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  • 1. ACP Program Directors Meeting May 11-12, 2007 Chicago O’Hare Renaissance Hotel Sponsored by the ACP Education Foundation Resource Book Table of ContentsA. Attendee ListB. Travel reimbursement FormC. AgendaD. List of Programs and Program DirectorsE. Technology Summit InformationF. Summit Final ReportG. Prosthodontist Pay RankH. Reframing Prosthodontics EditorialI. Current CODA Standards for Prosthodontics 2006J. Competency at the Advance Program Level 1
  • 2. K. Proposed Standard 4L. CODA Validity and Reliability Study ReportM. Wright Analysis of CODA Validity and Reliability StudyN. March 23, 2007 Schneid EmailO. March 28, 2007 Knoernschild ResponseP. ACP Task Force Progress ReportsQ. Advancing Prosthodontics – ACP and ACPEF Highlights 2006R. ACP May 2007 Technology SurveyS. ACP 2006 Program Directors SurveyT. ASDA 2007 Programs SurveyU. Dr. Sukotjo Student Survey Pt. 1V. Dr. Sukotjo Student Survey Pt. 2W. ACP Academic Alliance Membership InformationX. ACP Academic Alliance Membership ApplicationY. ACP Member Benefits UpdateZ. ACP Membership ApplicationAA. ACPEF Student Dues SponsorshipBB. ACP Student Membership ApplicationCC. ACP 2007 Annual Session Schedule of Events 2
  • 3. May 11-12, 2007 Program Director Meeting Attendees, Chicago IowaAlabama Florida Dr. Dennis J. Weir University of IowaDr. Lillie Mitchell* Dr. Chiu-Jen Hsu* College of Dentistry University of Alabama NOVA Southeastern University 418 Dent. Science Bldg. South School of Dentistry College of Dental Medicine st Iowa City, IA 52242-1001 1001 31 St. South 3200 S. University Drive Phone: 319-335-7280 Birmingham, AL 35205 Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33328-2018 Fax: 319-353-4278 Phone: (205) 918-0034 Phone: (954) 262-7341 dennis-weir@uiowa.edu lmitchel@uab.edu chiujen@nsu.acast.nova.edu LouisianaCalifornia Dr. Edgar O’Neill University of Florida Dr. J. L. HochstedlerDr. Mathew Kattadiyil Louisiana State University College of Dentistry Interim Director School of Dentistry Department of Prosthodontics Loma Linda University 8000 GSRI Road Box 100435 School of Dentistry Rm 1165 Building, 3110 Gainesville, FL 32610-0435 11092 Anderson St Prince Hall Baton Rouge, LA 70820 Phone: 352-273-6901 Laverne, CA 91750 Phone: 504- 619-8528 Fax: 352-846-2889 Phone: 909-558-7692 Fax: 504-670-2721 eoneill@dental.ufl.edu mkattadiyil@llu.edu JHOCHS@lsuhsc.eduDr. Winston Chee Georgia Maryland University of Southern California School of Dentistry Dr. Steven K. Nelson Medical College of Georgia Dr. Capt. John A. VanDercreek University Park MC0641 School of Dentistry Naval Postgraduate Dental School Los Angeles, CA 90089-0641 th 1120 15 Street National Naval Dental Center Phone: 213-740-1529 Augusta, GA 30912-1250 Prosthodontic Deparment Fax: 213-740-6778 Phone: 706-721-2261 8901 Wisconsin Ave wchee@usc.edu Fax: 706-721-8349 Bethesda, MD 20889-1845 snelson@mail.mcg.edu Phone: 301-295-4001Dr. Frederick C. Finzen Fax: 301-295-5767 University of California, San Fransisco Col. Richard Windhorn* VanDercreekJA@nnd10.med.navy.mil School of Dentistry Department of Restorative Dentistry US Army DENTAC Bldg 320 Dr. Carl