Healthy General Plans      Alameda County Planning for Healthy Communities                                            20 M...
Improving Health  “Many would be surprised to learn that the       y              p  greatest contribution to the health o...
About Raimi + AssociatesComprehensive PlanningSustainable Development                  pPublic Health and Planning - LEED ...
How Healthy Are Our Communities?
Source: CDCPublic Health and the Built Environment
Public Health Issues   Data Sources: 2000 BRFSS, 2002 NHANES,                       Powell 1994, Pratt et. al. 2000; CDC
What makes a healthy                   ycommunity?        y
Regional LocationLocate development in appropriate locations  Transit-oriented l  T    it i t d locations                 ...
Density / Intensity
Mix of Land UsesMore types of usesMore retail uses• Neighborhood retail uses• R t  Restaurants & taverns           t    t•...
Urban Form and CharacterBuilding relationship to streetBuilding l tiB ildi relationship t other                hi to thbui...
Transit Access and AvailabilityProximityFrequencyDensity of DestinationsPedestrian environment andamenities
Roadway DesignConnectivityStreet idthSt t widthLane widthSpeedOn-StreetOn Street parkingStreet Trees
Bicycle and Pedestrian FacilitiesBicycle  Proximity  Design  Completeness of network  C   l t       f t     kPedestrian  S...
Access to Parks and Open SpaceProximityAesthetic AppealA th ti A      l                                Source: Dan BurdenR...
Access to Healthy FoodsSupermarketsFarmers MarketsF       M k tLocally grown foods
As Walking IncreasesThe tendency to be overweight orobese decreasesThe tendency to be physically activeincreasesPer capita...
As Driving IncreasesTendency to be overweightincreasesOccurrence of traffic crashesincreasesExposure to air pollution incr...
A National Evidence BasePeople who live in walkable neighborhoods report 30 minmore walking than less walkable areas (Sael...
A National Evidence Base   A 5% increase in walkability is associated with:         32 % increase in minutes of walking an...
A Note on Health DisparitiesAsthma:Death rates from asthma are almost three times higher for AfricanAmericans than for whi...
Policy Decisions                       Urban Form,                Transportation System, and                         Land ...
A PRESCRIPTION FOR A HEALTHY PLAN
What is a General Plan?Vision for the County’s futureLong-term policy guide fL    t      li     id for:   Physical Changes...
South Gate: An Overview8 miles southeast of downtown LAPopulation: 115 000 to 125 000            115,000 125,0007.5 square...
Regional Location
Process1. Create partnerships2. Existing conditions analysis3.3 Public workshops4. Healthy City Element and General Plan  ...
PartnershipsP t     hi
Partnerships and OutreachInformally disseminate informationSetS t up partnerships with other d          t    hi    ith th ...
Healthy Community Partnership1. City of South Gate2. Los Angeles County Department of Public   Health3. Transportation and...
Existing ConditionsE i ti C diti
Rank   South Gate       LA County     1    Heart Disease    Heart Disease     2    Stroke           Stroke     3    Diabet...
30                        26.4%         25                 20.6%     %         20         15         10              LA Co...
LA County         South Gate & Surrounding Cities                                                g            Overweight  ...
Overweight and Obese Children
South Gate+                           LA CountyObese Children Over Time
Proximity to Parks
Food Sources (healthy, not so much)
Proximity to Freeways and Truck Routes
Traffic Accidents
Data ChallengesCreating connections between land useand health outcomesMany data sources – difficult to get infoObtainingO...
Community W k hC     it Workshops
Workshop #1: Connecting Planning and Health
Workshop #2: Healthy Eating 101
Workshop #3: A Walkable South Gate
Preparing th PlP     i the Plan
A Healthy General PlanHealth informs visionRegulates L d use and urban fR   l t Land        d b formRequires “healthy” tra...
Elements of the PlanLand UseCirculationCi l tiHealthy CommunityPublic Facilities and ServicesSafetyParks and Open SpaceCon...
Vision Statement  HEALTHY ENVIORNMENT: South Gate supports  public health through a healthy environment that  includes and...
Community Design: (not only land use)Map future patterns and structures tobetter represent   Desired character and functio...
Source: City of TracyTypical Land Use Map
VS.                       VS.Land Use = Character
Source: WRT, City of SacramentoCommunity Design: Land Use, Form & Character
Create “designations” that address: Land use Density/Intensity Street connectivity Building frontage and placement Pedestr...
Community Design: PoliciesMixed use developmentHigher density developmentInfill development (downtowns,community centers, ...
Mobility ElementStreets as public spacePrioritize moving people not carsIntegrate land use and transportation- context-sen...
Green City ElementGreen streets and infrastructureNew parks and open spacesN      k    dExpanded trail networkClimate chan...
