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  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No.Introduction - - - - - - - - - - 3Curriculum 1.0 Basic Science Courses - - - - - - 4 2.0 Biodental Courses - - - - - - - 7 3.0 General Core courses - - - - - - - 12Course Syllabus & Curriculum & Clinical Requirements • Certificate in Advanced Restorative Dentistry Program - - - 16Tentative Time Table • Certificate in Advanced Restorative Dentistry Program - - - 21 2  
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION The Postgraduate Dental Program being offered by Riyadh College of Dentistry andPharmacy is new and it combines a Master of Science in Dentistry (MSD) which approved bythe Ministry of Higher Education and a clinical competency certificate in a different dentalspecialties wherein a 50 percentage minimum clinical requirements match the SaudiSpecialty Certificate programs (7 programs) offered by Saudi Commission for HealthSpecialties. The program as a postgraduate education is designed congruent to the requirement ofMinistry of Higher Education but give more emphasis on the clinical matters according to theSaudi Council for Health Specialties requirements. This program is three-year full-time post-baccalaureate professional degree. In addition, students should develop specific competenciesin clinical that are translational among the basic, applied and clinical settings. The entire semesters of the program will be mixed with didactic coursework and willdevote to clinical rotations that provide students with the opportunity to apply knowledgeacquired in the classroom to the practice of dentistry in a variety of patient care settings. The program is based in Riyadh College of Dentistry and Pharmacy and is managedby a competent interdisciplinary team of graduate faculty comprising health educators,clinicians, basic science teachers and researchers. Graduate faculty supervisors will assist and guide graduate students to achieve theirclinical professional growth during the course of the program. They will also advise thestudents in the selection of their research proposals which normally should culminate in aThesis preparation and defense. The Director of Postgraduate studies through the postgraduate committee at RiyadhCollege of Dentistry and Pharmacy is responsible for the overall management of the program. 3  
  4. 4. Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry & Pharmacy Postgraduate Dental Studies CURRICULUM The curriculum of each dental specialty has the following components: • Basic Sciences • Biodental Sciences • General Courses • Specialty-specific courses and clinics • Research/ Thesis As currently designed, all the Programs offer where applicable, identical courses inthe basic sciences, the biodental sciences, and the general studies courses.1.0 BASIC SCIENCE COURSES1.01 Cell Biology The course reviews how cells are organized and how they accomplish their activities and functions within the framework of their structure and regulatory mechanisms. Topics covered, and with the salient and relevant details revealed by molecular biology, include cellular energy transformation, cellular packaging, microtubules, microfilaments and other cell constituents. Role of cell biology in clinical dental practice will be emphasized. Cell Biology Topics include: • Cellular organization – Eukaryotes; Prokaryotes • Chemistry of the cell: Organic molecules • Metabolism of the cell: Energy and enzymes • Cellular membranes: Dynamic barriers • Cell cycle • Cellular energy transformations • Endoplasmic reticulum and its derivatives • Microtubules and microfilaments • Basic cell signaling pathways • Cell homeostasis • Cell Biology in health sciences 4  
  5. 5. 1.02 Genetics The course reviews the mechanisms of cell continuity from one generation to another with up-to-date explanation of how genetic machinery directs and regulates the expression of cell structure and function. The relevance of genetics in clinical dental practice will also be discussed. Topics in Genetics include: • Development of genetics • The molecular basis of inheritance • Biochemical genetics • Chromosomes and chromosomal abnormalities • Cellular Reproduction • Developmental Genetics • Radiation and human heredity • Common diseases and genetic factors • Genetic counseling • Application of molecular genetics in health sciences1.03 Anatomy & Physiology In this course, the functions of the human body from the perspective of the essential anatomical and physiological principles are reviewed. Specialization of functions, support and movements, control systems and maintenance of the human body will be taught. Although the course is general, there will be appropriate emphasis on Head and Neck anatomy and physiology. Topics in Anatomy and Physiology are: • Human body organization Chemical, cellular, tissue levels • The skin • The Skeletal System Bone; axial skeleton, Appendicular skeleton, Joints, Muscle • Nervous tissue • Spinal cord and Spinal nerves • Cardiovascular system • Lymphatic system (Head and Neck) • Osteology • Basic Neuroanatomy and Cranial nerves • Neck, Scalp, Muscles of facial expression • Temporal and infratemporal fossae • Muscles of mastication; Tongue • Pharynx, Larynx, Cervical fascia • Ear, Eye and Orbit 5  
