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School of dental surgery
School of dental surgery
School of dental surgery
School of dental surgery
School of dental surgery
School of dental surgery
School of dental surgery
School of dental surgery
School of dental surgery
School of dental surgery
School of dental surgery
School of dental surgery
School of dental surgery
School of dental surgery
School of dental surgery
School of dental surgery
School of dental surgery
School of dental surgery
School of dental surgery
School of dental surgery
School of dental surgery
School of dental surgery
School of dental surgery
School of dental surgery
School of dental surgery
School of dental surgery
School of dental surgery
School of dental surgery
School of dental surgery
School of dental surgery
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School of dental surgery

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  • 1. Academy of Paris Paris Descartes University Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris School of dental surgery http//www.odontologie.univ-paris5.fr ECTS programme 2008 – 2009 guide European Community Course Credit Transfer System Co-ordinator Gérard Lévy
  • 2. Professor Gérard Lévy School of dental surgery 1, rue Maurice Arnoux 92120 Montrouge France Telephone: +33 1 58 07 68 18 (from abroad) Fax: (+) 33 1 58 07 67 33 E-mail : gerard.levy@univ-paris5.fr Secretary Jonathan Gallerne School of dental surgery Secretary’s office ERASMUS 1, rue Maurice Arnoux 92120 Montrouge France Telephone: (+) 33 1 58 07 67 28 (from abroad) 01 58 07 67 28 (in France) Fax: (+) 33 1 58 07 67 33 E-mail : jonathan.gallerne@univ-paris5.frPolitical and administrative head office of Paris 5 university Office of international relations 12, rue de l’École de Médecine – 75006 Paris - France tel: +33 1 40 46 17 70 Fax: +33 1 40 46 16 19 E-mail: sri@univ-paris5.fr
  • 3. SummaryErasmus - Socrates : student mobilityLanguage assistance – ECTS system of courses ------------------------------------------------------1Student life in Paris-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1Libraries ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3Introduction, the ECTS department --------------------------------------------------------------------4The curriculum ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6The ECTS system for dental courses credits ----------------------------------------------------------8Facilities----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19Clinical/Academic Organisational Structures for school and hospital ------------------------ 25Staff ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 26Involvement in other University Activities ---------------------------------------------------------- 30Recreation and Sport------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 30
  • 4. 1Language assistanceThe Paris Descartes University contains a technical centre for languages that offers French language coursesfor foreign students.Centre Technique de Langues 45, rue des Saints Pères, F-75270 Paris Cedex 06 - FranceTelephone: (+) 33 1 42 86 33 25 - Fax: (+) 33 1 42 86 33 27e-mail: ctl@ctl.univ-paris5.fr Web: http://www.ctl.univ-paris5.frStudent life in Paris – Some practical informationAdministrative proceduresA web site for assistance: www.egide.asso.frRequired documents: - identity card or passport - photos of identification - birth certificate translated into French - proof of insurance coverage (it is possible, after your arrival, to subscribe to an insurance plan that is comparable to those for French students) - E 111 and/or E 128 form for illness insurance (“sécurité sociale”) - Student card of your university - proof of financial means - proof of residence in Paris - proof of income or scholarship - proof of French-speakingCarte de séjour (permission to stay): Refer to the documents cited above.The carte de séjour is obtained at the Prefecture of Police.Check with the Bureau for foreign students at the University:Division de la Scolarité, Bureau des étudiants étrangers, 12, rue de l’Ecole de Médecine, 75006 Paris Tel: (+) 33 1404 61773Getting aroundThe metro is the quickest and cheapest mean. There are several possibilities: - a single ticket: 1,60 € - a “carnet” or book of 10 tickets: 11,40 € - a “carte orange” or orange card: 55,10 € for two zones (see a map of the metro). Depending on your place of lodging, you may need a “carte orange” covering more than two zones. Metro tickets and “carte orange” coupons are sold at metro stations and tobacco shops. (called “tabac”). - Paris City provides cheap facilities to rent bikes over Paris intra-muros : http://www.velib.paris.fr/abonnements_et_tarifsFor telecommunications - Telephone cards of 50 or 120 units are sold at post offices, metro stations, and tobacco stores. To call abroad, dial 00 followed by the country code. - The University will be able to give students a personal e-mail address. - A computer room is available free of charge for accessing the Internet.For your budgeting purposes - For temporary lodgings count on paying 300,00 € per week. - For permanent accommodations expect to pay around 1000,00 €, a security deposit and the first month of rent.For an average monthly budgetFood 400,00€City transport 60,00 €Lodging 1000,00 €TOTAL 1460,00€some will need to add pocket money
