GREEN ECONOMY AS A VIABLE STRATEGY FOR ABATING CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS IN NIGERIAN CITIESEfik paper

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A position paper at the TREES ON EARTH CONFERENCE, March 28, 2013 at Ogori/ Magongo LGA ,Kogi State by Surveyor Efik, National Coordinator, Climate Change Network Nigeria; Member, National Technical Committee on REDD+ of the Federal Ministry of Environment; Chair, REDD+ Working Group, CAN-West Africa

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GREEN ECONOMY AS A VIABLE STRATEGY FOR ABATING CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS IN NIGERIAN CITIESEfik paper

  1. 1. GREEN ECONOMY AS A VIABLE STRATEGY FOR ABATING CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS IN NIGERIAN CITIES being a position paper at the TREES ON REATH CONFERENCE, Marc28, 2013.Ogori/ Magongo LGA ,Kogi State Surveyor Efik National Coordinator, Climate Change Network Nigeria Member, National Technical Committee on REDD+ of the Federal Ministry of Environment Chair, REDD+ Working Group, CAN-West Africa
  2. 2. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 2 PAPER OUTLINE Part 1: Defining climate change: What is climate change; evidence-based scenarios; causes of climate change; Factors leading to excess emissions of GHGs; impacts of climate change; scenes of impacts Part 11: Cities/Local Governments in CC; Why cities/Local Governments; what LGs/Mayors should do; strategic actions for climate resilience; Part 111: Green economy initiative What is green economy initiative; identifying the green economy sectors; green economy initiative/job creation; green economy opportunities/actions Part 1V: Conclusion Key steps for Mayors, NiMACC Illustrations: 9 figures of illustration. 2
  3. 3. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 3 WHAT IS CLIMATE CHANGE? • “A change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods” (UNFCCC) • Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) levels in the atmosphere are higher than at any time in the past 650,000 years. This is caused by human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal), destruction of forests. (UNFCCC) 3
  4. 4. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 4 Pix: DARE Kaduna EVIDENCE-BASED SCENARIOS 4 Abuja Atmosphere, clear & whitish. No industries Lagos Atmosphere, brownish dust due to industrial pollution Biodiversity loss Ecosystem DestructionPix: UNEP Figure 1
  5. 5. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 5 CAUSES OF CLIMATE CHANGE Excess concentration of GHGs in the Atmosphere caused by human activities • Carbon Dioxide (CO2) • Methane (CH4) • Nitrous Oxide (N2O) • Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and • Perflourocarbons (PFCs) • Sulphur Hexafluoride (SF6) • (UNFCCC) Due to gas flaring, bush burning, automobiles, deforestation, industrial activities etc. 5
  6. 6. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 6 FOREST DESTRUCTION (DEFORESTATION) FACTORS INFLUENCING CLIMATE CHANGE 6 Human activities leading to excess emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere •Deforestation •Industrial activities •Wastes •Transportation (Automobiles) •Energy supply (Fossil fuel etc.) Figure 2
  7. 7. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 7 IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE • The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that the West African Sahel and Central Africa will experience some of the highest temperature increases than anywhere in the world over the next few decades; - (IPCC AR4 2007) • And, that “In all four regions and in all seasons, the median temperature increase (in Africa) lies … roughly 1.5 times the global mean response.” (IPCC WG 1 Projections 2007) 7
  8. 8. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 8 SCENES OF IMPACTS Flooding Oil Spillage Sea Level Rise Desertification YOBE STATE, NIGERIA 8 Figure 3
  9. 9. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 9 CITIES/LOCAL GOVERNMENTS • Firstly, cities are home to 50% of the world population (UN-HABITAT 2009) . • Up to 80% of all energy is consumed in Cities/Local Governments (ICLEI 2009) • Urban areas generate about two-thirds of national CO2 emissions • Local Governments, especially fast growing cities in developing countries are highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. 9
  10. 10. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 10 CITIES/LOCAL GOVERNMENTS • By 2050, it is predicted that two thirds of humanity will live in cities. • In urban areas, greenhouse gas emissions are caused by the generation of energy, through transportation, industrial activity and the burning of fossil fuels and biomass in households. • Industry is responsible for 43% of global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. (UNEP 2010) 10
  11. 11. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 11 WHY CITIES/LOCAL GOVERNMENTS • Urbanization affects climate change, resulting in severe impacts to our cities and livelihoods. • The severest burden will be borne by the urban poor in the City/Local Government slums. • Climate change actions by African LGs/Cities need to be expanded and capacities strengthened. • City initiatives need to be integrated in national action plans and global reporting. • The voice of African Mayors in climate change policy debates must be raised urgently. 11