  6. 6. 1.04 Applied Head and Neck Anatomy The course reviews important anatomical structures of the Head and Neck as they pertain to clinical dental practice at a superior level. Sufficient salient features of the head and neck region will be discussed in a way that is relevant to all dental specialties. Topics to be taught include: • Surface anatomy of head and neck • The skull and mandible • Scalp and face • Cranial cavity • Vertebral column • Temporal and Infratemporal zones • The orbit • Oral anatomy • Cravial nerves • Antero-lateral aspect of the neck • Pharynx, Larynx and the Trachea 6  
  7. 7. 2.0 BIODENTAL COURSES2.01 Oral Biology The topics selected reflect what postgraduate dental students should know in a little more details in oral biology. The contribution that molecular biology is significantly making to the understanding of modern biological sciences will be mentioned in sufficient details for a successful dental practice. Topics in Oral Biology: • Embryological origin of facial tissues • Facial prominences, related structures and their development • The role of neutral crest cells in facial development • Clinical consideration – facial and orofacial clefts, macrostomia, microstomia, dysostoses, other development anomalies, genetic and molecular aspects of the clinical considerations. Odontogenesis • Primary epithelial bud; dental lamina • Tooth development at different stages of bud, cap and bell • Epithelilal root sheath of Hertwig • Clinical considerations of the different development stages in odontogenesis • Molecular aspects of odontogenesis • Epithelium • Forms and characteristics of epithelial cells • Types of epithelia • Oral mucosa Connective Tissue • Types of connective tissue • Constituents, Matrix, cell, ground, substance, protein fiber • Histophysiology Bone as Specialized Connective Tissue • Types of bone • Bone cells, matrix • Bone metabolism • Histogenesis • Alveolar bone • Bone joints with particular reference to the temporomandibular joint Salivary Glands • Structures, functions and products of salivary gland • Classification of human salivary glands, major and minor glands • Composition and function of saliva • Clinical considerations 7  
  8. 8. 2.02 Craniofacial Development & Growth The course discusses the mechanisms that are involved in craniofacial development. The topics selected are relevant to all dental specialties in general but to pediatric dentistry and orthodontics clinical practice in particular. Taught topics include: Course topics • Development of the face and oral cavity palate and the nasal cavity. • Development and Growth of the skull and jaws • Craniofacial malformations commonly seen in maldevelopment of the cranio-orofacial structures • Development and growth of the teeth • Formation of hard dental tissues • Developmental anomalies of the teeth and dental hard tissues • Formation of tooth supporting tissues • Physiological and pathological mechanisms of tooth movement • Bone biology – formation resorption and metabolic turnover2.03 Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology The topics selected are sufficiently comprehensive for all the programs in the Saudi Dental Residency. The topics which review general pathology are guides to subject or areas that dental specialty residents should understand satisfactorily in order to be able to correctly relate abnormal morphology to disordered tissues and organ functions. The listed topics are of professional interest in General Pathology with those of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. Emphasis is given to Fundamental mechanisms of diseases. Course Topics: General Pathology Topics • Role of pathology • Definition, Symptoms and Signs • Health and Disease • Nature of Disease • Human Environment and Disease • Cell Homeostasis in Health and Disease • Tissue and Organ Homeostasis in Health and Disease • Inflammation; Wound Healing, Repair • Immunopathology • Disorders of Circulation and Blood cells • Neoplasia • Ageing, Notes on forensic Pathology Oral/ Maxillofacial Pathology Topics • Selected orofacial anomalies • Reactive Lesions of Oral Mucosa • Oral Precancer and Cancer • Update on Orofacial Cysts • Odontogenic Tumors update • Selected Bone Diseases • Salivary Gland Diseases 8  
  9. 9. • Topical Infectious Diseases (HBV, HIV/ AIDS)2.04 Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology This didactic course updates all Residents in Dental Specialty Programs on topics in radiography (image production) and radiology image (interpretation of images). Course Topics are: • Radiation physics and related topics to the making of radiographic image • Radiation protection • Radiography Traditional Specialized imaging modalities • Quality assurance • Radiation Legislation Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology II • Imaging and interpretation of dental caries • Interpreting Periodontal Disease • Inflammatory Disease of the Jaw Bones • Interpreting Cysts, Odontogenic tumors and allied lesions of the jaws • Benign and Malignant tumors • TMJ Disorders and Imaging • Trauma of the teeth and Jaws • Review of Digital radiography • Review of Advanced Imaging Modalities2.05 Oral Microbiology & Immunology The course reviews selected areas of general and oral microbiology with concentration in topics of significant relevance to clinical dental practice. Infection control in dental practice is prominent among the topics. Topics in immunology cover essential principles of immunology such that a dental clinician can relate many aspects of dental practice to principles of immunology where relevant. Course Topics: • Review bacteria structure, taxonomy, physiology and genetic • Pathogenesis of microbial disease • Viruses • Laboratory methods and diagnostic microbiology • Antimicrobial therapy principles • Microbes of relevance to clinical dental practice • Infections of relevance to dentistry • Oral microbiology overview • Cross infection control • Basic concepts and components of the immune system 9  