Driscoll 707 Pranassus Avenue TINGAY Dental Clinic University of Maryland Box 0758 Fort Gordon, GA 30905 College of Dental Surgery San Francisco, CA 94143 Phone: 706-787-5530 666 W. Baltimore Avenue Phone: 415-476-1982 richard.windhorn@us.army.mil Room 4-A11 Fax: 415-476-0858 Baltimore, MD 21201 fritz.finzen@ucsf.edu Phone: 410-706-7047 Illinois Fax: 410-706-3028Dr. Eleni Roumanas cfd001@dental.umaryland.edu University of California at Los Angeles Dr. Kent L. Knoernschild School of Dentistry University of Illinois Center for Health Science Chicago College of Dentistry Massachusetts Room 53-038 Dept. of Restorative Dentisty 10833 Le Conte Avenue (MC555) Suite 102 Dr. Steven M. Morgano Los Angeles, CA 90095-1668 801 S. Paulina Boston University Goldman Phone: 310-794-9858 Chicago, IL 60612-7212 School Of Dental Medicine eroumana@ucla.edu Phone: 312-413-1181 Division of Postdoctoral Prosthodontics Fax: 312-996-3535 100 E. Newton StreetDr. Frank Brajevic* kentk@uic.edu Room G219 Veteran Affairs Medical Center/West LA Boston, MA 02118 712 Via Del Monte Phone: 617-638-5429 Indiana Fax: 617-638-5434 Palos Verdes Estates, CA 90274 Phone: 310-268-3776 smorgano@bu.edu Dr. Carl J. Andres frankbrajevic@yahoo.com Indiana University Dr. Robert Wright School of Dentistry Harvard UniversityConnecticut 1121 West Michigan Street School of Dental Medicine Indianapolis, IN 46202 188 Longwood AvenueDr. John R. Agar Phone: 317-274-5569 Boston, MA 02115 University of Connecticut Health Center Fax: 317-274-9544 Phone: 617-432-4252 School of Dentistry candres@iupui.edu robert_wright@hsdm.harvard.edu Department of Prosthodontics and Operative Dentistry Dr. John Levon 263 Farmington Avenue Indiana University Minnesota Farmington, CT 06030-1615 School of Dentistry Phone: 860-679-2649 1121 West Michigan Street Dr. Steven Eckert Fax: 860-679-1370 Indianapolis, IN 46202 Mayo Graduate School of Medicine agar@nso2.uchc.edu jlevon@iupui.edu 200 1st Street SW Rochester, MN 55901 seeckert@mayo.eduProgram Directors *Program Representative
  • 4. May 11-12, 2007 Program Director Meeting Attendees, ChicagoDr. James R. Holtan Dr. Edward A. Jr. Monaco University of Minnesota University of New York at Buffalo Dr. Chris M. Minke School of Dentistry School of Dental Medicine Michael E DeBakey VA Medical Center Room 15-209 Moos Tower Medical Squire Hall 222E Houston Dental Service Restorative Sciences 325 Squire Hall 2002 Holcombe Blvd 515 Delaware St., SE 3435 Main Street Houston, TX 77030-4298 Minneapolis, MN 55455 Buffalo, NY 14214 Phone: (713) 791-1414 ext 6161 Phone: 612-624-6644 Phone: 716-829-2862 Christopher.Minke@med.va.gov Fax: 612-626-2655 Fax: 716-829-2440 Holta001@umn.edu edwardjr@buffalo.edu Dr. Ronald Verrett* University of Texas Health Science Cntr North Carolina San Antonio Dental SchoolNew Jersey Dept. Of Prosthodontics Dr. Lyndon Cooper 7703 Floyd Curl DriveDr. Robert J. Flinton University of North Carolina San Antonio, TX 78229-3900 University of Medicine and Dentistry School of Dentistry Phone: 210-567-6460 New Jersey Dental School 404 Brauer Hall, CB #7450 Fax: 210-567-6376 110 Bergen Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7540 verrett@uthscsa.edu