Female genital mutilation
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Female genital mutilation






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Female genital mutilation Female genital mutilation Presentation Transcript

  • Female Genital Mutilation
    Ana Karen Bustamante
    Angie Velazquez Arizpe
    Mayra Linares Rodriguez
    Sandra Ivette (aka Pinky) Camacho Cruz
  • FGM
    Female Genital Mutilation compromises all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non medical reasons (WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, 1997). It is also a cultural and religious belief that violates women’s lives and rights. Most importantly it highlights gender inequality and it is an extreme form of discrimination against women. It violates the rights of children, security, physical integrity, and health. Above all, the right to be free of torture or degrading treatment and the right to life, especially when the procedure ends in death.
  • Procedures
    *Type III- Also known as Infibulation.
    *Type IV- All other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, for example: pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and cauterization.
    View slide
  • Health Risks
    ZERO health benefits.
    Obvious: damages healthy genital tissue and interferes with a woman’s natural bodily functions.
    View slide
  • Health Risks
    Immediate Complications
    Long Term Consequences
    Severe pain
    Sepsis (bacterial infection)
    Urine retention
    Open sores
    Bladder and urinary tract infections
    Need for later surgeries
    Childbirth complications
    Newborn deaths
    Decreased sexual pleasure
  • Where Do We Stand?
    We believe that there are certain physical and psychological limitations that culture cannot transcend.
    The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (2001) says:
    The right to participate in cultural life and freedom of religion is protected by international law. However, international law stipulates that freedom to manifest one’s religion or beliefs might be subject to limitations necessary to protect the fundamental rights and freedoms of others. Therefore, social and cultural claims cannot be evoked to justify female genital mutilation.
  • Ethiopia
    Ethnic Groups
    Amhara, Tigrayans, Jeberti, among 80 others
    2/3 Christian
    1/3 Muslim
    Life expectancy = 51 years old
    Average marriage age = 17 years old
  • Ethiopia
    Most common: Type I and II and Infibulationcommonly practiced.
    Age range: a woman’s life…until marriage
    Type I: Amharas, Tigrayans, and Jeberti
    Type II: Gurages, some Tigrayans
    Type III: Afar, Harari, and Somali
    Type IV: Gojam
  • Ethiopia
    Deep Rooted Discrimination against women.
    Lack of land rights
    Discriminatory legislation
    Gender gap in work
    Access to education and health
    Constant threat of harmful traditional practices (HTP)
    Female genitals unclean
  • Ethiopia
    Attitudes and Beliefs
    As a woman you will…
    Get resepect
    Become a woman
    Be worthy of marriage and a man
    If you disagree…promiscuous and unworthy
    Religion as justification
  • Ethiopia
    Government Support
    National Constitution Article 4
    Women havethe right to protection by the State from harmful customs, laws, and practices that oppress them and cause bodily or mental harm to them are prohibited.
    Penal Code
    Imprisonment and 500 Birr ($55 USD) fine.
    No enforcement whatsoever
  • Ethiopia
    Outreach Activity
    Helps overcome HTPs, yet it promotes those with a positive effect in society. Especially leaders of the community. Tackles FGM as a health issue not a human rights issue
    Member of the International African Committee
    NGO that works directly with the community and other NGOs in the community.
    Provides: education, information, campaigns, didactic material, symposiums, workshops, etc…
  • Statistics
    50% of women in Ethiopia have their clitoral hood removed
    6% of women undergo infibulation in the five ethnic groups that practice it in Ethiopia.
  • International Organizations
  • Eliminating Female Genital MutilationAn interagency statement
    • The practice continues due to cultural beliefs:
    • Mutilation increases her “level of marriageability”
    • If FGM is not practiced they won’t be accepted by the society.
    • “A proper marriage means not only cultural stability, but also economical and social”.
  • Eliminating Female Genital MutilationAn interagency statement
    • Almost the entire community must agree with the abandonment of FGM, in order to eliminate it.
    • Steps towards effective elimination:
    • Extensive training of negative effects at an early age
    • Open, constructive, and informative talks where the community can learn about the need to eliminate FGM.
    • Partnership with the government, NGO’s , international and domestic institutions.
    • The media
  • A Social Dilemma
    Agrees with point of view of international organizations
    One standard throughout
    Liberals vs. Cultural relativists
    How can liberal states oppose FGM abroad yet tolerate it at home, to whatever extent.
  • Conclusion
    If 51% of Ethiopian population is against this practice, the global community should treat it as a cry for help.
    We cannot endorse a community that degrades the physical, economic, political, psychological, and moral integrity of a woman
    Yet, it cannot be completely eliminated
    Synergy among political powers, economic powers, international organizations, NGO’s but above all with the Ethiopian community.
    And if, with previous knowledge of all the complications and risks, if a woman (18 yrs +) still wants to go ahead with the procedure she should have adequate conditions
  • If this affected males….it would not even be an issue.
  • The final decision to end FGM can be only taken by women and girls.
  • Bibliography
    Te la vamos a mandarpor mail en unosmomentos… gracias por la espera