  • 5. 2MealsThe student card of Paris Descartes university gives access to the University restaurants (list available fromthe Bureau of Foreign Students of Paris Descartes University). A traditional meal costs about 3,00€.These restaurants also offer quick restaurant service payable in cash (brasserie, cafeteria, express grill).LodgingA list of addresses and rates is available at the secretary’s office of ERASMUS at the dental school or at the Bureaufor foreign students of the University of Paris 5.Aid with lodging can be granted under certain conditions for helping students pay their rent for residence orprivate housing.For supplementary information, a brochure titled “Mobilité étudiante guide d’informations pratiques” (Studentabroad guide of practical information) is available at the secretary’s office of ERASMUS at the Institute ofPsychology or at the Bureau of Foreign Students of University of Paris 5.Some useful addresses:To the university central office of international relationsBureau des relations internationales, 12 rue de lÉcole de Médecine 75006Open from Monday to Friday : 9 H-12 H et 13 H 30-16 H 30,tel: +331 40 46 17 70 - Fax: (+) 33 1 40 46 16 19Aile gauche - Couloir St germain : Foreign students office.Aile droite - (Students affairs)Galerie Pasteur – Porte A4 : Alain Bernard, (administrative assistance) Tel : + 33 (0)1 40 46 17 50alain.bernard@univ-paris5.frJoint Diplôma office:Aile droite - (Students affairs)Galerie Pasteur entresol : Nathalie Lefèvre, (Application office) Tel : + 33 (0)1 40 46 17 52nathalie.lefevre@univ-paris5.frAile gauche, niveau 1 :Academic information : Tel : + 33 (0)1 40 46 16 50Open from Tuesday till Thursday 11.00 to 17.00Counselling.On Wednesday from 9h30 to 12h30E-Mail : sri@univ-paris5.frCROUS – Service accueil étrangers Cité Internationale Universitaire de Paris (CIUP)39, avenue Georges Bernanos Service d’admission75231 Paris cedex 05 19, boulevard JourdanTél : +33 1 40 51 36 17 à 22 75014 ParisWeb : www.crous-paris.fr Tél : + 33 1 44 16 64 41 – Web : http://www.ciup.frUniversité Paris 5 or to the Ambassy of your country.12, rue de lécole de Médecine75006 ParisTél: + 33 1 40 46 16 39Web : www.univ-paris5.frMNEFRéseau Campus Résidences27, rue de Linné75005 Paris
  • 6. 3LibrariesBibliothèque universitaire dodontologie (Montrouge)1 rue Maurice Arnoux, 92120 Montrouge. Tel : 01.58.07.68.21 - 01.58.07.68.19 Fax : 01.58.07.68.20Métro : Porte d’Orléans - Bus PC (Porte de Châtillon), 194, 295, 126.4th floor : for dental students and researchers2nd floor : reading room (19 seats) and videotapes.Open :From Monday to Friday : 9h30 – 18h00Bibliothèque du Centre Universitaire des Saints PèresBâtiment Jacob ; 1er étage45 rue des Saints Pères75270 Paris ; cedex 06Tel : 01.42.86.33.31Public transport :Metro : line 4, station "St Germain des prés"Bus : 39, 63, 86, 87, 95Phone contact :Sylvain Akchar,Tel : 01.42.86.33.19Fax : 01.42.86.33.20E-mail : akchar@bu.univ-paris5.frBibliothèque interuniversitaire de Médecine (BIUM)12 rue de lÉcole de Médecine, 75270 Paris cedex 06, Metro Odéon)Open: From Monday to Friday, 9h00 - 19h00 (Documents are given at 10h00 and should be back at 18h30). OnSaturday, 13h - 19h.Closed : All Saints Day 1st and 2nd of November, Christmas from 24th of December 13h00 to 6th January 9h00AM.Phone:Secrétariat – Renseignements Prêt entre bibliothèques Périodiques01.40.46.19.51 01.40.46.19.58 01.40.46.19.87 01.40.46.19.57 01.40.46.19.89Catalogue collectif national (CCN) Histoire de la médecine Télécopie/Fax01.40.46.19.74 01.40.46.19.53 01.44.41.10.20 01.40.46.19.66 01.40.46.17.29
  • 7. 4IntroductionThe ECTS departmentFaculté de chirurgie dentaire de l’université de Paris 5 - René Descartes1, rue Maurice Arnoux, F-92120 Montrouge. Telephone : +33 1 58 07 67 00 - Telecopy : +33 1 58 07 68 99Departmental Coordinator ECTS and Dean: Gérard LévyTelephone : +33 1 58 07 68 18/67 01 – Telecopy : +33 1 58 07 67 33/67 04E-mail : gerard.levy@univ-paris5.frCan be contacted on Monday, Wednesday PM, Thursday AM and Friday AM.Can be contacted on Tuesday, Wednesday AM and Thursday PM to: +33 1 49 59 46 42Background The School of Paris-5 University is one of the sixteen French Dentistry Schools. It belongs to the UniversityRené Descartes, Paris-5 that comprises the following Schools: - School of Law - School of Psychology - School of Humanities and Social Sciences - School of Biomedical Sciences - Department of Forensic Medicine and Medical Law - Mathematics Training and Research Unit - 1 School of Medicine - School of Pharmacy - IUT (Academic Institute of Technology) In France, the dental art has only been acknowledged as a professional skill for two centuries. In 1699, royaledicts put dentists, along with doctors and surgeons, under the authority of the King’s First Surgeon. The 17thcentury was a brilliant era for French odontology since it witnessed the publication of important works by Fauchard,Bunon, Bourdet and Jourdain. However, during the French Revolution, health reforms left dentists behind, whereas doctors and surgeonsbecame health officers. Throughout the 19th century, dentists-doctors (who had become health officers) and meredentists (who simply paid a trading license) disagreed with one another since the former wanted dentistry to becomemore medical and the latter wanted it to become autonomous. At the end of the 19th century, schools were created that specialised in dentistry, and statutes for dentists werepromulgated. In 1880, the Parisian Dentists Circle started the Dental School of Paris, 37 rue Rochechouart. In 1884,the Dental Employers’ Federation started the Odontologic Institute, rue de l’Abbaye. In 1889, the Dental School ofLyon was created. Last but not least, a great medical law, which had been under discussion since 1880, was passedon November 30, 1892: it created a new title, that of dental surgeon. Conventions were then signed between Schoolsof Medicine and Dental Schools until the State took over the curriculum. In 1909, a decree set a five-year curriculum for dentists. In 1965, a decree was passed. It created the National Schools for Dental Surgery (ENCD = Écoles Nationales deChirurgie Dentaire) along with the Dental Research and Teaching Hospital Complexes, which are used for theclinical courses (CSERD = Centres de Soins d’Enseignement et de Recherche Dentaires). The first year of thecurriculum is common to medical and dental students.