Healthy Community ElementStand-alone Healthy Community“element”   -   Overall health and well-being   -   Land use pattern...
Overall HealthTake health into consideration in city’s decisionsMonitor healthM it h lth conditions               ditiFocu...
Land Use PatternsSupport land use patterns that promote physical activity –mixed use development, TOD, corridor developmen...
Active and Safe TransportationPromote transit servicethroughout the cityImprove bicycle and pedestrianconnectionsMonitor a...
Access to Healthy FoodsEncouragement of healthy foodstoresPromote and support farmersmarketsCreate community gardens andsu...
Respiratory HealthSiting of “sensitive receptors”   - Freeways (I 710)               (I-710)   - Truck routes   -HHeavy i ...
Additional TopicsAccess to health care  Partnerships with local health providers  Incentives for hospitals and clinics  Fu...
Other ElementsPublic Facilities and ServicesSafetyS f tConservationGreen Infrastructure
ImplementationI l     t ti
Reform ZoningFocuses on separation of usesSeparates uses that should bS      t       th t h ld bemixed to encourage active...
Functional PlansRoadway Master PlanParks d RecreationP k and R     tiBicycle Master PlanPedestrian Master Plan
Review “Standards”Street design standardsParking requirementsSchool sitingBuilding codes
Development ReviewDevelopment Project ChecklistHealth Impact Assessment (HIA)Healthy Development MeasurementToolLEED-NDCEQA
ConclusionsBuild partnerships – NGOs, Public Health Dept, communityHealth should be integral part of all General PlansRein...
for additional information                   Matt Raimi               Raimi + Associates                 510-666-1010     ...
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Raimi presentation 5 20 09

  1. 1. Healthy General Plans Alameda County Planning for Healthy Communities 20 May 09
  2. 2. Improving Health “Many would be surprised to learn that the y p greatest contribution to the health of the nation over the past 150 years was made, not by doctors or hospitals, but by local government.” ” Dr. Jessie Parfitt, Public Health Physician P bli H lth Ph i i
  3. 3. About Raimi + AssociatesComprehensive PlanningSustainable Development pPublic Health and Planning - LEED ND Public Health Criteria Study USGBC LEED-ND Study, - How to Create and Implement Healthy General Plans, Public Health Law & Policy - Design for Healthy Living, Coachella Valley Assoc. of Govts - South Gate General Plan, South Gate CA -Riverside County Public Health Element, Riverside County, CA -El Monte Health and Wellness Element
  4. 4. How Healthy Are Our Communities?
  5. 5. Source: CDCPublic Health and the Built Environment
  6. 6. Public Health Issues Data Sources: 2000 BRFSS, 2002 NHANES, Powell 1994, Pratt et. al. 2000; CDC
  7. 7. What makes a healthy ycommunity? y
  8. 8. Regional LocationLocate development in appropriate locations Transit-oriented l T it i t d locations ti Downtowns Corridors Mixed use centers
  9. 9. Density / Intensity
  10. 10. Mix of Land UsesMore types of usesMore retail uses• Neighborhood retail uses• R t Restaurants & taverns t t• Grocery storesEmployment destinationsCivic uses
  11. 11. Urban Form and CharacterBuilding relationship to streetBuilding l tiB ildi relationship t other hi to thbuildingsBuilding designB ildi d iOverall character andattractiveness of environment
  12. 12. Transit Access and AvailabilityProximityFrequencyDensity of DestinationsPedestrian environment andamenities
  13. 13. Roadway DesignConnectivityStreet idthSt t widthLane widthSpeedOn-StreetOn Street parkingStreet Trees
  14. 14. Bicycle and Pedestrian FacilitiesBicycle Proximity Design Completeness of network C l t f t kPedestrian Sidewalk presence and completeness Pedestrian facilities Pedestrian crossings
  15. 15. Access to Parks and Open SpaceProximityAesthetic AppealA th ti A l Source: Dan BurdenReal and Perceived SafetyPresence of others exercising
  16. 16. Access to Healthy FoodsSupermarketsFarmers MarketsF M k tLocally grown foods
  17. 17. As Walking IncreasesThe tendency to be overweight orobese decreasesThe tendency to be physically activeincreasesPer capita air pollution decreasesTransit use increases
  18. 18. As Driving IncreasesTendency to be overweightincreasesOccurrence of traffic crashesincreasesExposure to air pollution increasesDriving related stress (road rage)increasesWater quality decreasesCivic participation declines
  19. 19. A National Evidence BasePeople who live in walkable neighborhoods report 30 minmore walking than less walkable areas (Saelens, 2003)Residents of more urban neighborhoods walk 3x more thansuburban neighborhoods (Lawton, 2001)SMARTRAQ (Frank, 2005) - Residents of most walkable areas of Atlanta were found to be 2.4 times more likely to get recommended amount of physical activity. f - Each additional hour spend per day driving is associated with a 6% increase in the odds of obesity. y - Each additional kilometer walked per day was associated with a 4.8% reduction in the odds of obesity.