  12. 12. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 12 WHY CITIES/LOCAL GOVERNMENTS • In cities of the developing world, one out of every three people lives in a slum, making them particularly vulnerable to the health and environmental risks posed by climate change (C40 2009). • Mayors and Local Governments are the governance level closest to citizens (critical when it comes to practical climate actions). 12 RURAL URBAN 63% 37% RURAL URBAN 53% 47% RURAL URBAN 40% 60% Figure 4: Global Population Rural/Urban 1970 2000 2030 Source: UN-Habitat
  13. 13. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 13 WHY CITIES/LOCAL GOVERNMENTS • The emissions from transport and vehicles are rising at rate of 2.5% each year and contribute not only to CO2 emissions but also to local and regional pollution problems. • Electrical energy for public lighting and electricity consumption by households, industry and commerce are another source of emissions. • Finally, the reduction of a city’s ability to reabsorb CO2 through sufficient green space is another element of concern, as well as poor waste management systems that releases CFC’s and gases such as methane 13
  14. 14. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 14 WHAT LOCAL GOVTS / MAYORS SHOULD DO 14
  15. 15. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 15 ADAPTATION • Energy efficiency in local government facilities, e.g.street lighting and water pumps • Foresighted transport and infrastructure planning • Compact and dense urban patterns to reduce travel distances and infrastructure networks • Promote energy efficient building materials • Landfill methane recovery • Protect forests and watersheds (Biodiversity) • Behavioural/Lifestyles change 15
  16. 16. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 16 MITIGATION • Plant trees, plant trees and plant trees • Operate a low-carbon economy • Reduce dependence on fossil fuel based energy • Promote the use of renewable energy • Finance: Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) • Expand and Conserve the forest (REDD+) • Stop deforestation • reduce dependence on fuelwood energy • Stop gas flaring 16
  17. 17. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 17 STRATEGIC ACTIONS FOR ABATING CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS REDUCE greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) immediately and significantly. Measure and report on annual reductions of greenhouse gas emissions and constantly work to increase reductions such that by 2050 GHG emissions will be reduced worldwide by 60% from 1990 levels and by 80% from 1990 levels in industrialized countries. IMPLEMENT sub-national, national and international frameworks that are complementary to LGs function by providing resources, authority and sufficient mandate to carry forward these roles and responsibilities. BUILD a sustainable energy economy through energy savings and the application of new and existing renewable and high efficiency technologies, to reduce dependence on fossil and nuclear fuels and aim for lowest-carbon options. 17
  18. 18. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 18 STRATEGIC ACTIONS FOR ABATING CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS • EXECUTE climate change adaptation and preparedness measures through local government planning, development and operational mechanisms • ADVOCATE that every national delegation participating in the UNFCCC negotiations include local government chairperson and some designated representation to ensure that local climate priorities and actions are included in future negotiations. • PERSISTENTLY CALL for national governments to join the international community to undertake binding carbon limits to rapidly and significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the short-term and by at least 60% worldwide below 1990 levels by 2050. 18
  19. 19. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 19 STRATEGIC ACTIONS FOR ABATING CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS • Sustainable urban planning (for mitigation and adaptation activities • Renewable energy and energy efficiency (local regulations, architectural designs etc) Investments in renewable energy would earn carbon/revenue to the Local Government. • Sustainable transport ( walking, bicycles, improving public transport) • Public procurement of sustainable goods and services (for climate neutral activities) • Local actions for biodiversity (to improve protection forests and watersheds) • Change citizen’s behavior activities. • Improve the resilience of local communities (Planting of tress and investment in biodiesel production for energy, transport, cottage industries and businesses) 19
  20. 20. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 20 GREEN ECONOMY INITIATIVE Source: UNEP. Planning for cities in the transition towards a Green Economy, March 2009. 20 Figure 7
  21. 21. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 21 WHAT IS GREEN ECONOMY • A Green Economy is characterized by substantially increased investments in economic sectors that build on and enhance the earth’s natural capital or reduce ecological scarcities and environmental risks. • These investments are driven by or supported by national policy reforms and the development of international policy and market infrastructure. (UNEP 2009) “Among the most significant implications of the shift to a greener economy is its potential to mitigate climate change and assist countries in coping with its growing impacts” – Ban Ki Moon, UN Secretary-General. 21
  22. 22. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 22 GREEN ECONMY SECTORS Eleven Sectors Include: • Renewable Energy, • Low-carbon Transport, • Energy Efficient Buildings, • Clean Technologies/Manufacturing, • Improved Waste Management, • Improved Freshwater Provision, • Sustainable Agriculture • Forest Management/Biodiversity conservation and Ecosystem Mgt. • Sustainable Fisheries • Tourism • Sustainable Cities (Ecocities or Ecopolis or Green cities) 22
