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Raimi presentation 5 20 09 Raimi presentation 5 20 09 Presentation Transcript

  • Healthy General Plans Alameda County Planning for Healthy Communities 20 May 09
  • Improving Health “Many would be surprised to learn that the y p greatest contribution to the health of the nation over the past 150 years was made, not by doctors or hospitals, but by local government.” ” Dr. Jessie Parfitt, Public Health Physician P bli H lth Ph i i
  • About Raimi + AssociatesComprehensive PlanningSustainable Development pPublic Health and Planning - LEED ND Public Health Criteria Study USGBC LEED-ND Study, - How to Create and Implement Healthy General Plans, Public Health Law & Policy - Design for Healthy Living, Coachella Valley Assoc. of Govts - South Gate General Plan, South Gate CA -Riverside County Public Health Element, Riverside County, CA -El Monte Health and Wellness Element
  • How Healthy Are Our Communities?
  • Source: CDCPublic Health and the Built Environment
  • Public Health Issues Data Sources: 2000 BRFSS, 2002 NHANES, Powell 1994, Pratt et. al. 2000; CDC
  • What makes a healthy ycommunity? y
  • Regional LocationLocate development in appropriate locations Transit-oriented l T it i t d locations ti Downtowns Corridors Mixed use centers
  • Density / Intensity
  • Mix of Land UsesMore types of usesMore retail uses• Neighborhood retail uses• R t Restaurants & taverns t t• Grocery storesEmployment destinationsCivic uses
  • Urban Form and CharacterBuilding relationship to streetBuilding l tiB ildi relationship t other hi to thbuildingsBuilding designB ildi d iOverall character andattractiveness of environment
  • Transit Access and AvailabilityProximityFrequencyDensity of DestinationsPedestrian environment andamenities
  • Roadway DesignConnectivityStreet idthSt t widthLane widthSpeedOn-StreetOn Street parkingStreet Trees
  • Bicycle and Pedestrian FacilitiesBicycle Proximity Design Completeness of network C l t f t kPedestrian Sidewalk presence and completeness Pedestrian facilities Pedestrian crossings
  • Access to Parks and Open SpaceProximityAesthetic AppealA th ti A l Source: Dan BurdenReal and Perceived SafetyPresence of others exercising
  • Access to Healthy FoodsSupermarketsFarmers MarketsF M k tLocally grown foods
  • As Walking IncreasesThe tendency to be overweight orobese decreasesThe tendency to be physically activeincreasesPer capita air pollution decreasesTransit use increases
  • As Driving IncreasesTendency to be overweightincreasesOccurrence of traffic crashesincreasesExposure to air pollution increasesDriving related stress (road rage)increasesWater quality decreasesCivic participation declines
  • A National Evidence BasePeople who live in walkable neighborhoods report 30 minmore walking than less walkable areas (Saelens, 2003)Residents of more urban neighborhoods walk 3x more thansuburban neighborhoods (Lawton, 2001)SMARTRAQ (Frank, 2005) - Residents of most walkable areas of Atlanta were found to be 2.4 times more likely to get recommended amount of physical activity. f - Each additional hour spend per day driving is associated with a 6% increase in the odds of obesity. y - Each additional kilometer walked per day was associated with a 4.8% reduction in the odds of obesity.
  • A National Evidence Base A 5% increase in walkability is associated with: 32 % increase in minutes of walking and biking A ¼ pt reduction in BMI (about ½ kilogram) A 6.5 % reduction in per capita vehicle kilometers traveled A 5.5 percent reduction in ozone precursors (NOx, VOCs)SOURCE: Frank, L.D. Sallis, J.F., Conway, T., Chapman, J., Saelens, B. Bachman, W. (Winter 2006). Many Pathways from Land Use to Health:Walkability Associations With Active Transportation, Body Mass Index, and Air Quality. Journal of the American Planning Association.