Room B815 Phone: 919-966-2712 Newark, NJ 07103-2400 Fax: 919-966-3821 Phone: 973-972-4615 lyndon_cooper@dentistry.unc.edu Dr. Thomas R. Schneid Fax: 973-972-0370 USAF Medical Center flinton@umdnj.edu th Ohio 59 Dental Squadron/MRDP Air Force Prosthodontics ResidencyNew York Dr. Ernest Svensson Lackland AFB Ohio State University 2450 Pepperell StreetDr. Kenneth Schweitzer College of Dentistry Lackland AFB, TX 78236 Montefiore Medical Center Box 191 Postle Hall Phone: 210-292-3838 Dental Department P.O. Box 182357 Fax: 210-292-5193 th 500 East 77 Street Columbus, OH 43218-2357 thomas.schneid@lackland.af.mil New York, NY 10021 Phone: 614-292-0880 kdds@aol.com Svennson.1@osu.edu Dr. Rhonda F. Jacob The University of TexasDr. Farhad Vahidi Puerto Rico M.D. Anderson Cancer Center New York University Dept. of Head & Neck Surgery College of Dentistry Dr. Maria A. Loza Herrero 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Unit 441, Department of Prosthodontics University of Puerto Rico Houston, TX 77030 Clinic 5 W Department of Restorative Sciences Phone: (713) 792-6917 th 345 East 24 Street Office B-142 rjacob@mdanderson.org New York, NY 10010 P.O. Box 365067 Phone: (212) 998-9964 San Juan, PR 00936-5067 fv1@nyu.edu Phone: (787) 758-2525, 1150 mloza@rcm.upr.edu Washington DCDr. Edward A. Jr. Monaco University of New York at Buffalo School of Dental Medicine Dr. Richard J Leupold Medical Squire Hall 222E Texas Assistant Chief, Dental Service 325 Squire Hall Prosthodontics Residency Program Dr. William A. Nagy Director 3435 Main Street Baylor College of Dentistry VAMC Washington (Dental 160) Buffalo, NY 14214 Texas A&M Health Science Center 50 Irving St., NW Phone: 716-829-2862 3302 Gaston Ave Washington, DC 20422 Fax: 716-829-2440 Dallas, TX 75246 Phone: 202- 745-8000 ext 5720 edwardjr@buffalo.edu Phone: (214) 828-8298 Fax: 202- 745-8402 Fax: (214) 874-4544 Richard.Leupold@med.va.govDr. Charles Oster* wnagy@bcd.tamhsc.edu University of Rochester Eastman Dental Department 625 Elmwood Avenue Wisconsin Dr. Robert L. Engelmeier Rochester, NY 14620 UTHSC - Houston Dental Branch Phone: 585-275-1129 Dental School Dr. Gerald J. Ziebert charlie_oster@URMC.Rochester.edu Graduate Prosthodontics Marquette University 6516 M.D. Anderson Avenue School of DentistryDr. David Silken P.O. Box 20068 PO Box 1881 New York Medical Center of Queens Houston, TX 77030 Milwaukee, WI 53201-1881 Deaprtment of Post-Graduate Phone: 713-500-4165 Phone: (414) 288-5555 Prosthodontics Fax: 713-500-4353 Fax: (414) 288-5752 Department of Dental Medicine Robert.L.Engelmeier@uth.tmc.edu gerald.ziebert@marquette.edu 174-11 Horace Harding Expressway Fresh Meadows, NY 11365 Phone: 718-670-1701 drsilken@msn.comProgram Directors *Program Representative
  • 5. American College of Prosthodontists 211 E Chicago Ave, Ste.1000 Chicago, Illinois 60611 312-573-1260 312-573-1257 fax REIMBURSEMENT/EXPENSE VOUCHERName:Title:Date: May 10-12, 2007Committee/Activity: Program Director Meeting Item Date Amount DescriptionAirfareAirfareHotelMealsMileageTransportationParkingOtherTotalSignature DatePlease attach all receipts and return with this form within 2 weeks of the meeting/event.
