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Information Architecture and User-friendly design

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  • Transcript

    • 1. Information Architecture: What is it?
    • 2. Is it real?
      • Most major corporations have an information architecture team, or at least one IA person.
      • Number of jobs on seek.com.au
      • Number of jobs on HotJobs.com
      • Perhaps it is real, after all. Or is it just a new term for something we have been / or ought to have been doing?
    • 3. So, what is Information Architecture?
      • The definition: The art and science of organizing and labeling information to improve browsing and searching
      • The thing: The structure of information and components for searching and browsing that information
    • 4. What are its components?
      • Structuring: Chunking, grouping, and ordering content
      • Organizing: Taxonomies/hierarchies, auto-classification
      • Labeling: Indexing, vocabularies, thesauri
      • Navigating: Menus, tables of contents, site indices, search systems
    • 5. IA: The practice
      • Balances characteristics and needs of users, content and context
      • Three phases:
        • Research
        • Design
        • Implementation
    • 6.  
    • 7. IA:Where it fits within User Experience
      • From Jesse James Garrett’s
      • “ The Elements of
      • User Experience”
      • www.jjg.net/ia/elements.pdf
    • 8.  
    • 9. Who does it?
      • Technical writers
      • Graphics artists
      • Architects
      • Film makers
      • Information specialists
        • librarians
        • publishers
        • web designers
        • database administrators
    • 10.  
    • 11. Emergent Fields: No one has the whole picture © © Louis Rosenfeld
    • 12. Why Information Architecture?
      • Inform
        • scholarship
        • common good
        • instruction
      • Persuade
        • advertise/promote/sell
        • control
      • Entertain
        • passive
        • active
      • Create
    • 13. Factors Context Message Audience Media Goals
    • 14. Context
      • Cultural setting
        • social acceptance
        • Timing
      • Costs
    • 15. Goals
      • Transfer/Lookups
      • Education
      • Social Good
      • Business
      • Political/Legal
    • 16. Messages
      • Content (discipline, organization)
      • Scope
      • Complexity
      • Novelty
    • 17. Audience
      • Range (who, where, why)
      • Knowledge base (what can you assume?)
      • Experience base (including the use of the interfaces)
      • Receptivity (physical, mental, emotional; factors like anxiety)
    • 18. Media
      • Technical requirements
      • Format
      • Number of channels (multimedia)
      • Transfer rate (bandwidth issues)
      • Degree of interaction (upload, download)
    • 19. Users Information (Knowledge) Information (Data) Information Architect Use - Navigate - Search - Browse - Evaluate - Design - Implement - Structure - Tag/index - Analyze - Model - Classify - Evaluate - Create - Own - Edit - Manage -
      • IA Goals
      • - satisfy user needs
      • - mediate
      • - make usable
      • add value
      • manage interaction
      • -
      Disciplines Standards Technology Policies Information Architecture Model ver. 0.01 (from IA Summit in 2000) (synthesis of ~900 terms from 250 cards) CLIENT END USER
    • 20. Discussion Question (for Blackboard) How is the electronic medium different from: books/newspapers? film/TV? paintings/sculpture? What are the implications for users? for designers? for intermediaries?
    • 21. Electronic medium and the ‘Information Overload.’ “ Everyone spoke of an information overload, but what there was in fact was a non-information overload.” Richard Saul Wurman, What-If, Could-Be (Philadelphia, 1976)
    • 22. Design Process (is very much like Systems Analysis)
      • Mission definition
        • Problems/needs, materials, skills, vision
      • Feasibility
        • Needs assessment, cost-benefit analysis
      • Prototyping and evaluation
      • Implementation
      • Evaluation and maintenance
    • 23. Information Packages
    • 24. Aggregation of Packages Screen 1 Screen 2
    • 25. Smaller packages, more linkages
      • Designing messages for electronic consumption suggests small chunks
        • Screen real estate limitations
        • Scroll, paging limits
      • Hyperlinks give flexibility but also add cognitive load (lost in cyberspace)
      • Implications of search engine entry points
      • Everything is becoming more like a reference work and less like a novel??
    • 26. Packages
      • Objects
        • physical attributes (e.g., size, color, shape, pre-iconographic)
        • conceptual attributes
          • denotation (e.g., iconographic) is cultural
          • connotation (e.g., iconological) is personal and cannot be indexed.
        • behavior (e.g., display, compute, compare)
        • (based on Erwin Panofsky’s “three strata of subject matter or meaning” from Studies in Iconology (1972)
    • 27. Packages (cont’)
      • Relationships
        • Intrapackage relationships (like pronouns)
          • physical (next page, previous screen, see Figure #, position, order)
          • conceptual (anaphora)
        • Interpackage relationships
          • physical (citations)
          • conceptual (Allusions & metaphors. These cannot be machine generated)
    • 28. Use of metaphors in IA