  10. 10. • Antigen Recognition • Immune physiology • Innate and Acquired immunity • Immune system in health and disease2.06 Applied Pharmacology in Dental Practice The course stresses the pharmacological basis for the selection and use of drugs as therapeutic agents in the management of diseases, conditions and situations seen in clinical dental practice. Drug interactions, adverse drug reactions and their management are also mentioned in the course. Course Topics: • Pharmacodynamics: Mechanisms of drug reaction • Pharmacodynamics: Absorption, distribution and fate of drugs • Pharmacotherapeutics: Clinical use of drugs • Pharmacogenetics and general mechanisms of drug interactions • Drug prescription in Dentistry • Analgesics in dentistry • Anesthetics (local and general) • Antimicrobial agents • Antifungal agents • Local antiviral drugs • Steroids use in clinical dentistry • Anticoagulants • Oral & Intravenous sedation in Dentistry • Mouthrinses2.07 Dental Biomaterials The course reviews the developments and updates in biomaterials in general and in dental biomaterials in particular. The course provides information on the structures of biomaterials and how the structures of biomaterials affect the behavior and properties of commonly used dental alloys. Course Topics: • General Properties and classes of Dental Materials • Overview of materials used in clinical dentistry • Biocompatibility and Biomechanics • Atomic building blocks • Structure of ceramics; metal and alloys, polymers • Mechanical, physical and chemical properties • Principles of adhesion • Tissue Engineering Clinical Dental Materials: • Dental amalgams • Resin composites • Glass-ionomer cements • Intermediate restorative materials • Enamel and Dentin bonding   10 
  11. 11. • Specialty-specific dental materials laboratory and related dental materials • Gypsum products, denture base resins • Casting alloys • Dental ceramics, metal-bonded ceramics • Luting agents • Stainless steel application in dentistry (dental implants etc.)   11 
  12. 12. 3.0 GENERAL CORE COURSES3.01 Biostatistics This course is presented in a subject-friendly format to dental residents. Most health professionals do not normally find applied biostatistics sufficiently ‘easy and friendly”. The course therefore lists topics that allow the trainee dental residents to know whether an appropriate statistical analysis, test or application has been used based on the ability to interpret published data correctly. Course Topics: • Analyzing clinical investigation and screening statistically Sensitivity Specificity Predictive values Level of agreement and Kappa values • Statistics which compare risk Risk ratio Odds ratio Risks reduction • Specific examples of statistics at work taken from Journal articles e.g. Saudi Dental Journal Standard deviation, confidence intervals chi-squared test: P values Correlation and regression Sensitivity Specificity Predictive values • Statistical Description of DATA Percentages Mean Median Standard Deviation • Testing Confidence by Statistics Confidence intervals P Values • Testing differences by Statistics Parametric tests including t-tests and non parametric tests including Mann-Whitney test, Chi-square test. • Statistical analysis of relationships Correlation Regression3.02 Research Methods & Scientific Writing This course or some similar to it has become a standard structured course in postgraduate health sciences training programs. The philosophy of “life-long” continuous education during the professional life of a health specialist correctly assumes that the specialist will not stop keeping up with research literature of the profession. The course should serve as an efficient way to sustain the scientific basis of a productive professional career.   12 
  13. 13. Topics in Research methods provide basic understanding of scientific research, its attributes, its main techniques as well as concepts and strategies for conducting dental research (indeed any health research). Topics in scientific writing have also become necessary to teach in graduate health programs since the goal of scientific research, whether expressly states or assumed, is publication. Writing and publishing scientific data is an act and is an attitude and therefore can be taught as a course. Course Topics: • History of scientific methods in health sciences • The Research models • Statistical methods in Research (without prejudice to the course on Biostatics) • Ethics in Research; Helsinki declaration • The Research Problem • Review of the Literature • Research Design • Methodology • Data Analysis • How to apply for Research Grants Scientific Writing • Definition of Scientific Writing • Origin of Scientific Writing • Preparing to write a scientific paper • Examples of scientific paper • Where and how to submit a scientific paper • Instructions to Authors: Uniform Requirements (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors – Vancouver System) • The IMRAD style of writing • Preparing the Title • Authorship • Writing the Abstract • How to write the Introduction • Materials and Methods section • Writing the Results • Discussion • Citation of References • Acknowledgement • The Saudi Dental Journal and other Saudi Arabian Health Journals3.03 Communication Skills and Teaching Methods The course reviews efficient and productive methods of communicating during history taking and/ or face-to-face discussion with patients. Other aspects of communication on how to promote healthy behavior and how to deal with cultural diversity among dental patients population are also discussed.   13 