  • 8. 5Montrouge In 1968, the National School for Dental Surgery (ENCD) of Paris was created. It moved to 1, rue MauriceArnoux in Montrouge in buildings that are shared with the École Normale Supérieure (a grande école for trainingteachers). The aforementioned CSERD is made up of four clinics that are located in: - Colombes 92700 Hôpital Louis Mourier 178, rue des Renouillers - Créteil 94000 Hôpital Albert Chenevier rue de Mesly - Ivry 94200 Hôpital Charles Foix 12, rue Fouilloux - Paris 75018 Hôpital Bretonneau 25 rue Joseph de Maistre The ENCD of Paris then became a university department and is now part of the Paris-5 University. In 1971, restricted admission was passed. The number of applicants in odontology was of 290 in 1971, 190 in1980, 121 in 1985 and it has been of 90 since 1991. The dental curriculum was reformed through a decree passed on September 27, 1994. Since then, post-graduatestudies have been created. Moreover, existing subjects have been reorganised, new and mandatory subjects havebeen introduced, such as foreign languages, law or economics for instance, and clinical training has been increased.Research As soon as it was created, the dental university department gave a prominent place to biomedical research. Basic clinical research can be done by teachers and students in: - the oral and bone environment biology and biomaterials laboratory. This laboratory delivers masters degree and PhD diploma. It is made up of three groups: - the oral biochemistry group - the extracellular matrix and biomineralisation group - the bone physiopathology group. Research can also be done in the following university laboratories: - the dental materials group - the pathological anatomy laboratory - the applied orofacial biology laboratory - the medical electronics and behavioural neuropharmacology laboratory - the radiology, biophysics and radioelements laboratory - the oral public health laboratory Moreover these laboratories work in close collaboration with French public research institutions such as theINSERM (British equivalent: MRC; American equivalent: NIH), the C.N.R.S. (British equivalent: SERC; Americanequivalent: NSF), the Pasteur Institute, the Collège de France and with private companies as well. The primary functions of the institution are: - Clinical training and education of undergraduate dental students subject to the standards set by the Department of Higher Education and Research, the National Commission of Dental Education and the EU Dental Directives. - Training of specialists in Orthodontics - Continuing education for dental practitioners - Research - Patient Services
  • 9. 6The curriculumOrganisation chart of the curriculum: 1st Cycle 1st year, 1st cycle of medical 1st year P1 and dental studies Introduction to nursing. competitive entry Medicine 2nd year, 1st cycle of dental examination studies Basic sciences + introduction to 2nd year P2 the dental sciences, foreign languages Option and electives Introduction to the dental clinics 1st year, 2nd cycle of dental Middle Cycle studies Basic sciences + introduction to 3rd year the dental sciences, foreign D1 languages Option and electives Introduction to the dental clinics 2nd year, 2nd cycle of dental studies Clinical dental sciences 4th year D2 + optional and electives Dental and non-dental clinical training: 3rd year, 2nd cycle of dental studies Clinical dental sciences + optional and electives 5th year D3 Dental and non-dental clinical training: Introduction to the dental practice Final honors Short cycle: T1 Long cycle - Internship Mandatory and optional modules 6 semesters after selection Clinical work: - advanced clinical training 6th year T1 In dental clinics - Assessed as an advanced In non-dental clinics studies certificate Thesis Doctor in Dental Surgery graduation.Post graduate Specialisation in Post-doctoral degree Post-doctoral degrees PhD degreesBasic sciences Orthodontics in Oral surgery -Periodontology (2 years) 4 years1 year 4 years 4 years -Gnathology (2 years)Clinical sciences -Geriatric dentistry (2 years)1 year -Paediatric dentistry (3 years) -Prosthodontics (2 years) -Continuing education (3 years) -Implants (2 years) -Anatomy (2 years)
  • 10. 7 Since 1995, major curriculum modifications have been implemented in France. The first year is common to bothmedical and dental schools and leads to an admission test with a success rate of 15%. The dental student is thenengaged in a five-year dental curriculum (year 2 to year 6), as opposed to the previous programme (year 2 to year 5). Reinforcement of teaching of both medical and dental basic sciences, medical rotations in several hospitaldepartments, internships in dental practices and the 6th year – the comprehensive care of the patient is the focus – arethe most important modifications of the new programme. Basically, this new curriculum emphasises initiation toresearch, links with medical training and offers broader clinical experience. Throughout the curriculum, the comprehensive care of the patient is persistently taken into account. To thateffect, the Paris Descartes University faculty has decided to promote one method of teaching over another. Thevarious possible profiles of patients are considered, thus making it possible for “specialities” to emerge, which aretaught in “modules”. This new organisation has replaced the former, which consisted in the traditional teaching ofseparate dental matters (prosthetics, periodontology, endodontics, conservative odontology, pedodontics, etc.). Someexamples of “modules” are manducatory function, Prevention of oral diseases, Full Denture, Tooth Pathology andTreatment, Tooth Loss Therapy, etc. Professors of different dental specialities work together within a same module.General aims- To provide future dentists with an ethical and suitable scientific foundation- To promote and develop clinical competence in primary oral health care and prevention- To provide an environment that encourages self-sufficiency in learning, scientific analysis, moral values andrecognition of social responsibilities- To ensure that the educational programme fulfils national and EU requirements. The organisation of the new curriculum is appended below.First Year P1 Common with the first Year of medical studies Topics Biophysics and Physics Biochemistry and Chemistry Cellular Biology and Molecular Biology Law – Professional Ethics Health Economy - Demographics History of Medicine Medical Sociology Anatomy and Physiology Biology of Development – Embryology - Histology
  • 11. 8The ECTS system for dental courses creditsCredits:- In order to facilitate student exchanges and grading of courses completed at one of the partner universities theuniversities participating in the ERASMUS exchange have put in place a system for transfer of academic credits:ECTS (“European Credit Transfer System”)- The system is based on the translation of credits for the sum of work representing a complete year of study,or 60 credits for an academic year and 30 credits for a semester.- On this basis, each course results in a certain number of credits. This number is a function of the volume of workthat the course represents in relation to the total volume of work necessary for completing a whole semester and/oryear.The contract:Before departing, students sign a two-part contract covering their own university and the host university. Thecontract notes the courses to be covered and their credit value under ECTS.Grading system:All education received at the host university is graded according to the rules of that university. Successful coursecompletion gives the right to earn a corresponding number of ECTS credits. Upon return, each student receives atranscript of marks for each of the following: specifying the course title, the duration and value in ECTS credits, thegrade obtained at the host university and its conversion to the ECTS grading system: A (excellent); B (very good); C(good); D (satisfactory); E (passable); FX (insufficient); F (failure). Systems of conversion exist for the majority ofcountries in the Community.Entering studentsOrganisation of academic year at Paris 5The application dead line is 30th.Teaching is organised on the basis of yearly programme. The programme is divided into teaching units ormodules.The year (including exams) lasts by the 1st of October till late June.Arrival of students. Welcome and formalities:It is advised that students arrive in Paris at least two weeks before the start of the academic year.Students must complete certain administrative formalities and register for the program of study they wish topursue.Upon arrival, students must go to the secretary’s office to complete all necessary formalities: obtain a studentcard, enrol for instruction., etc.Aid with housing Students at ERASMUS can benefit from financial aid for lodging with the amount dependent onthe cost of rent.Aid can only be given if the student has a rental agreement in his or her name.Moreover, aid is only given if the student possesses a ‘carte de séjour’ (or ‘card permitting stay’ in France.)Methods of evaluationWritten exams: At the end of each module exams take place. The duration of each test is mainly one hour and sometimes three hours. They must be written in French. The use of a foreign language or French language dictionary is authorised for ERASMUS students (for most exams). - Students involved in electives must write a research report. - Clinical assessment is mainly formative. Competence is evaluated
  • 12. 9 The ECTS grading scale ECTS grade Grade out of 20 Grade out of 30 Grade out of 40 Definition A 16 or more 24 or more 32 or more EXCELLENT : outstanding performance with only minor errors B 14-15 21-23 28-31 VERY GOOD : above average but with some errors C 12-13 18-20 24-27 GOOD : generally sound work with a number of notable errors D 11 16-17 21- 23 SATISFACTORY : fair but with significant shortcomings E 10 15 20 SUFFICIENT : performance meets the minimum criteria FX 8-9 12-14 16-19 FAIL : some more work required before the credit can be awarded F 7 or less 11 or less 15 or less FAIL : considerable further work is requiredDescription of the dental curriculum according to the ECTS format.To understand how the credit value was calculated In France the academic year lasts 30 weeks, including examinations and clinical work. According to the EUdirectorate for education recommendation, the mean time devoted to studies is included between 35 to 40 weeks. Consequently, the course credit value is 50 hours per week. Therefore, the total number of hours in theacademic year is 50 hours a week × 30 weeks = 1500 hours, which is the total number of hours the student mustwork in order to complete a full year of academic study at the School, including lectures, lab work, seminars,tutorials, fieldwork, private study, in the library or at home, and examinations or other assessment activities. As the total number of credits for a year in Europe is 60, the value of one credit is: Number of student working hours per year 1500 = 25 60 60 Therefore the number of credits awarded for one course unit is the ratio between the number of hours of thecourse unit over 25. For example, 100 hours of student work represent a 4 credits course. The figures were voted in by the board of the School and approved by the Paris-5 University council. This calculation was put into place to help exchange programme students and to make it easier for theSchool staff that plans the exchange programmes. Students can choose topics of interest in such a way as to achieve20 credits during 3 months, i.e., 500 hours of work.