  • 6. AGENDA ACP Program Directors Meeting May 11-12, 2007 Chicago O’Hare Renaissance Hotel Sponsored by the ACP Education FoundationThursday, May 10, 2007 Arrival and Dinner on Your OwnFriday, May 11, 20077:00-8:00 AM Breakfast, Registration, and Voting EligibilityConfirmation8:00-8:30 AM Welcome and Program Goals Dr. Stephen Campbell, ACP President, and ACPEF Director8:30-8:45 AM Standards Review Objectives, Discussion and VotingGround Rules, and Resource Materials Overview Dr. Kent Knoernschild, Moderator8:45-10:00 AM Round I Standards Discussion and Official Voting Dr. Kent Knoernschild, Moderator10:00-10:15 AM Break 1
  • 7. 10:15 AM 12:00 PM Round II Standards Discussion and OfficialVoting12:00-1:30 PM Lunch1:30-3:15 PM Round III Standards Discussion and Official Voting3:15-3:30 PM Break3:30-5:00 PM Round IV Standards Discussion and Official Voting5:00-5:30 PM –Next StepsAdjourn (Note: If more time is needed to complete the discussionsand voting, we will continue on May 12 as necessary.)6:00-6:30 PM Reception6:30-8:30 PM DinnerSaturday, May 12, 20077:30-8:00 AM Breakfast8:00-8:05 AM Today’s Agenda and Goals Dr. Knoernschild, Moderator8:05-9:00 AM ACP and ACPEF Strategic Initiatives and Future PlansUpdate Dr. Campbell9:00-9:30 AM Small Group Discussions-Where should we go with ourprograms? (Each group appoints a recorder and a reporter; discusstopics such as the Technology Survey results, support from ACP,increasing enrollment, increasing the quality of students, educationalresources including online image library and other online resources, 2
  • 8. faculty and program director mentoring and recruitment, othercommon issues and concerns from the floor.)9:30-10:00 AM Group Reports-Participants select 5 topics (chose 5because we will have 5 tables of 8) for next discussion10:00-10:15 AM Break10:15-11:00 AM Small Group Discussions-Each group is assigned oneof the 5 topics and identify the barriers and how they can beovercome.11:00-11:30 AM Group Reports11:30 AM-12:00 PM Wrap Up12:00 Noon Adjourn 3
  • 9. PROGRAM DIRECTORSAlabama Florida Louisiana Dr. J. L. HochstedlerDr. Michael S. McCracken Dr. R. Bruce Miller Louisiana State University University of Alabama NOVA Southeastern University School of Dentistry School of Dentistry SDB 537 College of Dental Medicine 8000 GSRI Road 1919 7th Ave South 3200 S. University Drive Building, 3110 Birmingham, AL 35294-0007 Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33328-2018 Baton Rouge, LA 70820 Phone: (205) 934-4540 Phone: (954) 262-4345 Phone: 504- 619-8528 mikemc@uab.edu Fax: (954) 262-1782 Fax: 504-670-2721 millrich@nova.edu JHOCHS@lsuhsc.eduCalifornia Dr. Edgar O’Neill University of Florida MarylandDr. Mathew Kattadiyil College of Dentistry Interim Director Dr. Capt. John A. VanDercreek Department of Prosthodontics Loma Linda University Naval Postgraduate Dental School Box 100435 School of Dentistry Rm 1165 National Naval Dental Center Gainesville, FL 32610-0435 11092 Anderson St Prince Hall Prosthodontic Deparment Phone: 352-273-6901 Laverne, CA 91750 8901 Wisconsin Ave Fax: 352-846-2889 Phone: 909-558-7692 Bethesda, MD 20889-1845 eoneill@dental.ufl.edu mkattadiyil@llu.edu Phone: 301-295-4001 Fax: 301-295-5767Dr. Winston Chee Georgia VanDercreekJA@nnd10.med.navy.mil University of Southern California School of Dentistry Dr. Steven K. Nelson Dr. Carl Driscoll University Park MC0641 Medical College of Georgia University of Maryland Los Angeles, CA 90089-0641 School of Dentistry th College of Dental Surgery Phone: 213-740-1529 1120 15 Street 666 W. Baltimore Avenue Fax: 213-740-6778 Augusta, GA 30912-1250 Room 4-A11 