Experience base (including the use of the interfaces)
Receptivity (physical, mental, emotional; factors like anxiety)
Number of channels (multimedia)
Transfer rate (bandwidth issues)
Degree of interaction (upload, download)
Users Information (Knowledge) Information (Data) Information Architect Use - Navigate - Search - Browse - Evaluate - Design - Implement - Structure - Tag/index - Analyze - Model - Classify - Evaluate - Create - Own - Edit - Manage -
- satisfy user needs
- make usable
Disciplines Standards Technology Policies Information Architecture Model ver. 0.01 (from IA Summit in 2000) (synthesis of ~900 terms from 250 cards) CLIENT END USER
Discussion Question (for Blackboard) How is the electronic medium different from: books/newspapers? film/TV? paintings/sculpture? What are the implications for users? for designers? for intermediaries?
Electronic medium and the ‘Information Overload.’ “ Everyone spoke of an information overload, but what there was in fact was a non-information overload.” Richard Saul Wurman, What-If, Could-Be (Philadelphia, 1976)
Design Process (is very much like Systems Analysis)
Problems/needs, materials, skills, vision
Needs assessment, cost-benefit analysis
Prototyping and evaluation
Evaluation and maintenance
Aggregation of Packages Screen 1 Screen 2
Smaller packages, more linkages
Designing messages for electronic consumption suggests small chunks
Screen real estate limitations
Scroll, paging limits
Hyperlinks give flexibility but also add cognitive load (lost in cyberspace)
Implications of search engine entry points
Everything is becoming more like a reference work and less like a novel??
add value (e.g., concordance, link plots--who links to the site, who you link to?)
information visualisation )
e.g., a smile acknowledged, an http requested page returned, cookie stored (client-server model)
Share cycle (eg. social networking)
perception, processing, comprehension of an information package by more than one [person/package/object]
Manipulation of the information. Cannot control it once it’s out there…
Know the audience
Iterative design and testing
Consider the development curve
Organise, organise, organise
Appropriate use of media
Avoid gratuitous ‘bells and whistles’
Array ( a link list)
Hybrids (DNA organisation?) (This is not apparent in traditional information organisations, but happens in our heads, perhaps?)
Control Mechanisms (Navigation)
Context (where am I? Branding?)
Consistency (layout, labeling, etc.)
Links (types, labels; currently not bi-directional or computed, although the early days of digital hypertext was conceived in that way)
TOCs, sitemaps, tours
Mouse events, zooms
Appropriate and controlled vocabulary
Clear, concise statements and prompts
Interactivity and Flow
Feedback from users (eg., Children’s Digital Library that was created with input from children; Fiction Finder created by Reference Librarians who interact with the users as opposed to Cataloguers who mostly interact just with the books)
Software (e.g., Visio, Flowcharter)
Examples of wireframes
Examples of wireframes, cont.
Examples of wireframes, cont.
IA Bibliography Constantine, Larry L., and Lucy A.D. Lockwood. Software for Use . Reading, Mass.:Addison Wesley, 1999. Krug, Steve. Don't Make Me Think: A Common Sense Approach to Web Usability. Indianapolis, IN: Circle.com Library, 2000. Morville, Peter. Semantics Archive . Semantics Studio Archives. Web site. Available from http://semanticstudios.com/publications/semantics/ Morville, Peter. Ambient Findability . O’Reilly Media: Safari Books, 2005. Nelson, Theodor. Computer Lib/Dream Machines , Redmond, WA: Tempus Books of Microsoft Press, 1987 Nielsen, Jakob. Usability Engineering . San Diego, CA: Morgan Kaufman, 1993. Nielsen, Jakob. Designing Web Usability . Indianapolis, IN: New Riders, 1999.
IA Bibliography Cont’
Norman, Donald A. The Design of Everyday Things . New York, NY: Doubleday, 1990.
Rosenfeld, Louis, and Peter Morville. Information Architecture for the World Wide Web . Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly, 1997.
Shneiderman, Ben. Designing the User Interface : Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction . 3rd ed. Reading, Mass.: Addison Wesley, 1997.
Tufte, Edward R. Envisioning Information . Cheshire, Conn.: Graphics Press, 1990.
Wurman, Richard Saul. Information Architects . Zurich, Switzerland: Graphis Press Corporation,,1996.
Explore this website.
Edward Tufte is a pioneer in Data Graphics and in the presentation of information with visual simplicity, as opposed to ‘Chart Junk.’
His ideas are very useful in transmitting information in organisational settings.
He believes PowerPoint is evil, and it may well be :-)