  • 13. 10 P2 (2nd Year) expressed in ECTS credits.Prerequisite: The first year of medical studies should be successfully completed.Each module is displayed according to the French legal recommendation.Module 1 Module 2Oral ecosystem 6 credits ECTS Cariology 5 credits ECTS Periodontology 4 credits ECTS Immunity – Inflammation 3credits ECTS Organisation of the immune system Cells and molecules of Inflammation Hemostasis SynthesisModule 3 Module 4Dental Materials 2 credits ECTS General Anatomy 3 credits ECTSStructure and features of dental materials and physiologyAnatomy and Physiology 10 credits ECTS Oral SemiologyGross anatomy and Dental Anatomy General Anatomy and physiologyPhysiology Development and Growth 3 credits ECTSOcclusion EmbryologyRestorative Dentistry 5 credits ECTS Radiology-imagery 4 credits ECTS biophysicsOptional 7 credits ECTS Pre-clinical training 5 credits ECTSResuscitation English 3 credits ECTSTotal of the year: 60 credits The number of hours corresponding to the module is calculated as followed: 25 hours × number of credits. TheP2 programme includes 694 hours of lectures, workshops, labs, pre-clinical training and examinations.The time dedicated to personal study is 806 hours. During this year the students are introduced to basic sciences and techniques with respect to dental practice. Thebasic scientific knowledge acquired during the first year of medical studies is emphasised.
  • 14. 11 2nd year of 1st cycle (2nd dental year) programme expressed in contact hours student/teacher. Modules Heads L&S Tut.. Lab.. EX. Dur.ExModule 1 (66 h)Oral ecosystem H. Chardin 28 h 35 h 1 3hModule 2 (87 h)Cariology F. Toumelin 20h 12 h 1 1h 30Periodontologiy M. Dridi 8h 1 1hImmunity-Inflammation H. Chardin 22 h 6h 15 h 1 1 h 30Organisation of the immune system 12 h 15 hCells and molecules of Iinflammation 5h 3hHémostasis 5hSynthesis 3hModule 3 (256 h)Dental Materials M. Sadoun 16h 3h 1 1hStructure and features of dental materialsAnatomy and Physiology M. Cherruau 71 h 47 h 30 1 4hAnatomy =PhysiologyOcclusodontologyDental Anatomy J.-L.. CharrierRestorative Dentistry P. Tramba 14 h 82 h 30 1 1hModule 4 (91 h)General Anatomy and physiology L. Maman 36 h 1 2hOral Semiology 8hGeneral Anatomy and physiology 28 hDéveloppement et croissance T. Davit-Béal 12 h 7 h 30 1 1h30EmbryologyRadiology-imagery-biophysics Y. Pellerin 21 h 1 h 30 7 h 30 1 2hEnglish L. Einsenberger 60 h 1Options D.. Guez 75 hResuscitationsResuscitation 75 h In bold fonts, the total student/teacher contact hours number per module. In plain text, the student/teacher contact hours number per discipline included in the module. To express the contact time in ECTS credits, it is needed to divide it per 25.
  • 15. 12 D1 (3rd Year) expressed in ECTS credits.Prerequisite: The D2 programme should be successfully completed.Module 1 Module 2Public health 3 credits ECTS Infection inflammation 4 credits ECTSDevelopment and growth 4 credits ECTS and painOrthodontics Infection/inflammation /painEmbryology PharmacologyPediatric dentistry Anesthesiology Pathology and surgery 3 credits ECTS General pathology Pathology and oral surgery Periodontology 4 credits ECTSModule 3 Module 4Conservative dentistry 5 credits ECTS Manducatory apparatus 5 credits ECTSEndodontics anatomophysiologyDental materials 4 credits ECTS OcclusionFixed prosthodontics 4 credits ECTS Descriptive anatomy Full removable prosthodontics 4 credits ECTS Partial removable 4 credits ECTS prosthodonticsOptional 5 credits ECTS Pre-clinical training 3 credits ECTSOral Ecosystem Outreach hospitals 3 credits ECTSCulture of science in clinical dentistry English 3 credits ECTSTechnical issues in Prosthodontics Legal regulation 2 credits ECTSDentistry in the Army for X-ray protectionElectivesLiterature searching strategy, ITCSports The D1 programme includes 746 hours 30 minutes of lectures, workshops, labs, pre-clinical training and examinations. The time dedicated to personal study is 678 hours 30 minutes. The goal during this year is to integrate basic sciences into clinical sciences. The teaching methods are lectures,tutorials and laboratory.