tdonovan@hsc.usc.edu Phone: 706-721-2261 Baltimore, MD 21201 Fax: 706-721-8349 Phone: 410-706-7047Dr. Frederick C. Finzen snelson@mail.mcg.edu Fax: 410-706-3028 University of California, San Fransisco cfd001@dental.umaryland.edu School of Dentistry Dr. Peter Gronet Department of Restorative Dentistry US Army DENTAC Bldg 320 Massachusetts 707 Pranassus Avenue Box 0758 TINGAY Dental Clinic Fort Gordon, GA 30905 Dr. Steven M. Morgano San Francisco, CA 94143 Phone: 706-787-5134 Boston University Goldman Phone: 415-476-1982 Fax: 706-787-5519 School Of Dental Medicine Fax: 415-476-0858 peter.gronet@se.amedd.army.mil Division of Postdoctoral Prosthodontics finzen@itsa.ucsf.edu 100 E. Newton Street Room G219Dr. Eleni Roumanas Illinois Boston, MA 02118 University of California at Los Angeles Phone: 617-638-5429 School of Dentistry Dr. Kent L. Knoernschild Fax: 617-638-5434 Center for Health Science University of Illinois smorgano@bu.edu Room 53-038 Chicago College of Dentistry 10833 Le Conte Avenue Dept. of Restorative Dentisty Dr. Robert Wright Los Angeles, CA 90095-1668 (MC555) Suite 102 Harvard University Phone: 310-794-9858 801 S. Paulina School of Dental Medicine eroumana@ucla.edu Chicago, IL 60612-7212 188 Longwood Avenue Phone: 312-413-1181 Boston, MA 02115Dr. Stephen J. Ancowitz Fax: 312-996-3535 Phone: 617-432-4252 Veteran Affairs Medical Center/West LA kentk@uic.edu robert_wright@hsdm.harvard.edu W-160 11301 Wilshire & Sawtelle Blvds. Indiana Dr. Hiroshi Hirayama West Los Angeles, CA 90073 Tufts University Phone: 310-478-3711 Dr. Carl J. Andres School Of Dental Medicine Fax: 310-268-3941 Indiana University One Kneeland Street sancowit@ucla.edu School of Dentistry Boston, MA 02111 1121 West Michigan Street Phone: 617-636-6598Connecticut Indianapolis, IN 46202 Fax: 617-636-0469 Phone: 317-274-5569 hiroshi.hirayama@tufts.eduDr. John R. Agar Fax: 317-274-9544 University of Connecticut Health Center candres@iupui.edu Michigan School of Dentistry Department of Prosthodontics and Iowa Dr. Michael Razzoog Operative Dentistry University of Michigan 263 Farmington Avenue Dr. Dennis J. Weir School of Dentistry Farmington, CT 06030-1615 University of Iowa 1011 North University Avenue Phone: 860-679-2649 College of Dentistry Ann Arbor, MI 48109 Fax: 860-679-1370 418 Dent. Science Bldg. South Phone: 734-763-5280 agar@nso2.uchc.edu Iowa City, IA 52242-1001 Fax: 734-763-3453 Phone: 319-335-7280 merim@umich.edu Fax: 319-353-4278 dennis-weir@uiowa.edu
  • 10. Dr. Rami Jandali Veterans Affairs Medical Cntr – Detroit John D. Dingell Centr Dr. Farhad Vahidi Puerto Rico 4646 John R. Street New York University Detroit, MI 48201 College of Dentistry Dr. Maria A. Loza Herrero Phone: 313-576-4747 Department of Prosthodontics Associate Professor Fax: 313-576-1025 Clinic 5 W University of Puerto Rico rami.jandali@med.va.gov th 345 East 24 Street Department of Restorative Sciences New York, NY 10010 Office B-142 Phone: (212) 998-9964 P.O. Box 365067Minnesota fv1@nyu.edu San Juan, PR 00936-5067 Phone: (787) 758-2525, 1150Dr. James R. Holtan mloza@rcm.upr.edu Dr. Edward A. Jr. Monaco University of Minnesota University of New York at Buffalo School of Dentistry Room 15-209 Moos Tower School of Dental Medicine Tennessee Medical Squire Hall 222E Restorative Sciences 325 Squire Hall Dr. David Cagna 515 Delaware St., SE 3435 Main Street University of Tennessee, Memphis Minneapolis, MN 55455 Buffalo, NY 14214 875 Union Avenue Phone: 612-624-6644 Phone: 716-829-2862 Memphis, TN 38163 Fax: 612-626-2655 Fax: 716-829-2440 Phone: 901-448-6930 Holta001@umn.edu edwardjr@buffalo.edu Fax: 901-448-7104Dr. Steven