  14. 14. Many Dental residents and dental practitioners do have the opportunity to teach, present scientific papers to professional and related bodies or organizations and participate in educational workshops, conferences and seminars. Therefore structured exposure to the strategy and tactics of teaching and learning should prove beneficial to dental residents in training as well as established dental practitioners. Course Topics: Communication Skills: • Basic Communication Skills • The dental history • Giving dental information • Handling sexual history when necessary • Communicating with culturally diverse population • Communicating with children and adolescents • Communicating with patients family • Mistakes, Complaints, iatrogenic injuries • Communicating with professional colleagues • Non verbal communication Education Methods: • Psychology of Learning Process • Principles of Teaching and Learning • Auditing, Measurements and Assessment in Teaching • Personalized System of Instruction • Computer Technology • Curriculum Development • Educational/ Instructional objectives • Ethics in Teaching and Learning3.04 Dental Practice Management The management of a dental practice continues to change dramatically with the rapidly changing technology, health insurance, clinic team-management, and tendency to paperlessness in the running of a dental office. A course in dental practice management is therefore an illuminating course for the young up-and-coming clinician and an improvement course for the established practitioner. Course Topics: • Business of Dental practice • Dental Team Management • Patient Management • Office Design and Equipment arrangement and placement • New Technology in practice • Working with Dental office Documents • Archiving Business Records • Written communication • Telecommunications • Appointment management system   14 
  15. 15. • Inventory management • Ordering of supplies • Recall system • Payment methods • Bookkeeping/ accounting • Other financial systems • Public relation   15 
  16. 16. (see Advanced Restorative Dentistry Course Syllabus)   16 
  17. 17. Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry & Pharmacy Postgraduate Dental Studies ADVANCED RESTORATIVE DENTISTRY/ IMPLANT PROF. BASSEM EL MALLAKH Senior Consultant of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterial Program Director of All Restorative Dentistry/Implant E-mail Address: Curriculum & Clinical RequirementsA Basic Science Courses: The courses are shared with other specialties but specifically as required for Restorative Dentistry, they are, Cell Biology Genetics Anatomy & Physiology All these courses are already described elsewhere.B Biodental Science Courses They are as follows: Oral Biology Advanced Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology Advanced Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology Dental Biomaterials Applied Pharmacology in Dental Practice These are described elsewhereC General Core Courses Applied Biostatistics Research Methods and Scientific Writing Communication Skill and Teaching Methods These courses are described elsewhereD Restorative Dentistry Specialty-specific Courses Restorative Dentistry Seminars (Year 1, 2, 3) These seminars are offered throughout the three-year duration of the program including the first summer semester. The seminars provide graduate students with in- depth knowledge and appreciation of different areas or aspects of Restorative Dentistry Book reviews, classical restorative dentistry related published articles including review articles covering the following topics: • Diagnosis and treatment planning   17 
  18. 18. • Relationships between restorative dentistry and other programs • Dental amalgam and complex cavities • Restorative materials • Pin and post applications in relation to endodontics (standard and color post) • Properties of core materials • Prevention of dental caries • Geriatric restorative dentistry • Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) • Principles of adhesion • Repair in operative dentistry • Dentin bonding systems • Composite resin and clinical application (posterior & anterior) • Glass Ionmer and clinical application • Metal cast inlays and onlays • Computer aide restorations (CAD/CAM Restorations) • Ceramic veneers • Ceramic inlays and onlays • Operative dentistry in relation to dental anomalies • Bleaching • Composite and ceramic applications in aesthetic dentistry • Soft tissue management in Restorative Clinical Practice • Color selection and aesthetic in fixed Restorative dentistry • Occlusion and function in Restorative dentistry practice • Dental implant and esthetic dentistry • Endoesthetics • Clinical Digital photography in Restorative dentistry clinic Restorative Dentistry Specialty Clinics (Year 1, 2, 3) Restorative Dentistry specialty clinics both supervised (early phase of the program) and