  • 16. 131st year of 2nd cycle (3rd dental year) programme expressed in contact hoursstudent/teacher.Third year D1 Nb Modules Heads L&S Tut. Lab. Dur Ex ExamModule 1 (32 h 30)Public health J.-C. Tavernier 9h 1 1hDevelopment and growth E. Dhumeaux 21 h 1 1h30Orthodontics 13Embryology 5Paediatric dentistry 3 5hModule 2 (124 h)Infection/inflammation and pain O. Le May 26 h 12 h 1 2hInfection/inflammation /pain 14Pharmacology 7Anesthesiology 5Pathology and oral surgery A. Wierzba 33 h 3h 20 h 1 2hGeneral pathology 20 12Pathology and oral surgery 15 8Periodontology D.. Guez 10 h 15 h 1 1hModule 3 (209 h 30)Endodontics/Conservative dentistry J.-J. Lasfargues 25 h 9h 70 h 1 2hConservative dentistry 10 4 h 30 37 h 30Endodontics 15 4 h 30 47 h 30Dental materials J.-P. Attal 12 h 3h 12 h 30 1 1hFixed prosthodontics L. Pierrisnard 16 h 40 h 1 1hModule 4 (161 h 30)Manducatory apparatus B. Fleiter 23 h 4 h 30 15 h 1 2hanatomophysiologyOcclusodontology 11 6hDescriptive anatomy 12 4 h 30Full removable prosthodontics M. Postaire 18 h 40 h 1 1hPartial removable prosthodontics D Buch 17 h 40 h 1 1hOptional D. Guez 75 hOral EcosystemInformaticsCulture of science in clinical dentistryDentistry in the ArmyElectivesTechnical issues in ProsthodonticsSportsEnglish L. Eisenberger 60 hPre-clinical training M. Attal 75 hOutreach medical hospitals 75 hLegal regulation of use of Xray M. Tavernier 13 h 7 h 30 5h 1 h 30
  • 17. 14 D2 (4th Year) expressed in ECTS credits.Prerequisite: The D1 programme should be successfully completed.Module 1 Module 2Dental materials 1 credits ECTS TMJ disorders (1) 2 credits ECTSCommunity dentistry 2 credits ECTS Full removable prosthodontics 2 credits ECTSPublic health Partial removable 2 credits ECTSEpidemiology prosthodonticsPaediatric dentistry 2 credits ECTS Practioner/patient relationship 1 credits ECTSConservative dentistry 2 credits ECTSEndodonticsModule 3 Module 4Oral cyto-histo-pathology 2 credits ECTS Orthodontics 3 credits ECTSMedical pathology 2 credits ECTS Fixed prosthodontics 2 credits ECTSand odontology Public health 2 credits ECTSRelationship between (preventive strategies)medicine and odontologyMedical pathologyOral pathology and surgery 3 credits ECTSOral surgeryOral pathologyOral dermatologyDrugs administrationPeriodontology 3 credits ECTSOptional Programmes 4 credits ECTS Clinical training 21 credits ECTSEnglish Clerkship in anaesthesia 4 credits ECTSApproach on community oral health emergency and resuscitationIntroduction to research in odontologyNutritionElectivesSports The D2 programme includes 1069 hours 30 minutes of lectures, workshops, labs, clinical work and examinations.The time dedicated to personal study is 430 hours 30 minutes. The students are mainly involved in the dental clinics, where learning is patient-oriented comprehensive care in acommunity perspective. The clinical training focuses on biological, psychological and cultural aspects.
  • 18. 152nd year of 2nd cycle (4th dental year) programme expressed in contact hoursstudent/teacher.Fourth Year D2 Nb Dur Modules Heads L&S Tut. Lab. Exam ExamModule 1 (109 h 30)Dental materials M. Sadoun 7h 4 h 30 5h 1 1hCommunity dentistry M. Tavernier 20 h 7 h 30 1 1hPublic health 10 h 4 h 30Épidemiology 10 h 3hPaediatric dentistry Mme Wolikow 16 h 12 h 30 5h 1 1hEndodontics/conservative dentistry M. Bonte 18 h 10 h 1 1hModule 2 (124 h 30)TMJ disorders (1) M. Fleiter 12 h 12 h 30 1 1hFull removable prosthodontics M. Rignon-Bret 15 h 30 h 1 1hPartial removable prosthodontics M. Begin 10 h 25 h 1 1hPractioner/patient relationship Mme Benhamed 7h 9h 1 1hModule 3 (134 h 30)Oral cyto-histo-pathology Mme. Séguier 14 h 9h 1 1hMedical pathology and odontology Mme Poidatz 34 h 7 h 30 1 1hMedicine and odontology 6 7 h 30Medical pathology 29Oral pathology and surgery M. Lesclous 30 h 10 h 1 2hOral surgery 7Oral pathology 7Oral Dermatology 6Drugs administration 10Periodontology Mme Colombier 10 h 15 h 1 1hModule 4 (106 h )Orthodontics M. Vermelin 16 h 20 h 1 1hFixed prosthodontics M. Pierrisnard 12 h 32 h 30 1 1hPublic health (Preventive strategies) M Tavernier 18 h 4 h 30 1 1hTOTAL 217 h 79 h 30 152 h 30 15 16 hOptional Programmes M. Guez 75 hEnglishApproach on community oral healthIntroduction to research in odontologyNutritionElectivesSportsClinical training 450 hClerkship in anaesthesia emergencyand resuscitation 70 h
  • 19. 16 D3 (5th Year) expressed in ECTS credits.Prerequisite: The D2 programme should be successfully completed.Module 1 Module 2Geriatric dentistry 3 credit ECTS Periodontology 3 credits ECTSOral pathology and surgery 3 credits ECTS Fixed prosthodontics 1 credit ECTSOral pathology Dental materials 2 credits ECTSGeneral and surgical pathologyOral oncologyOral dermatologyAnaesthesiology and resuscitationPharmacology 3 credit ECTSModule 3 Module 4Paediatric dentistry 3 credits ECTS Implants 2 credits ECTSOrthodontics 2 credits ECTS Full removable prosthodontics 1 credit ECTS Maxillo-facial prosthodontics 1 credit ECTS TMJ disorders (2) 3 credit ECTS Edentulous patients 3 credit ECTSOptional Programme 4 credits ECTS Anatomy 4 credits ECTSHolistic approach of the patient: Decision-making and Comprehensive Care 3 credits ECTSTherapyJudicial and physical anthropologySports, odontologyElectivesInternship introductionGlobal treatment of periodontal diseasesSportsClinical Training 19 credits ECTS The D3 programme includes 868 hours of lectures, workshops, labs, clinical work and examinations.The time dedicated to personal study is 632 hours. The traditional structure of the curriculum could affect the foreign students participating in exchangeprogrammes. Some countries have implemented non-compartmentalized programmes. Conversely, clinical training is very important. Some dental clinics allow specialized training such asperiodontology, implants, and orthodontics. The students who wish to develop skills within these topics are asked todiscuss their preferences with the local ECTS coordinator.
