Definition• The study ofgroups.• A general term forgroup processes.• The forces operating ina group.
Importance•By understandinggroup dynamics andby doing some teambuilding, a group canincrease how much itaccomplishes.
•It helps to find how therelationships are made within agroup and how the forces actwithin the group members in asocial setting.
•It helps to recognizethe formation ofgroup and how agroup should beorganized, lead andpromoted.
Nature of Group Dynamics• Normative view• set oftechniques• Internal natureof groups
Characteristics of Group Dynamics• Groups develop a number of dynamic processes (norms, roles, relations, development, need to belong, social influence, and effects on behavior) that separate them from a random collection of individuals.
• Members of the group must have a strong sense of belonging to the group. •The groups arise and function owing to common motives.
Theories of Group Formation• Propinquitypeople associate with one another due to geographical proximity.
• Social System Theorymembers of the group interact and mutually influence each other’s behavior Since they constitute as a single entity, they are bounded with a set of interrelated activities.
• Balance TheoryPeople who have similar attitudes toward certain objects & goals tend to be attracted to each other & form a group.
• Exchange TheoryReward-cost outcome serve as the basis of group formation.rewards are greater than the costs incurred.
1)Forming– members first gettogether during this stage- Clear and strong leadership is required from the team leader to ensure the group members feel the clarity and comfort required to evolve to the next stage.
2) Storming Members are beginning to voicetheir individual differences, join withothers who share the same beliefs, andjockey for position in the group.
3) NormingMembers arebeginning to share acommon commitmentto the purpose of thegroup, including itsoverall goals and howeach of the goals canbe achieved.
• The team is working effectively 4) Performing and efficiently toward achieving its goals.•The style of leadershipbecomes more indirectas members take onstronger participationand involvement in thegroup process.
5) Adjourning• It is clear to members and their organization that the team has achieved its goals or a major milestone along the way toward the goal.
Group Norms• An unwritten, often implicit rule that defines what attitudes and behaviors characterized a “good” group member VS a “bad” group member.
• Norms guide behavior and reduce ambiguity in groups.
Group Processes• The understanding of the behavior of people in groups, such as task groups, that are trying to solve a problem or make a decision.
Types of Group Processes• Social Loafing• Synergy• Social Facilitationeffect
Two Dimensions of Group Processes• Task Dimension• Social Dimension
Group Structure• A pattern of relationships among members that hold the group together and help it achieve assigned goals.
Group Cohesiveness and Productivity• Cohesiveness refers to the bonding of group members and their desire to remain part of the group. Many factors influence the amount of group cohesiveness.• Productivity – the quality of being productive
Group Decision-Making• a type of participatory process in which multiple individuals acting collectively, analyze problems or situations, consider and evaluate alternative courses of action, and select from among the alternatives a solution or solutions.
• When the task,maintenance, and individual needs levels are in balance, the group becomes markedly more effective and productive.• When one or more level is neglected, the efficiency and productivity of the group is impaired.
ETHICAL RESPONSIBILITY OFMEMBERS OF A GROUP; AND GROUPS
Ethical Responsibility• To uphold what is true and good.
Ethics in small groups• Individual Group member- “I didn’t finish the research task. Should I make an excuse? Or tell my group what happened: that I attended personal matter for the weekend instead of doing my research?”
• Group- “Anna’s group finds a published study that is identical to its project. The group members are pressed for time to complete the research. Should they just copy the study, making a few minor changes?”
• Group environment-task- “An organizational task force on safety identifies several current practices that put organization members at risk. Changing all those practices will cost the organization millions of pesos. Should the task force report all the findings to management? Report only those that would be less costly?”
Ethical Responsibilities as a Group• Be assertive.• Behave with the group’s good in mind.• Commitment to fair play.• Expect to give and receive a fair hearing.• Willing to take on a participant/analyst role.• Leaders should model appropriate behavior.• Establish small teams.
• Encourage diversity.• Determine purpose, procedures, and roles.• Acknowledge and manage conflicts.• Cultivate good communication skills.• Advance an environment of open communication.• Encourage collaboration and discourage competition.• Share leadership.• Create sense of fairness in making decisions.• Lighten up.• Continually assess performance.
Ethical Responsibilities as members of the Group• Understanding of group’s purpose and goals• Inter-communication• Objective on the group’s function• Balance between group productivity and individual needs• High degree of cohesiveness• Understand values and limitations of democratic methods