy proposals = better advocacy </li></ul><ul><li>Cross sectoral collaboration recognizes interconnectivity of policy issues and strengthens impact </li></ul><ul><li>Increased NGO policy capacity strengthens democracy </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is Public Policy? <ul><li>A public policy is a deliberate decision made by government(s) that addresses identified objectives and concerns for the public good . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End may be clear but means to get there may be hotly contested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Range of possible actions need to be identified and analyzed against number of factors before considered choice is made about the most appropriate and workable means to a desired end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always trade-offs , compromise , different “publics ” effected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasingly complex, interconnected, horizontal </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. … What is Public Policy? <ul><li>Public policies best expressed as vision and goals, associated strategic objectives, workplan, activities, resources and leadership to achieve that choice </li></ul><ul><li>Public policy sets out the ‘what’ and ‘how’ of something that is to be done and may be expressed through a variety of policy instruments (eg laws, regulations, programs, procedures, expenditures, etc) </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Policy Development Cycle <ul><ul><ul><li>identifying the issue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>research and consultation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>developing policy options and recommendations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>influencing government decisions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>implementation, monitoring and evaluation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Policy Development Cycle
  9. 9. Policy Development Cycle <ul><li>Organic vs linear/cyclical </li></ul><ul><li>Iterative, parallel vs sequential processes </li></ul><ul><li>Can be quick but generally not </li></ul><ul><li>Role for community at every stage </li></ul><ul><li>Earlier the better for full impact </li></ul>
  10. 10. Issue Identification, Recognition and Agenda Setting <ul><li>Most important to get the issue right </li></ul><ul><li>Must be recognized by the government as an issue that needs to be addressed in the broad public interest: both demand and support present </li></ul><ul><li>Issues can be identified internally and externally: you have competition! </li></ul><ul><li>Remember your added value: emerging trends from the ground, direct experience </li></ul><ul><li>Must fit the government agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Issue refinement may be ongoing </li></ul>
  11. 11. Timing and Context are Everything <ul><li>International and domestic context </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution and jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>State of the economy </li></ul><ul><li>Fiscal Situation </li></ul><ul><li>Competing demands </li></ul><ul><li>Political culture </li></ul><ul><li>Public opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Stage of mandate </li></ul><ul><li>Players </li></ul>
  12. 12. Research and Consultation <ul><li>Have the facts </li></ul><ul><li>Primary and/or secondary research </li></ul><ul><li>Play to your strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Use your networks and beyond: Who’s effected? Who can help? </li></ul><ul><li>Keep it simple </li></ul><ul><li>Collect evidence re the problem: stories and data </li></ul><ul><li>Collect ideas re possible solutions:What’s worked where, how, why </li></ul>
  13. 13. Option Development, Analysis and Recommendation <ul><li>Always more than one option to achieve objective </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t narrow too soon </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze from variety of perspectives: eg. maximum impact, least harm, speed, cost, resources, doability, support, sustainability, legality, ‘saleability”, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Be prepared for incrementalism, compromise </li></ul>
  14. 14. Influencing Decisions <ul><li>Building and maintaining relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Know what you want </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate demand and broad support </li></ul><ul><li>Tell your story well: use the evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Go to the right people </li></ul><ul><li>Use variety of tactics </li></ul>
  15. 15. Implementation <ul><li>Implementation is key to good policy </li></ul><ul><li>Often range of implementation options can be influenced </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery experience, knowledge of communities: your added value </li></ul><ul><li>Pros and cons of community delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Program design, resources, accountability framework, values and mandate compatibility </li></ul>
  16. 16. Monitoring and Evaluation <ul><li>Measurable inputs, activities, outputs, outcomes identified at outset </li></ul><ul><li>Community role in identifying performance measures, formal and informal monitoring and evaluation, identifying unintended impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting burden vs gathering the evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback/input loop </li></ul>
  17. 17. Who or what kicks off the action in Ottawa/Provincial capitals? <ul><li>Policy initiatives are triggered by a variety of forces such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Party commitments </li></ul><ul><li>Caucus and constituent concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Opposition pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Priorities of other levels of government </li></ul><ul><li>Lobbying by interested organizations (individual/coalition) </li></ul><ul><li>Media coverage of domestic and international events </li></ul><ul><li>Public opinion (polling) </li></ul><ul><li>Success stories (other jurisdictions, other sectors, communities) </li></ul><ul><li>Policy analysis (internal/external: civil servants, think tanks, academics, task forces) </li></ul><ul><li>Individual ‘champions' </li></ul>