Eckert dcagna@utmem.edu Dr. Carlo Ercoli Mayo Graduate School of Medicine University of Rochester 200 1st Street SW Eastman Dental Department Texas Rochester, MN 55901 625 Elmwood Avenue seeckert@mayo.edu Dr. William A. Nagy Rochester, NY 14620 Baylor College of Dentistry Phone: 716-275-5043 Texas A&M Health Science CenterNew Jersey Fax: 716- 244-8772 3302 Gaston Ave Carlo_Ercoli@urmc.rochester.edu Dallas, TX 75246Dr. Robert J. Flinton Phone: (214) 828-8298 University of Medicine and Dentistry Dr. Robert Schulman Fax: (214) 874-4544 New Jersey Dental School Veterans Affairs Medical Center wnagy@bcd.tamhsc.edu 110 Bergen Street, New York rd Room B815 423 East 23 Street Dr. Chris M. Minke Newark, NJ 07103-2400 New York, NY 10010 Michael E DeBakey VA Medical Center Phone: 973-972-4615 Phone: (914) 948-7177 Houston Dental Service Fax: 973-972-0370 Fax: (914) 289-1731 2002 Holcombe Blvd flinton@umdnj.edu robert_schulman@yahoo.com Houston, TX 77030-4298 Phone: (713) 791-1414 ext 6161New York North Carolina Christopher.Minke@med.va.govDr. Kunal Lal Dr. Lyndon Cooper Dr. Robert L. Engelmeier Columbia University University of North Carolina UTHSC - Houston Dental Branch School of Dentistry School of Dentistry Dental School 630 West 168th Street 404 Brauer Hall, CB #7450 Graduate Prosthodontics PH 7-E Room 119 Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7540 6516 M.D. Anderson Avenue New York, NY 10032 Phone: 919-966-2712 P.O. Box 20068 Phone: 212-305-5679 Fax: 919-966-3821 Houston, TX 77030 Fax: 212-305-8493 lyndon_cooper@dentistry.unc.edu Phone: 713-500-4165 kl341@columbia.edu Fax: 713-500-4353 Ohio Robert.L.Engelmeier@uth.tmc.eduDr. Alan B. Sheiner Montefiore Medical Center Dr. Ernest Svensson Dr. Robert J. Cronin Dental Department Ohio State University University of Texas Health Science Cntr 111 East 210th Street College of Dentistry San Antonio Dental School Bronx, NY 10467 Box 191 Postle Hall Dept. Of Prosthodontics Phone: 718-920-5996 P.O. Box 182357 7703 Floyd Curl Drive Fax: 718-515-5419 Columbus, OH 43218-2357 San Antonio, TX 78284 asheiner@montefiore.org Phone: 614-292-0880 Phone: 210-567-6460 Fax: 614-292-9422 Fax: 210-567-6376Dr. David Silken cronin@uthscsa.edu New York Medical Center of Queens Deaprtment of Post-Graduate Pennsylvania Dr. Thomas R. Schneid Prosthodontics USAF Medical Center Department of Dental Medicine Dr. Donald J. Pipko th 59 Dental Squadron/MRDP 174-11 Horace Harding Expressway University of Pittsburgh Air Force Prosthodontics Residency Fresh Meadows, NY 11365 School of Dental Medicine Lackland AFB Phone: 718-670-1701 3500 5th Ave Ste 308 2450 Pepperell Street drsilken@msn.com Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3316 Lackland AFB, TX 78236 Phone: (412) 682-1100 Phone: 210-292-3838 Fax: (412) 648-8850 Fax: 210-292-5193 djp4@pitt.edu thomas.schneid@lackland.af.mil
  • 11. WashingtonDr. Ariel J. Raigrodski University of Washington School of Dentistry Dept. of Restorative Dentistry Box 357456, D-780 HSB Seattle, WA 98195 Phone: 206-543-5948 Fax: 206-543-5923 araigrod@u.washington.eduWashington DCDr. Richard J Leupold Assistant Chief, Dental Service Prosthodontics Residency Program Director VAMC Washington (Dental 160) 50 Irving St., NW Washington, DC 20422 Phone: 202- 745-8000 ext 5720 Fax: 202- 745-8402 Richard.Leupold@med.va.govWest VirginiaDr. Mark Richards West Virginia University School of Dentistry Dept. of Restorative Dentistry Box 9495 Morgantown, WV 26506-9495 Phone: 304-293-3549 Fax: 304-293-2859 Mrichards@hsc.wvu.eduWisconsinDr. Gerald J. Ziebert Marquette University School of Dentistry PO Box 1881 Milwaukee, WI 53201-1881 Phone: (414) 288-5555 Fax: (414) 288-5752 gerald.ziebert@marquette.edu