  • A Note on Health DisparitiesAsthma:Death rates from asthma are almost three times higher for AfricanAmericans than for white Americans (US EPA 2003)Traffic injuries: jAfrican Americans represent only 12% of the US population, but morethan 20% of pedestrian deaths (STPP 2002)Opportunities for Physical Activity:Low-income communities have less access to parks, recreationalfacilities, well-funded schools and playground structures, possiblyf ili i ll f d d h l d l d iblcontributing to disparities in physical activity rates (PolicyLink, 2002)
  • Policy Decisions Urban Form, Transportation System, and Land Use Built Environment Access t G d and Services A to Goods d S i Travel Choices Street Design Health Indicators Physical Activity Levels, Time spent driving, Access to Nutrition and Healthcare Pollution, Stress Health Outcomes Diabetes, Obesity Traffic Accidents, Respiratory Illness Crime, Crime Mental Health IssuesMaking the Connection
  • A PRESCRIPTION FOR A HEALTHY PLAN
  • What is a General Plan?Vision for the County’s futureLong-term policy guide fL t li id for: Physical Changes Economic Development Preservation of Open SpaceAll land use decisions must derive from the GPCovers 20 30 year time period 20-30
  • South Gate: An Overview8 miles southeast of downtown LAPopulation: 115 000 to 125 000 115,000 125,0007.5 square miles> 95% LatinoMedian age 26 y g years of age gWorking class
  • Regional Location
  • Process1. Create partnerships2. Existing conditions analysis3.3 Public workshops4. Healthy City Element and General Plan Policies5.5 Implementation
  • PartnershipsP t hi
  • Partnerships and OutreachInformally disseminate informationSetS t up partnerships with other d t hi ith th departments t tPass Board/Council Resolution on HealthCreate a Healthy CommunityCommittee/CoalitionPublic WorkshopsWalk AuditW lk A dit
  • Healthy Community Partnership1. City of South Gate2. Los Angeles County Department of Public Health3. Transportation and Land Use Collaborative4. Raimi + Associates5.5 Kaiser Foundation (funder)
  • Existing ConditionsE i ti C diti
  • Rank South Gate LA County 1 Heart Disease Heart Disease 2 Stroke Stroke 3 Diabetes Lung Cancer 4 Emphysema/COPD Emphysema/COPD 5 Lung Cancer Pneumonia/InfluenzaLeading Causes of Death
  • 30 26.4% 25 20.6% % 20 15 10 LA County South Gate & sourrounding citiesAdults with Fair or Poor Health
  • LA County South Gate & Surrounding Cities g Overweight Overweight 35.5 39.5 Obese Obese 20.9 33.1Overweight and Obese Adults
  • Overweight and Obese Children
  • South Gate+ LA CountyObese Children Over Time
  • Proximity to Parks
  • Food Sources (healthy, not so much)
  • Proximity to Freeways and Truck Routes
  • Traffic Accidents
  • Data ChallengesCreating connections between land useand health outcomesMany data sources – difficult to get infoObtainingObt i i accurate city-level and sub-city t it l l d b itlevel information (LA County is theexception) p )
  • Community W k hC it Workshops
  • Workshop #1: Connecting Planning and Health
  • Workshop #2: Healthy Eating 101
  • Workshop #3: A Walkable South Gate
  • Preparing th PlP i the Plan
  • A Healthy General PlanHealth informs visionRegulates L d use and urban fR l t Land d b formRequires “healthy” transportation and infrastructuresystems tLayers health policies throughoutMay includes a stand-alone “Healthy Community” Element
  • Elements of the PlanLand UseCirculationCi l tiHealthy CommunityPublic Facilities and ServicesSafetyParks and Open SpaceConservation
  • Vision Statement HEALTHY ENVIORNMENT: South Gate supports public health through a healthy environment that includes and promotes walkable communities, safe neighborhoods, neighborhoods enhanced recreational and cultural amenities, reduced noise and air pollution, water and energy conservation, and an attractive natural environment.