  20. 20. A National Evidence Base A 5% increase in walkability is associated with: 32 % increase in minutes of walking and biking A ¼ pt reduction in BMI (about ½ kilogram) A 6.5 % reduction in per capita vehicle kilometers traveled A 5.5 percent reduction in ozone precursors (NOx, VOCs)SOURCE: Frank, L.D. Sallis, J.F., Conway, T., Chapman, J., Saelens, B. Bachman, W. (Winter 2006). Many Pathways from Land Use to Health:Walkability Associations With Active Transportation, Body Mass Index, and Air Quality. Journal of the American Planning Association.
  21. 21. A Note on Health DisparitiesAsthma:Death rates from asthma are almost three times higher for AfricanAmericans than for white Americans (US EPA 2003)Traffic injuries: jAfrican Americans represent only 12% of the US population, but morethan 20% of pedestrian deaths (STPP 2002)Opportunities for Physical Activity:Low-income communities have less access to parks, recreationalfacilities, well-funded schools and playground structures, possiblyf ili i ll f d d h l d l d iblcontributing to disparities in physical activity rates (PolicyLink, 2002)
  22. 22. Policy Decisions Urban Form, Transportation System, and Land Use Built Environment Access t G d and Services A to Goods d S i Travel Choices Street Design Health Indicators Physical Activity Levels, Time spent driving, Access to Nutrition and Healthcare Pollution, Stress Health Outcomes Diabetes, Obesity Traffic Accidents, Respiratory Illness Crime, Crime Mental Health IssuesMaking the Connection
  23. 23. A PRESCRIPTION FOR A HEALTHY PLAN
  24. 24. What is a General Plan?Vision for the County’s futureLong-term policy guide fL t li id for: Physical Changes Economic Development Preservation of Open SpaceAll land use decisions must derive from the GPCovers 20 30 year time period 20-30
  25. 25. South Gate: An Overview8 miles southeast of downtown LAPopulation: 115 000 to 125 000 115,000 125,0007.5 square miles> 95% LatinoMedian age 26 y g years of age gWorking class
  26. 26. Regional Location
  27. 27. Process1. Create partnerships2. Existing conditions analysis3.3 Public workshops4. Healthy City Element and General Plan Policies5.5 Implementation
  28. 28. PartnershipsP t hi
  29. 29. Partnerships and OutreachInformally disseminate informationSetS t up partnerships with other d t hi ith th departments t tPass Board/Council Resolution on HealthCreate a Healthy CommunityCommittee/CoalitionPublic WorkshopsWalk AuditW lk A dit
  30. 30. Healthy Community Partnership1. City of South Gate2. Los Angeles County Department of Public Health3. Transportation and Land Use Collaborative4. Raimi + Associates5.5 Kaiser Foundation (funder)
  31. 31. Existing ConditionsE i ti C diti
  32. 32. Rank South Gate LA County 1 Heart Disease Heart Disease 2 Stroke Stroke 3 Diabetes Lung Cancer 4 Emphysema/COPD Emphysema/COPD 5 Lung Cancer Pneumonia/InfluenzaLeading Causes of Death
  33. 33. 30 26.4% 25 20.6% % 20 15 10 LA County South Gate & sourrounding citiesAdults with Fair or Poor Health
  34. 34. LA County South Gate & Surrounding Cities g Overweight Overweight 35.5 39.5 Obese Obese 20.9 33.1Overweight and Obese Adults
  35. 35. Overweight and Obese Children
  36. 36. South Gate+ LA CountyObese Children Over Time
  37. 37. Proximity to Parks
  38. 38. Food Sources (healthy, not so much)
  39. 39. Proximity to Freeways and Truck Routes
  40. 40. Traffic Accidents
  41. 41. Data ChallengesCreating connections between land useand health outcomesMany data sources – difficult to get infoObtainingObt i i accurate city-level and sub-city t it l l d b itlevel information (LA County is theexception) p )
  42. 42. Community W k hC it Workshops
  43. 43. Workshop #1: Connecting Planning and Health
  44. 44. Workshop #2: Healthy Eating 101
  45. 45. Workshop #3: A Walkable South Gate
  46. 46. Preparing th PlP i the Plan
  47. 47. A Healthy General PlanHealth informs visionRegulates L d use and urban fR l t Land d b formRequires “healthy” transportation and infrastructuresystems tLayers health policies throughoutMay includes a stand-alone “Healthy Community” Element
  48. 48. Elements of the PlanLand UseCirculationCi l tiHealthy CommunityPublic Facilities and ServicesSafetyParks and Open SpaceConservation
  49. 49. Vision Statement HEALTHY ENVIORNMENT: South Gate supports public health through a healthy environment that includes and promotes walkable communities, safe neighborhoods, neighborhoods enhanced recreational and cultural amenities, reduced noise and air pollution, water and energy conservation, and an attractive natural environment.