  18. 18. Who should we influence? Who’s responsible for what? <ul><li>What level of government? </li></ul><ul><li>Who in government? </li></ul><ul><li>Who are the influencers? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Constitutional Division of Powers: Who’s Responsible for What? <ul><li>Jurisdiction quintessential Canadian issue </li></ul><ul><li>Division of powers murkier given federal spending power </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity of issues/ changing roles </li></ul><ul><li>Interest of all levels of government but different powers, resources and levers to effect change </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidiarity vs national programs </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetrical federalism </li></ul><ul><li>Role of Municipalities as “Creatures of the Province” </li></ul>
  20. 20. Labour Market Integration of Skilled Immigrants: Whose responsibility? <ul><li>Federal departments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CIC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HRSDC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional Development Agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provincial ministries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PSE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cities </li></ul><ul><li>Existing agreements don’t necessarily work: LMDA, LMA, Immigration </li></ul>
  21. 21.
  22. 22. Who influences decision-making? POLICY MP/ MPPs/ Sena-tors Parliamentary/Legislative Committees Parliamentary Secretaries Caucus Committees First Minister & Cabinet Political Assistants Munic/Provs/ Territories Coalitions, Advocacy Groups, NGOs Public Opinion Firms /Think Tanks Media Mid-level Officials (i.e. directors, policy analysts, researchers) Senior Officials (i.e. Clerk/Secretary, Deputy Ministers, ADMs)
  23. 23. The Main Events – What are the key decision-making points in government ? <ul><li>Party Platform </li></ul><ul><li>Speech from the Throne </li></ul><ul><li>Budget </li></ul><ul><li>Cabinet Decisions and Minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Treasury Board/Management Board Submissions </li></ul>
  24. 24. Public Policy Instruments and Processes <ul><li>Federal and provincial governments have variety of levers available to effect change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>legislation (Parliament) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regulation (Cabinet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tax and fiscal policy (Finance) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>spending: transfers to individuals,organizations, institutions,governments (Departments, Finance, Treasury Board) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>capital expenditures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>programs and services: deliver, contract, privatize (Departments, TB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>public education and information (Departments) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>research and knowledge transfer (Departments) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coordination and leadership capital </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. … Public Policy Instruments and Processes <ul><li>Not all instruments necessary or equally effective for different issues </li></ul><ul><li>Pros and cons of different instruments from different perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Jurisdictional and political constraints </li></ul>
  26. 26. Why does the community voice matter? <ul><li>Early warning system and first to respond in a crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Creative solutions to intractable problems </li></ul><ul><li>Better results; realize that one size fits all policy prescriptions don’t usually work </li></ul><ul><li>Key partners in delivering on governments’ agendas; both on policy, and program and service delivery </li></ul><ul><li>ESSENTIAL to the democratic process </li></ul>
  27. 27. Now over to you… <ul><li>What are some policy issues you think need to be addressed to expedite labour market integration for skilled immigrants? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What’s the problem to be addressed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do we know and need to know about the problem? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who needs to be consulted? Involved? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are some options/instruments to deal with the issue: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is legislative or regulatory change needed? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Program criteria changes? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Funding enhancements? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New program(s)? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New processes? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the pros and cons of each? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What’s your recommendation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can it be implemented? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which department in which level of government is responsible? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who in and out of government are the key players to influence? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we get our message across? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What would be an indicator of success? </li></ul></ul>

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