HISTORY OF DRAMA: ANCIENT DRAMA MEDIEVAL DRAMA RESTORATION 18TH-CENTURY DRAMA
ANCIENT DRAMA Origin of western drama in the Greek Athens Acc. Of this period is inadequate / insufficient (Lack of information) THEPSIS- developed a “new musical form” 1. Impersonate a single character (impersonator in w/c they pretend) 2. Engage in dialogue w/ the chorus of singer/dancer(e.g. Moulin Rouge)
First composer (person who write music) Soloist (who perform a solo) First dramatist (playwright/writer of plays) Actor (who act on stage play) Play (dramatic composition/peace) Known as “Tragedy”(tradition of drama who play a unique/important role to invoke audience) He became a “Father of drama”• On the “hundred” playwrights of Greek tragic, only “32” plays are survive by the 3 MAJOR INNOVATORS: ▫ Sophocles ▫ Aeschylus ▫ Euripides
AESCHYLUS- created the possibility of developing the “conflicts” between the character and 2nd actor “7 surviving play”, 3 of w/c constitute(create/compose) the only extant(exist) trilogy (e.g. Persian & Oresteia) Are richly ambiguous(several meaning) into the paradoxical(contradiction) Relationship between human and cosmos (people made an answerable fort their acts) Trilogy- A group of 3 related things Described as the Father of Tragedy
MEDIEVAL DRAMA A new creation rather than a rebirth Any form of theater: The Christian theater LITURGY: Interpolated(introduced) by the bits of chanted(short) dialogue in the Easter and Christmas service Called TROPES(word/music into the plainsong settings of the roman catholic liturgy) PRIESTS(impersonating biblical figures) Acted out of minuscule(short) scene from the holiday stories
Quem Quaeritis refers to four lines of the medieval Easter liturgy that later formed the kernel of the large body of medieval liturgical drama.
RESTORATION Theaters- established in the wake of Charles II. Restoration monarchy – England in 1660 English monarchy was restored when Charles II of england became king in 1660. Intended to serve the needs of socially, politically, aesthetically homogenous class, “refined”- French influence sensibility
The themes , language, dramaturgy of Shakespeare play were now consider out of date. During next 2 centuries, the work of england’s greatest dramatist- never produced intact William Shakespeare is the greatest English poet and dramatist and an undisputed world figure in literature. Although his works (37 plays, 154 sonnets and two long poems) are well-known all over the world, we know little about his life.
Moliere- the English comedy of manners Was typically a witty(humorous), brittle satire of current mores, especially of relation between the sexes. Jean-Baptiste Poquelin- known by his stage name Molière was a French playwright and actor who is considered to be one of the greatest masters of comedy in Western literature. Best - known comedies of manner A French playwright
Leading Example: She would if she could(1668)- The man of code(1676)- by George Etherege The country wife(1675)- by William Wycherley The way of the world(1700)- by William Congreve The recruiting officer(1706)- The Beaux Stratagem(1706)-by George Farquhar One of the best comedy is The way of the world(1700)- by William Congreve. Like most restoration comedies it’s centered on the relationship between the 2 sexes It reflect the court vision of life, lack of ideas, and dissoluteness of the upper class. Had an immediate success as “the most promising young writer” of the day.
18th CENTURY DRAMA A farcical comedy in england The comedy of manners and the domestic drama SATIRE-Henry Fielding and John Gay enjoyed the Brief revival of satire “satire can be funny, its aim is not to amuse, but to arouse contempt” Henry Fielding and John Gay- the Beggar’s opera in 1728 met w/ a phenomenal success. Their wit (the talent of using unexpected words or ideas to make a clever humorous effect) was too sharp for the government w/c retaliated by imposing strict censorship laws in 1737. Censorship- an official who examines books, plays, news reports, pictures, radio and television programs, letters,etc., Purpose- to suppressing parts deemed objectionable on moral, political, military, or other grounds.
Henry Fielding was an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich earthy humors and satirical prowess.(e.g. Tom Jones)
John Gay was an English poet and dramatist. He is best remembered for The Beggars Opera (1728), a ballad opera. The characters, including Captain Macheath and Polly Peachum, became household names.