  23. 23. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 23 GREEN ECONOMY INITIATIVE / JOB CREATION •As the name implies cooking with the save 80 saves 80% of the wood consumption compared to the traditional open fire place. •The save 80 needs just about 250g of wood to prepare a delicious pot of jollof rice that can feed 15 people. •With its interior parts being made of stainless steel, a guarantee of 10 years is given to every stove SAVE-80 STOVE 23 Figure 8
  24. 24. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 24 GREEN ECONOMY INITIATIVE / JOB CREATION •A combined usage of the save 80 and the wonder box is recommended to further save fuel used on the save 80. •The wonder box is a heat retaining box which can be used to cook via retained heat and keep the contents at a high temperature for many hours. •Cooking with the wonder box is simple and needs no surveillance WONDER BOX 24 Figure 9
  25. 25. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 25 OTHER GREEN ECONOMY INITIATIVES/JOB CREATION • Converting waste to energy • Generating biodiesel from Jathropha plant • Generating biodiesel from waste groundnut oil • Generating biofuels from agricultural produce • Wind energy • Solar energy 25
  26. 26. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 26 Green Economy Actions for Building Resilient Cities Green Economy Actions for Building Resilient Cities The following suffice as some key city resilient actions to be taken by Mayors/Local Government Authorities: Key Principles/Policies National policy: frameworks for enabling green-growth urban development Urban/city/local government policy: integrated green-growth urban planning as key organizing principle Green savings: reducing waste, recycling materials and cutting costs Green Economy: new businesses and jobs by environmental protection and restoration Green Talent: investing in technical, entrepreneurial and workforce skills Energy Sufficiency Use the 2000 watt society concept as an operative policy principle Modify building codes to make resource efficient building practice the norm Ensure the use of composted, city-derived bio-waste for bioenergy production
  27. 27. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 27 Green Economy Actions for Building Resilient Cities Solar City’ Development Mandate solar city development as national policy priority Prioritize feed-in legislation for renewable energy systems, allowing owners to sell electricity at advantageous rates Support renewable energy as an important new manufacturing industry Create enabling policies for renewable energy development in the urban hinterland Water Security Balance urban, agricultural and commercial uses of water, and their relative social, economic and environmental benefits Waterproof cities by encouraging water efficiency and rainwater collection in households and businesses Make waste water recycling and storm water use a central plank of water policy Implementing zero waste Develop new enterprises for processing organic wastes into soil enhancing materials Make sewage reprocessing and nutrient capture a central plank of waste management Implement policies for the cost-effective reprocessing of all technical wastes Use zero waste policy to create new green businesses and jobs
  28. 28. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 28 Green Economy Actions for Building Resilient Cities Solar City’ Development Mandate solar city development as national policy priority Prioritize feed-in legislation for renewable energy systems, allowing owners to sell electricity at advantageous rates Support renewable energy as an important new manufacturing industry Create enabling policies for renewable energy development in the urban hinterland Water Security Balance urban, agricultural and commercial uses of water, and their relative social, economic and environmental benefits Waterproof cities by encouraging water efficiency and rainwater collection in households and businesses Make waste water recycling and storm water use a central plank of water policy Implementing zero waste Develop new enterprises for processing organic wastes into soil enhancing materials Make sewage reprocessing and nutrient capture a central plank of waste management Implement policies for the cost-effective reprocessing of all technical wastes Use zero waste policy to create new green businesses and jobs
  29. 29. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 29 Green Economy Actions for Building Resilient Cities Green Business Boost the creation of green business by effective use of government procurement Encourage resource efficiency in all businesses Create ‘green incubators’ across the city Make environmental resilience the basis for new businesses and jobs A culture of restorative urbanization Utilize both global networks and local expertise in developing restorative urbanization Ensure that it is addressed in the education system, and through meetings and events Encourage imaginative reporting on urban restoration measures by the media Produce regular reports on implementation of eco-restoration policies and practices Ensure that all citizens take a stake in restorative development. Thus, the application of the services and actions of green economy as elucidated in this paper, would indeed, transform the World cities from, according to World Future Council, “Petropolis to Ecopolis” and save the World’s three billion prospective victims of climate change impacts that are currently inhabiting the cities, especially in the fast-growing ones of the developing countries.