  • 12. Technology and ProsthodonticsDr. Thomas McGarryDr. Stephen CampbellIn a book by Christensen called the Innovators Dilemma, he describes two type of technologies-disruptive or sustaining. Disruptive technologies can completely reorder the environment. Sustainingtechnologies enhance current procedures or environment. This is a great framework with which toconsider the future technological changes as well as any type of change. An example of a sustainingtechnology would be the change to PVS impression materials or a new type of porcelain powder.These changes enhance the existing environment.Disruptive technologies change the environment. Simple examples would be the difference betweendigital cameras and film based cameras. Though the user needs very little difference in procedures andtheir expected outcome is the same, digital is a disruptive technology as it has completely reordered thebusiness environment for camera companies. Another example would be the difference betweenmanual typewriters and computers/word processing. These disruptive types of technologies have andwill continue at an even faster pace than before.This type of rapid change environment is perfect for a nimble fast moving change of direction for thosepeople able to release prior commitments and ideas. It allows the small groups to overcome theinherent advantages of the “established” companies or organizations. The playing field is flat or evenin favor of the “new” player since it is much easier to change direction and the cost of change is muchless.Prosthodontics can capitalize on a perceived weakness of being small and change our small size into ahuge market advantage as we can institute change much quicker. One of the issues is that traditionallyProsthodontics has been the biggest “stick in the mud” about change. We have consistently held to theidea that what we have done previously is the best. Certainly a gold crown has many advantagescompared to an all porcelain type restoration. However, the market/patients do not accept this valueproposition. Clinging to old technology can relegate s group to obsolescence.Remember the fate of the mechanical watchmakers or typewriter manufacturers. This sametechnological shift in dentistry is introducing similar pressures on Prosthodontics and the other dentalspecialties. The dilemma for clinicians is that the earliest iterations of new technologies are usuallyflawed so adoption can be slow with the idea of protecting the patient. Timing is everything and thekey piece is to know when to make the move.Prosthodontics can no longer afford the luxury of sitting back and just trying to improve technologiesonce they are “widely” accepted. Prosthodontics must get in the game sooner and on a routine basisbecome the “beta” testers so our value to the corporate community is much greater and our visibility inthe profession is much higher. Being the best with old technology is not a winning position.In the past several years Prosthodontics has begun to establish itself as a “knowledge-based” specialtyand not just a “skill” based specialty. This change will be the key foundation in our ability to prosper.It will require everyone in the specialty to be on board. As a knowledge-based specialty, adoption ofnew technology is a natural extension of our commitment to patient care and not to skill-basedbravado. Our commitment to diagnosis first and then to procedural proficiency will enable us to beearly adopters of technology without fear of clinical failures being associated with lack of skill.