      • Organisational Metaphors: shopping cart, wastebasket etc.
      • Functional Metaphors : cut and paste, paintbrush etc.
      • Visual Metaphors: homepage, window, music interface buttons that look like a stereo, folders etc.
    • 29. Metaphors can become tired, or carry no meaning.
      • Metaphors that are too obvious: Tree for a family tree etc.
      • Metaphor Overkill : They cannot convey meaning for you if you stretch the metaphors beyond their limits.
      • Colours carry metaphors too: Be careful how you use them. Can be culture-specific also. (Blue Zone, Red Line, Yellow Fever, Red Light etc.)
    • 30. Packages (cont’)
      • [Control] Mechanisms
        • control
          • display (scroll, jump, zoom)
          • usage monitor (histories, bookmarks, ISP, IP address)
        • query
          • analytical (Boolean; with/without relevance feedback; dynamic)
          • Selection
          • Dynamic
        • manipulation
          • cut and paste
          • add value (e.g., concordance, link plots--who links to the site, who you link to?)
          • information visualisation )
    • 31. Events
      • Exchange cycle
        • e.g., a smile acknowledged, an http requested page returned, cookie stored (client-server model)
      • Share cycle (eg. social networking)
        • perception, processing, comprehension of an information package by more than one [person/package/object]
        • Manipulation of the information. Cannot control it once it’s out there…
    • 32. www Design
      • Know the audience
        • Universal access
      • Iterative design and testing
        • Consider the development curve
      • Organise, organise, organise
      • Be consistent
      • Appropriate use of media
        • Avoid gratuitous ‘bells and whistles’
      • Leverage interactivity
        • Maintain interest
        • Gather feedback
    • 33. Organisational Structures
      • List
      • Array ( a link list)
      • Hierarchy (trees)
      • Network
      • Hybrids (DNA organisation?) (This is not apparent in traditional information organisations, but happens in our heads, perhaps?)
    • 34. Organizational Schemes
      • Alphabetical
      • Chronological
      • Geographic
      • Topical
      • Numerical
      • Administrative Parts/Units
      • Importance, size
      • Task
      • User group
      • Metaphor
      • Random
    • 35. Control Mechanisms (Navigation)
      • Context (where am I? Branding?)
        • Consistency (layout, labeling, etc.)
      • Links (types, labels; currently not bi-directional or computed, although the early days of digital hypertext was conceived in that way)
      • Input forms
      • Menus
      • Toolbars
      • TOCs, sitemaps, tours
      • Mouse events, zooms
    • 36. Expression
      • Words
        • Appropriate and controlled vocabulary
        • Clear, concise statements and prompts
      • Images
        • Appropriate
        • Browser friendly
      • Video, sound
        • Appropriate controls
      • Interactivity and Flow
    • 37. Planning
      • Storyboards
      • Scenarios
      • Templates
      • Feedback from users (eg., Children’s Digital Library that was created with input from children; Fiction Finder created by Reference Librarians who interact with the users as opposed to Cataloguers who mostly interact just with the books)
      • Maintenance
    • 38. Implementation
      • Tools
        • Wireframes
        • Software (e.g., Visio, Flowcharter)
      • Evaluation
      • Maintenance
        • Content management
        • Digital libraries
    • 39. Examples of wireframes
    • 40. Examples of wireframes, cont.
    • 41. Examples of wireframes, cont.
    • 42. IA Bibliography Constantine, Larry L., and Lucy A.D. Lockwood. Software for Use . Reading, Mass.:Addison Wesley, 1999. Krug, Steve. Don't Make Me Think: A Common Sense Approach to Web Usability. Indianapolis, IN: Circle.com Library, 2000. Morville, Peter. Semantics Archive . Semantics Studio Archives. Web site. Available from http://semanticstudios.com/publications/semantics/ Morville, Peter. Ambient Findability . O’Reilly Media: Safari Books, 2005. Nelson, Theodor. Computer Lib/Dream Machines , Redmond, WA: Tempus Books of Microsoft Press, 1987 Nielsen, Jakob. Usability Engineering . San Diego, CA: Morgan Kaufman, 1993. Nielsen, Jakob. Designing Web Usability . Indianapolis, IN: New Riders, 1999.
    • 43. IA Bibliography Cont’
      • Norman, Donald A. The Design of Everyday Things . New York, NY: Doubleday, 1990.
      • Rosenfeld, Louis, and Peter Morville. Information Architecture for the World Wide Web . Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly, 1997.
      • Shneiderman, Ben. Designing the User Interface : Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction . 3rd ed. Reading, Mass.: Addison Wesley, 1997.
      • Tufte, Edward R. Envisioning Information . Cheshire, Conn.: Graphics Press, 1990.
      • Wurman, Richard Saul. Information Architects . Zurich, Switzerland: Graphis Press Corporation,,1996.
    • 44. http://www.edwardtufte.com
      • Explore this website.
      • Edward Tufte is a pioneer in Data Graphics and in the presentation of information with visual simplicity, as opposed to ‘Chart Junk.’
      • His ideas are very useful in transmitting information in organisational settings.
      • He believes PowerPoint is evil, and it may well be :-)

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