  30. 30. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 30 ADVANTAGES OF GREEN ECONOMY INITIATIVES • Revive the world economy, create new and decent jobs, and protect the vulnerable • Reduce carbon dependency, ecosystem degradation, and water scarcity - 1% of GDP in green sectors over two years • Eliminate persistent poverty by 2015…achieve the MDGs • Seed a process of transformative change by rebalancing financial and economic capital, human capital and natural capital Source: “Rethinking the Economic Recovery: A Global Green New Deal”, UNEP, Feb 2009 30
  31. 31. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 31 CONCLUSION KEY STEPS FOR MAYORS • Local Authorities to be part of national delegations in UNFCCC process • Report on city achievements as part of UNFCCC reports: sub-national policies and measures • Key in and support programmes for cities: UN-HABITAT, UNEP, UNDP, UNITAR, World Bank, ICLEI, etc • African Climate Change Centre in Addis Ababa (UNEP GC25), WMCCCC, AMCCCC South Africa, • Direct involvement of large cities – sustainable development packages (post Kyoto) • Establish National Alliance of Mayors on Climate Change; e.g. Nigerian Mayors Alliance on Climate Change (NiMACC), co-facilitated by CCN-Nigeria 31
  32. 32. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 32 STATEMENT OF FACT “Our green economy mantra is called pro-growth, pro-job, pro-poor, pro-environment and of course, pro-business”. – Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, President of Indonesia 28
  33. 33. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 33 REFERENCES1. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), www.unfccc.int 2. IPCC, Contribution of Working Group I to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, Chapter 11, Regional Climate Projections 2007, page 866-867 3. UNEP 2010. Green Economy Report: A Preview, May 2010. www.unep.org/greeneconomy 4. UNEP 2009, Annual Report – Seizing the Green Opportunity. www.unep.org 5. UNEP 2010. Moustapha Kamal Gueye: Planning for Cities in the Transition towards a Green Economy; UNEP/UN-HABITAT Training Event 5th World Urban Forum, 24 March 2010, Rio de Janeiro 6. UN-Habitat 2009, Climate Change and African Cities, UN-Habitat, Kenya. Cecilia Ngenga. 7. OECD 2010, Cities and Climate Change, OECD Publishing, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/ISBN: 9789264063662-en. 8. Herbert Girardet/World Future Council 2010. “Regenerative Cities”. A publication of Commission on Cities and Climate Change of the World Future Council and HafenCity University, Hamburg, October 2010. www.worldfuturecouncil.org 9. WWF, Living Planet Report 2010, wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/ …/living_planet_report/2010_lpr/ 10. ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability. Local Government Roadmap 2010. www.iclei.org/climate-roadmap. 11. United Cities and Local Government (UCLG), 2010 12. C40 Climate Leadership Group 2009, http://www.c40cities.org/climatechange.jsp 13. CCN-Nigeria, Gender and Climate Change Disaster: A Perspective on Nigeria’s Preparedness, Paper presented at the Gender Caucus Workshop preparatory to COP15, organized by Heinrich Boll Stiftung, November 2009 14. Climate Change Network Nigeria (CCN-Nigeria), Nigerian Climate Change Perspectives: Focus on Niger Delta; position paper presented at the side event of the People’s Climate Action in Copenhagen, Denmark during COP15 (7 -18 December 2009) 15. DARE, Ahmed Yahaya: Renewable Energy and the Challenges of Desertification, 2008. 33
  34. 34. 10/06/2011 Surveyor Efik, CCN-Nigeria 34 THANK YOU 34

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