  50. 50. Community Design: (not only land use)Map future patterns and structures tobetter represent Desired character and function of different parts of the county Mixed use Transportation and land use integration Relationship between urban and ruralFocus on 3 dimensional results of 2dimensional plan
  51. 51. Source: City of TracyTypical Land Use Map
  52. 52. VS. VS.Land Use = Character
  53. 53. Source: WRT, City of SacramentoCommunity Design: Land Use, Form & Character
  54. 54. Create “designations” that address: Land use Density/Intensity Street connectivity Building frontage and placement Pedestrian Access Parking, Vehicle Access and ServicesDesignations should create places notland usesCommunity Design: Apply Urban Form Designations
  55. 55. Community Design: PoliciesMixed use developmentHigher density developmentInfill development (downtowns,community centers, along corridors)Manage outward growthBuild around transitInclude urban design considerationsAgricultural land preservation
  56. 56. Mobility ElementStreets as public spacePrioritize moving people not carsIntegrate land use and transportation- context-sensitive roadway context sensitiveclassificationsSafety improvements in y pneighborhoodsIdentified pedestrian and bicycleinfrastructurePromote transit improvements
  57. 57. Green City ElementGreen streets and infrastructureNew parks and open spacesN k dExpanded trail networkClimate change/GHG emissions
  58. 58. Healthy Community ElementStand-alone Healthy Community“element” - Overall health and well-being - Land use patterns that support physical activity y - Active and safe transportation - Access to healthy foods - Access to health care - Air pollution - “Traditional” safety element topics “T diti l” f t l tt i (seismic, emergency preparedness)
  59. 59. Overall HealthTake health into consideration in city’s decisionsMonitor healthM it h lth conditions ditiFocus on preventive careBuild and maintain partnerships
  60. 60. Land Use PatternsSupport land use patterns that promote physical activity –mixed use development, TOD, corridor developmentImprove neighborhoods with pedestrian and bicycle facilitiesImprove park and recreation facilitiesReinforces policies in Community Design Element
  61. 61. Active and Safe TransportationPromote transit servicethroughout the cityImprove bicycle and pedestrianconnectionsMonitor areas with high-frequencyinjuries and accidents jPromote safe routes to schoolsReinforces and referencespolicies in Mobility Element
  62. 62. Access to Healthy FoodsEncouragement of healthy foodstoresPromote and support farmersmarketsCreate community gardens andsupport “edible” school y pp yardsAvoid concentrations of unhealthyfood, particularly around schools ,p y
  63. 63. Respiratory HealthSiting of “sensitive receptors” - Freeways (I 710) (I-710) - Truck routes -HHeavy i d t i l areas industrialAddresses tension betweendensity and air pollutiond it d i ll tiPromotes reduction of auto trips
  64. 64. Additional TopicsAccess to health care Partnerships with local health providers Incentives for hospitals and clinics Full F ll range of h lth care, i l di f health including mental healthSeismic safetyEmergency preparednessHazardous materials
  65. 65. Other ElementsPublic Facilities and ServicesSafetyS f tConservationGreen Infrastructure
  66. 66. ImplementationI l t ti
  67. 67. Reform ZoningFocuses on separation of usesSeparates uses that should bS t th t h ld bemixed to encourage activetransportationIs a blunt instrumentAssociates form standards (lotcoverage, setbacks, etc) withuse not place type p yp
  68. 68. Functional PlansRoadway Master PlanParks d RecreationP k and R tiBicycle Master PlanPedestrian Master Plan
  69. 69. Review “Standards”Street design standardsParking requirementsSchool sitingBuilding codes
  70. 70. Development ReviewDevelopment Project ChecklistHealth Impact Assessment (HIA)Healthy Development MeasurementToolLEED-NDCEQA
  71. 71. ConclusionsBuild partnerships – NGOs, Public Health Dept, communityHealth should be integral part of all General PlansReinforce good land use and transportation decisions withhealthHealth policies will differ based on local conditions-Urbanized vs urbanizing-Population demographics-Existing local and regional land use patternsSeparate Element important but not essential
  72. 72. for additional information Matt Raimi Raimi + Associates 510-666-1010 matt@raimiassociates.com matt@raimiassociates com Healthy General Plans Toolkit: ywww.healthyplanning.org/toolkit_healthygp.html

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