  • 20. 173rd year of 2nd cycle (5th dental year) programme expressed in contact hoursstudent/teacher.Fifth Year D3 Dur Modules Heads L&S Tut. Lab Nb Exam ExamModule 1 (64 h 30)Geriatric dentistry J.-C. Tavernier 8h 1 1hOral pathology and surgery L. Maman 37 h 5h 1 2h30Oral pathology 10 hGeneral and surgical pathology 10 hOral oncology 6hOral Dermatology 5hAnesthesiology and resuscitation 6hPharmacology C.-D. Arreto 10 h 1 1hModule 2 (56 h 30)Periodontology M. Danan 12 h 21 h 1 1hFixed prosthodontics L. Pierrisnard 10 h 1 1hDental materials M. Degrange 7 h 30 3h 1 1hModule 3 (74 h)Pediatric dentistry F Courson 20 h 15 h 1 1hOrthodontics E Dhumeaux 17 h 20 h 1 1hModule 4 (76 h 30)Implants G. Girot 20 h 12 h 30 1 1hFull removable prosthodontics C. Rignon-Bret 15 h 1 1hMaxillo-facial prosthodontics N. Eid 15 h 1 1hTMJ disorders (2) B. Fleiter 10 h 30 1 1hEdentulous patients D. Buch 10 h 15 hAnatomy J.-L. Charrier 8h 20 hOptional Programmes D. Guez 75 hJudicial and physical anthropologyITSports, odontologyInternship introductionElectivesSportsSurgery of the periodontal pocket andprosthodonticsComprehensive Care P. Tramba 8h 9h 2 h 30Clinical Training 450 hPreparation for Professional practice 100 h
  • 21. 18 1st year of 3rd cycle, Sixth Year T1 expressed in ECTS credits.Prerequisite: The D3 programme should be successfully completed.SEMINARS Heads WorkshopsProfessional practice: 60H M. Folliguet 4 credits ECTS 1- Introduction to Public Health 2-Computers in dental practice 3- Professional risks 4- Ergonomy in Dental Practice 5- Professional integration and finance 6- Forensic dentistry 7- Responsability- Ethics -Bioethics 8- Vocational training: laws, management, social-regulations ReviewMultidisciplinary module: 50H N.Eid 3 Credits ECTS 1- Aesthetics in dentistry 2- Dental traumatology 3- Treatment on patient with severe periodontal disease 4- Treatment on patient with unitary missing tooth 5- Retreatment ; patient needs evaluation 6- Disabled patients cares 7-Partial edentulous patient : Therapy strategy (small versus extended missing teeth). 8- Potentialy full edentulous patients care (strategy and treatment plan). 9- Vocational training, introduction Cases selection ; Cases presentationAdvanced dentistry: <90H D. Guez 25 credits ECTS Options- Advanced programme : deontology, ethics, health regulation regarding thedental practice in dentistry- Introduction to Orthodontics as specialisation : Imaging, anatomy andcranio-facial radiographic sémiology- Introduction of the dental delivery care system in the army- Paediatric dentistry : Special needs of preschool children- Dentistry - archaeology and forensic dentistry- Introduction to the selective assessment to apply for Orthodontics asspecialisation- Prosthetic Technology- Peer education of the novice students- Early diagnosis of the oral cancers with regard to the dental practice- Thesis preparation- ElectivesCllinical training (350 h) 16 credits ECTS(mostly community oriented)Outreach general hospitals clerckship (100 h) 4 credits ECTSVocational training (200 h) 8 credits ECTSThe T1 programme includes 850 hours of seminars, workshops, clinical work, vocational training and evaluation.Thetime dedicated to personal study is 650 hours.Stress is focused on orienting future graduates towards general dental practice. Some students are introduced to specificaspects of the dental practice or to the specialization for which they express a preference. Students deal with patientswith special needs, such as the elderly, prophylaxis, non-profit organisations, etc.The greater part of the students schedule is dedicated to their final theses.This type of programme might interest Europeans students wishing to practice in France because they receive anintroduction to the legal professional regulations of our country.
  • 22. 19FacilitiesClinical Facilities The Centre for Dental Treatment, Teaching and Research is divided up into four dental clinics. Three of them arelocated in three different hospitals, which are themselves located in the outskirts of Paris. Only one is located withinParis itself. The Dental School and the Dental Centre have the same mission, which is to teach theoretical and clinicalknowledge to dental students and promoting research. Nevertheless, the Dental Centre and Dental School aremanaged entirely separately and each of them belongs to a different organisation: The Dental School is part of Paris-5 University and it is funded by the Ministry of Education. The dental clinics are part of the Teaching Hospital and they are funded by the Ministry of Public Health.The two treatment missions These are the educational and hospital commitments of the Dental Centre. The dental polyclinic (educational mission) The patients are treated by 4th, 5th, and 6th year students, who are supervised by a teaching staff, which isultimately responsible for the work undertaken. The polyclinic welcomes a large number of patients who all havevarying needs. Some request only emergency treatment, others wish to receive full treatment at the Dental Centre.The receptionists send the patients either to the emergency dental clinic or to the patient referral dental clinic. The patient referral dental clinic This dental clinic is by appointment only and holds two or three daily 3-hour sessions, Monday through Friday,and one session on Saturday. One instructor and three students run the dental clinic. The aims of this first consultation are: - Overall patient assessment and identification of patients at risk - Dental assessment - Determining patient needs and requests - Referral of the patient to the student polyclinic, the house officers or the consultant dental clinics. Emergency dental clinic This clinic is open every day from 10 to 12 a.m. and from 3 to 5 p.m., Monday through Friday. The dental clinicis run by one instructor and three students or intern students, who undertake examinations, diagnoses and pain relieffor each patient. Treatment sessions Over the last few years, the Dental Centre has tried to establish a multidisciplinary approach, in order to trainstudents for general practice. In practical terms this means that: 1. The main field of expertise is defined at the patient referral dental clinic, on the basis of the patients maintreatment need. This field of expertise is then responsible for the treatment plan and it has overall responsibility forthe patient. The main field of expertise is usually Conservative Dentistry, Prosthetics or Periodontology. 2. The polyclinic is multidisciplinary, except Orthodontics that has six distinct chairs, and Oral Surgery andPeriodontology that have two. Each student always uses the same dental chair, regardless of the type of treatment tobe given. Professors from each of the three main fields of expertise often supervise the clinical sessionssimultaneously. This makes it possible for the student, the patient and teachers from each of the fields of expertise to agree, thushelping the student to understand the concept of a global treatment plan. Student attendance at the Dental Centrevaries according to the curriculum over the second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth years.