  • Community Design: (not only land use)Map future patterns and structures tobetter represent Desired character and function of different parts of the county Mixed use Transportation and land use integration Relationship between urban and ruralFocus on 3 dimensional results of 2dimensional plan
  • Source: City of TracyTypical Land Use Map
  • VS. VS.Land Use = Character
  • Source: WRT, City of SacramentoCommunity Design: Land Use, Form & Character
  • Create “designations” that address: Land use Density/Intensity Street connectivity Building frontage and placement Pedestrian Access Parking, Vehicle Access and ServicesDesignations should create places notland usesCommunity Design: Apply Urban Form Designations
  • Community Design: PoliciesMixed use developmentHigher density developmentInfill development (downtowns,community centers, along corridors)Manage outward growthBuild around transitInclude urban design considerationsAgricultural land preservation
  • Mobility ElementStreets as public spacePrioritize moving people not carsIntegrate land use and transportation- context-sensitive roadway context sensitiveclassificationsSafety improvements in y pneighborhoodsIdentified pedestrian and bicycleinfrastructurePromote transit improvements
  • Green City ElementGreen streets and infrastructureNew parks and open spacesN k dExpanded trail networkClimate change/GHG emissions
  • Healthy Community ElementStand-alone Healthy Community“element” - Overall health and well-being - Land use patterns that support physical activity y - Active and safe transportation - Access to healthy foods - Access to health care - Air pollution - “Traditional” safety element topics “T diti l” f t l tt i (seismic, emergency preparedness)
  • Overall HealthTake health into consideration in city’s decisionsMonitor healthM it h lth conditions ditiFocus on preventive careBuild and maintain partnerships
  • Land Use PatternsSupport land use patterns that promote physical activity –mixed use development, TOD, corridor developmentImprove neighborhoods with pedestrian and bicycle facilitiesImprove park and recreation facilitiesReinforces policies in Community Design Element
  • Active and Safe TransportationPromote transit servicethroughout the cityImprove bicycle and pedestrianconnectionsMonitor areas with high-frequencyinjuries and accidents jPromote safe routes to schoolsReinforces and referencespolicies in Mobility Element
  • Access to Healthy FoodsEncouragement of healthy foodstoresPromote and support farmersmarketsCreate community gardens andsupport “edible” school y pp yardsAvoid concentrations of unhealthyfood, particularly around schools ,p y
  • Respiratory HealthSiting of “sensitive receptors” - Freeways (I 710) (I-710) - Truck routes -HHeavy i d t i l areas industrialAddresses tension betweendensity and air pollutiond it d i ll tiPromotes reduction of auto trips
  • Additional TopicsAccess to health care Partnerships with local health providers Incentives for hospitals and clinics Full F ll range of h lth care, i l di f health including mental healthSeismic safetyEmergency preparednessHazardous materials
  • Other ElementsPublic Facilities and ServicesSafetyS f tConservationGreen Infrastructure
  • ImplementationI l t ti
  • Reform ZoningFocuses on separation of usesSeparates uses that should bS t th t h ld bemixed to encourage activetransportationIs a blunt instrumentAssociates form standards (lotcoverage, setbacks, etc) withuse not place type p yp
  • Functional PlansRoadway Master PlanParks d RecreationP k and R tiBicycle Master PlanPedestrian Master Plan
  • Review “Standards”Street design standardsParking requirementsSchool sitingBuilding codes
  • Development ReviewDevelopment Project ChecklistHealth Impact Assessment (HIA)Healthy Development MeasurementToolLEED-NDCEQA
  • ConclusionsBuild partnerships – NGOs, Public Health Dept, communityHealth should be integral part of all General PlansReinforce good land use and transportation decisions withhealthHealth policies will differ based on local conditions-Urbanized vs urbanizing-Population demographics-Existing local and regional land use patternsSeparate Element important but not essential
  • for additional information Matt Raimi Raimi + Associates 510-666-1010 matt@raimiassociates.com matt@raimiassociates com Healthy General Plans Toolkit: ywww.healthyplanning.org/toolkit_healthygp.html