relatively unsupervised (later in the program) are the settings in which the clinical skills of the graduate students continue to be qualitatively sharpened. The clinics are offered in all the semesters and in the two inclusive summers. The clinical sessions prepare the students to acquire a very high standard of clinical competence in Restorative dentistry. Comprehensive patient management, interdisciplinary referrals, interdisciplinary consultations are experienced first hand by the students. The specified clinical requirements are accomplished during these clinical sessions. Advanced Treatment Planning (Year 2, 3) These courses continue to reinforce the student’s expected practice of formulating a clear patient’s treatment plan after a thorough history, investigations and examination. Students are expected to use all available information obtained to design the most preferred treatment plan for the patient. The treatment plans will be presented for discussion by staff and students as determined by the weekly time table. Oral Microbiology & Immunology (Year 1) The course is designed in such a way that students in Restorative Dentistry will appreciate the relevance of the course in clinical dental practice. The topics that students should appreciate, understand and be able to describe include but are not   18 
  19. 19. limited to varying nature of infections agents, oral bacteria in systemic diseases, techniques in diagnostic microbiology, oral flora, bacteria in the etiology of diseases of the oral cavity, bacteria, fungi, viruses and priors, formation of biofilms, protocols for antibiotic cover, infection control, the protective immune response (humoral and cellular) to infections and immune suppressed states – HIV/ AIDS etc. As there are no practical sessions in the course, residents will be expected to read extensively materials assigned. Cariology (Year 1) This didactic course introduces the postgraduate dental students to one of the most common human diseases. Consequences of dental caries and ravages of periodontal diseases constitute a major cause of edentulism in Saudi Arabia, indeed in most communities throughout the world. Dental caries will be discussed from several perspectives – etiology, as an infectious disease national and international caries experiences using different indices, economics of the consequences of caries and preventive and treatment measures. Literature Review in Restorative Topics I to VI (Years 1,2 & 3) These courses are offered as 3-hour seminars weekly for reviewing the literature in Restorative clinical dentistry. List of published papers will be given to students in the beginning of each semester. Students will be required to read, summarize and present for class discussion, the literature assigned by the course director. It is aimed to review previous publications on different topics in Restorative dentistry. In addition, updated literature will also be included to increase the knowledge of the students at different studies in the field of esthetic dentistry, bonded technique and caries management. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) (Years 1, 2 & 3) This will be offer to the residents as part of RCDP policies. The CPR will come from two levels, the basic and advanced, each resident must be certified according to the rules and regulations at the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.E Research/ Thesis (Year 3) The common compulsory care course of “Research Methods and Scientific Writing” prepares the graduate student for a novel and meaningful research on a chosen and approved topic which will culminate in a Thesis to be presented and defended in an examination by a panel of examiners. After a student has an approved research topic, with guidance, the student is expected to be able to carry on the research relatively independently. In carrying out the research, the student should demonstrate satisfactorily, critical thinking, ability to execute the research as approved, honesty, thoroughness, intellectual curiosity and the desire to add to “knowledge” in the chosen area of research.   19 
  20. 20. F Prescribed Clinical Requirements The clinical requirements are the compulsory minimum number of cases that a graduate student must treat to attest to competency of clinical care and to achieve eligibility for the award of a clinical certificate of competency in Restorative dentistry. Minimum Requirements for Clinical Restorative Dentistry 1 (Mixed) Vital Color bleaching 30 arches 2 Amalgam Restorations (Mixed) 200 3 Direct Restorations (Mixed) 200 4 Veneer 50 5 Anterior and Posterior Full Ceramic 5 6 Casted Post and Core (metallic) 10 7 Non-casted Post & Core 10 8 Anterior/Posterior PFM 40 9 Indirect Color Restoration 10 10 Non-surgical Treatment of TMJ 1 11 Caries Control Cases 10 12 Implant (Single Tooth Replacement) 15 casesEvaluation The graduate student shall be evaluated on the didactic, laboratory, clinical coursesand the Research/ Thesis submitted. The evaluation outcome determines whether a studenthas met the graduation requirements which are: a) Completion of all the required core courses in the basic biodental and general science b) Completion of all the specialty-specific course c) Completion of an approval Research and the Thesis based on the Research which must be successfully defended d) Eligibility for the award of a certificate of clinical competency in Restorative Dentistry/Implant.    20