  • 23. 20 Consultant dental clinics (Hospital mission) Patients referred to the Dental Centre by general dental practitioners; general medical practitioners or hospitaldepartments are treated in the consultant dental clinics by the hospital dental staff. This department takes difficultcases (in orthodontics, prosthetics, implantology, oral surgery, etc.) or patients who are having trouble finding propercare in general practice (special needs patients, preparation for heart surgery, preventive dentistry, testing for patientsat risk of dental caries, etc.). Dental staff runs these four dental clinics. Dental Clinics Pedodontics Pr. Wolikow Dr Courson Dr. Landru Dr. Vanderzwalm Orthodontics Pr. Lautrou Dr. Decker Dr. Dunglas Dr. Vermelin Periodontology Pr. Saffar Dr. Bigot Dr. Colombier Dr. Dridi Oral Surgery, Oral Pathology Pr. Poidatz Dr. Maman Dr. Hadida Dr. Eijel Orofacial Pain Dr. Fleiter Endodontics & Conservative Pr. Lasfargues Dentistry Pr. Degrange Pr. Lévy Dr. Toumelin Special Needs Dr Nabet Prosthodontics Dr. Pierrisnard Pr. Rignon-Bret Dr. Postaire Dr. Dot Implantology Dr. Girot Dr. Tramba Preventive Dentistry Dr. Folliguet Dr. Tavernier TMJ Clinic Dr. Fleiter
  • 24. 21Patient management within the Dental Clinic Reception and orientation of patient: see above. Cross infection control Quality and cross infection control are constantly reviewed. Cross infection control is ensured by the followingrules: - The patient file holds a full medical history that highlights any potential infection risk. - The cross infection control rules are enforced in the clinical work: • Instruments are supplied in sterile packets according to the treatment to be performed. Fourth-year students help with decontamination, conditioning and sterilisation of instruments (each student has a 2- hour weekly session). A list of the instruments contained in each type of tray is included in the clinical manual given to each student. • There are protocols for prevention of cross infection that are enforced during treatment sessions. The students receive theoretical and practical training in these protocols during the first term of the third year, just before they start their clinical work. Patient satisfaction A survey of patient satisfaction was undertaken in 2000.Management of the Dental Centre Receipts Centralised documentation All patients are registered in the main hospital database. All payments for items or consultations are entered in the database of overall hospital activity. Internal documentation The patient file for the polyclinic includes the treatment plan, the treatment already performed, the student andthe instructor who is responsible for the patient. The patient file for the unit of implantology includes a description of the treatment performed, the treatmentsessions dates and the schedule for future treatment and reviews. The patient file also contains all documents associated with the prosthetics unit including order forms, receiptsand payment agreements for each laboratory procedure. Audit of activities The analysis and management unit provides an annual overview of the activities in each field of expertise and inthe consultant dental clinics.Teaching FacilitiesGeneral explanation The teaching facilities are located in the main academic building at Montrouge. The building has the followingamenities: 1 lecture hall (400 seats) with video equipment 2 lecture rooms (300 seats each) 1 lecture room (100 seats) with video equipment 9 seminar rooms (from 19 to 30 seats) Each of the School’s locations is connected to the worldwide web.Teaching Laboratories The School of Odontology has access to student and specialist laboratories for use in Anatomy, Immunology,Dental materials. In addition the School has: 5 teaching laboratories with 18 to 20 seats shared facilities for Prosthodontics, Conservative Dentistry,Endodontics and Orthodontics. 2 teaching laboratories with 19 seats with dummy heads, shared facilities for
  • 25. 22Prosthodontics, Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics. CAL equipment in the laboratory is dedicated toprosthodontics.Research Laboratories The Odontology Department includes a laboratory that is currently approved by the Ministry of NationalEducation: the Biology and Cranio-Facial Physiopathology Laboratory no. EA 2496. The Biology and Cranio-Facial Physiopathology Laboratory (Head: Professor J.-L. Saffar), is composed of threegroups: 1-Extra-Cellular Matrices and Biomineralisations (Professor M. Goldberg), 2-Physio-pathology of Non-Mineralised Tissues (Professor G. Godeau), 3-Bone Physiopathology (Professor J.-L. Saffar). The laboratory deliversmasters degrees and PhD in Oral and Osteo-Articular Biology, Biomaterials and with the Doctorate Schools:Genetics, Immunology, Infectiology, Development (G2ID) of the Paris Descartes University (an approval requestwith the Paris Descartes University is currently pending). The laboratory also receives students from other doctoralprogrammes. This brings in an invigorating input from students and doctoral candidates under the direction of 9research supervisors (who are called "HDRs" i.e. allowed to conduct research project). Thanks to a controlleddistribution of the students and the teachers who work with them, and to a dynamic publication policy, this entitywas approved as a Doctoral Training Programme. For the past two years, all three groups have worked on defining areas of research covering two types of themes:1- Developmental Biology and Physiopathology of Dental and Periodontal Tissues (tooth, gingiva and periodontalligament, bone). In this respect, the study of metalloproteases is an area of common interest that has increasedsubstantially in all three groups. 2- Regeneration and Therapeutics. Here again, cellular engineering and thebiological effects of molecules in the extra-cellular matrix combine in a common focus towards regeneration (boneand periodontal regeneration) and pulpal healing. The laboratory also stresses research and development oftherapeutic innovations. A few years ago, three laboratories were merged into a single entity subdivided into groups working withcommon purposes. Each team has developed a number of efficient techniques, which have earned them widespread recognition.They include methods for structural and biochemical analysis of the extra-cellular matrix, as well as for identificationof enzymes groups involved in its regulation. This had led to much co-operation with outside organisations, both at anational level with other university laboratories, INSERM and CNRS units, and at an international level (Europe andthe US). Relations and co-operation with industrial entities need to be strengthened, but they are already in effect. The Laboratory for the Study of dental materials (Head: Professor M. Degrange) had been merged with a similarentity of the Odontology Department of the Paris-7 University in order to achieve a critical mass more favourable tothe acquisition of an official status. Over the past few years, this laboratorys two research supervisors have trainedand supervised a number of D.E.A. students and doctoral candidates. Publications have increased over the years. Thelaboratory mainly focuses on the adhesion of biomaterials to dental structures. A large part of the laboratorysactivities is the evaluation of innovative biomaterials. Metals and ceramics have also been studied. This laboratoryhas now become a key link for dental product manufacturers and practitioners. There are several other University Laboratories within the School. They do not benefit from the Ministrysapproval, due to the lack of a policy to support publications and students in master or doctoral curricula. If some ofthese laboratories were grouped together, they could form more consistent entities.
  • 26. 23Department of Information Technology This unit was created in 1992 to complement the teaching departments and it has grown in several areasincluding introductory training, postgraduate training and communications.Aims and objectives Undergraduate courses: - Introduction to computer studies in year P2. - Optional modules for additional training on two levels for years P2 and D1. - Self training. - Communications via the Internet and the Intranet. - Disposition of computer-assisted publishing (PAO and pre-AO), tables and statistics packages (for doctoral students). - Virtual classroom - Literature research strategies. For teachers: - Possibility of using hardware and software. - Production of slides. - Introductory training. - Technical assistance. - Possibility of using the Internet and the Intranet. For professionals: - Communication with other dentists via the web. - Postgraduate training on-site or remote.Methods of assessment Assessment is included within the tasks given by instructor to the students.LibraryStaffQualified team including three permanent employees and one temporary employee (trainee) Valérie Grignoux Marie Thérèse Vittonati Christine Funaro Philippe Ehrhardt Norbert Guidasci The Odontology Department library is part of the Joint Documentation Department of the Paris-5 University(René Descartes). It is available to students and teachers/research scientists of the dental surgery school.Library collection- Statistics (as of June 30, 2000)- books: 10,500 volumes including 6,500 recent volumes (less than 10 years old)- theses: 15,500- periodicals: 278 titles including 194 current (8 full-text electronic periodicals)- vidéo tapes: 401- electronic documents: 35 CD-ROMs- Specific features of the collection- Very specialised documentation, primarily focused on dentistry, for purposes of clinical work and research.- The documentation policy is in keeping with the schools main curriculum of initial education and continuingeducation.- 1st and cycles: French language textbooks (on average 10 to 15 copies of each, often more);- Continuing education: focus on the video library: substantial number of videocassettes considering the primarilyvisual aspect of the profession.
  • 27. 24Library activities- Readers- Members: 1,500, including approximately 250 members from other schools and practitioners in continuingeducation, and a relatively high number of practitioners and students from Maghreb and Africa.- Library services- 1 – Document consultation- 2 – Loans: 13,000 loans in 1999- 3 – Inter-library loans: any documents that the library does not possess can be borrowed from other libraries. In fact, since the librarys collection is quite substantial, it tends to loan more than it borrows.- 4 – Photocopy services- 5 – Continuing education- 6 – Access to medical and scientific databases- 7 – Access to the video library- 8 – Access to the Internet Amongst the resources available on the Internet, many medical websites are worth mentioning: the WashingtonNational Medical Library, with free access to Medline, the INSERM, websites dealing with oncology, AIDS anddrugs, the Vidal publications, and access to the University of Montreal (continuing education in the area ofmedicine), to the Rouen Public University Hospital (catalogue and index of medical web sites), etc., several dentistryand other publications by many foreign universities and associations: ADF, FDI, the European Academy of AestheticDentistry, for instance, and a large number of websites covering the various clinical areas of odontology, and thecatalogues of French and foreign publishers specialised in odontology, and access to the services offered by majorFrench libraries, including the national library (Bibliothèque Nationale de France). We also offer free access to the major medical databases, including INIST (formerly CNRS), Medline, thenational database on dentistry and medical theses, and practical advice concerning the instructions given to authors,bibliography presentation methods, and an access to FORMIST: information retrieval training for universitymembers. All services are free of charge, except photocopies. - 9 – Many gifts are made in favour of French-speaking Africa, and co-operation is organised with foreigncountries. Computerised management of the library The library has a Library Computer Management System (ALEPH), which operates via a network and can beused to manage loans, inventory lists, documents and periodicals acquisitions, and professional research. The library also contributes to the OCLC notices pool: notice creation and derivation.
  • 28. 25Administration and organisationClinical/academic organisational structures for school and hospitalOrganisational structures for school DEPARTMENTS Paediatric Dentistry Prof. Maryse Wolikow Dean Orthodontics Prof. Gérard Lévy Prof. Alain Lautrou Epidemiology, Prevention Dr. Jean-Claude Tavernier Periodontology Claude Bigot Vice Deans Oral Surgery, Oral Pathology Prof. Danièle Buch Dr. Louis Maman Dr. Charles Daniel Aretto Dr. Louis Maman Biological Sciences Prof. Michel Degrange Prof. Anne Poliard Conservative Dentistry, Endodontics Prof. Jean-Jacques Lasfargues Prosthodontics Dr. Marcel Begin Dr. Laurent Pierrisnard Dr. Michel Postaire Anatomical Sciences, Physiology Dr. Marc Cherruau Dental Materials Dr. Jean-Pierre Attal Computer Sciences Dr. Daniel Dot English Mrs Pascale Einsenberger
  • 29. 26Involvement in other University Activities Students are encouraged to be actively involved in student affairs and University societies. Students have also taken part in the Erasmus/Socrates programmes with, Sweden, Finland, UK, Italy, Spain andPortugal. Teachers were part of staff in Sweden, Québec, Ivory Coast, Leban, Marocco and Mexico. Research programmeswere exchanged with USA, UK, Canada and Norway.Recreation and Sport The school considers it important that students have opportunities to spend time, outside of study periods, onother activities. Depending on the availability of students, the Dental School has had excellent teams in sports such as rugby orfootball. The level of intensity of the dental course however is a significant disadvantage in this respect. Elective courses of non dental subjects have been implemented outside the Faculty (Elective course of sport forexample). A society called “ CEOP 5 ” (“ Dental Students Association ”) is managed by our students. The primary aims ofthis association are : - To put the new student (P2) under the protection of an older one (D1). This leads to a better Facultyintegration of the newcomers - to buy dental instruments for students at the cheapest price - to organise parties or athletic week-ends where students and teachers can meet each otherStudent Selection Procedures In France, the first year of the dental undergraduate curriculum, known as P1, is common to the medicalcurriculum, and taught at the Faculty of Medicine. At the end of P1, students are selected by procedures establishedby the government. Each year, the Department of Higher Education and Research set to each Faculty of medicineand dentistry a clearly defined number of students who are allowed to pursue their medical or dental studies. The examination is very competitive. Over 4000 applicants for P1, 400 medical and 80 dental students areadmitted to carry on their studies.Basic Data from Dental School Average number of dental students qualifying per year: 100 Average number of dental students admitted to the first year: 100 Length of course in years: 6 years Is there a separate period of vocational training following graduation as a dentist in your country ? No, but there is a period of vocational training during D3, half a day per week, during the whole year. During this period, students have no dental practice, they are only observers. The aim of this period is to learn how a dentist manages his office.

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