  • 13. The increasing rapidity of technological advances is being fueled by the tremendous corporateinvestments in the dental field. Most of these new technologies are just transfers of information fromother fields. The external forces being applied by corporate investment is tremendous. Nobelbiocareis a great example. Large holding companies are acquiring dental companies not because of aninherent interest in patient care but as a business opportunity to be exploited. A return on investment isthe bottom line.The marketing push will be on sales with the patient outcome a secondary goal. These pressures willbe difficult for the profession to manage but to ignore the potential will be fatal. These companies willmarshal every possible resource to be successful financially. The drive to make dentists“procedurally” competent to increase sales is well demonstrated in the implant field. Very littleinvestment has been made to make the dentist “diagnostically” competent since this can not becorrelated to sales other than long term. The drive for “procedural competence” has now spread to thespecialty community with Endodontists beginning to place implants based on the theory of “proceduresubstitution” rather than being part of their diagnostic skill set.Both Periodontists and Oral Surgeons are constructing and placing temporary fixed and removablerestorations without diagnostic knowledge but only a procedural competency at best. Implant dentistryhas stimulated an “anarchy of procedural competence” with the only qualification being proceduralcompetence. Dentistry is becoming a free for all procedurally. General dentists with the increase inelective procedures are being driven by dental manufacturers to expand their clinical portfolio based onprocedure competence and not diagnostic competence or proficiency.The key to all these changes is that TECHONOLOGY enables everyone to achieve clinical proceduralcompetence far quicker than ever before. Technology is narrowing the “skills” gap between thegeneral dentist and the specialist but is NOT reducing the diagnosis/knowledge/education gap. Theproficiency of the specialist is the marriage of procedural competence and diagnostic knowledge.If this is the environment in dentistry today, then what are the technologies that Prosthodontists canutilize to maintain identity and separation from the other specialties, as well as general dentists?Which of these technologies are disruptive or sustaining? Is there a difference in perspective betweenGP’s and Prosthodontists on what is a disruptive or a sustaining technology? Will technology cause acollapse of the traditional specialty structure of dentistry because of procedural overlap? Willtechnology create the opportunity for different clinical delivery models for dental care? Can thespecialty of Prosthodontics be the leader in both clinical delivery models and technology adoption?ChallengeHow do we position Prosthodontics as the group to lead the use and innovation of new technologies inthe educational, practice and research environments?How do we promote the integration of new technologies into the educational and patient careprograms.VisionProsthodontics will lead the use and innovation of new technologies to improve the quality of lifeProsthodontics will promote the integration of new technologies into the educational and patient careprograms.
  • 14. TECHNOLOGIESCAD-CAM - office applications - Cerec, D4D, etc - laboratory applications – Lava, etc - personnel issues - education levels of staff - material choicesClinical Microscopy and MagnificationRobotics Educational Patient care LaboratoryImaging Radiography -in office volumetric radiography -interactive computer software – Simplant, etc Clinical Dentistry - intraoral impressions - cast duplication - restoration fabricaion - custom dental implants, abutments and restorations - guided implant surgeryOcclusion Analysis e.g., T-Scan, CadiaxElectronic Shade MatchingLasers - Soft and Hard TissueSame Day Implant Placement and RestorationBioactive Materials for Bone ReplacementNano TechnologyGeneticsInformation Management SystemsParticipant Charges1. Evaluate each of the technologies and categorize them as disruptive or sustaining and consider why.2. Which if any could Prosthodontics use to “leap-frog” into leadership positions3. Will there be a specialty of Periodontics as we know it in 10 years? Will Endodontics survive as a specialty?
  • 15. ACP Leadership Summit Consensus Statements and Recommendations Top Priorities June 12, 2006Core Consensus Statements#A. There is an urgent need to transform and grow the field of prosthodontics within the next ten years.#B. The numbers of prosthodontists and advanced training programs need to grow.#C Technology, science, and research will be driving forces in this transformational growth.#D The culture of prosthodontics needs to change to leading the specialties in restorative, esthetic, and reconstructive dentistry.#E. Increase patient advocacy efforts.RecommendationsWorkforce: The expanded prosthodontic workforce will support growth and innovation in practice,education, and research.Recommendation #1 -Increase numbers of trained prosthodontists14 votesIncrease the number of trained prosthodontists to more than 4000 in next five years; 550 total enrollment -(first year enrollment of 200, graduate 175) - Need case statement and value add as to why to growprograms for Deans • Get six of schools to offer new programs • Increase size of existing programs; start with 2-6 programs • Create pathways for other specialties and international graduates • Increase the number and quality of applicants • Increase number of program directors and faculty • Use educational technologies in training • Explore potential alliances and collaborations with other specialties.Recommendation #2 -Grow ACP membership7 votes • Create academic/non-prosthodontist membership category • Offer all trained prosthodontists and student membership in ACP immediately • Offer Pre-Doc memberships/category • Convert 200+ ABP certified non-members to members; convert the 800+ prosthodontists non- members to members • Collaborate and partner with FORUM organization and members in advocacy efforts to increase public and professional recognition of the specialty. • Broaden customer base-i.e. general dentists.
  • 16. Science &Technology: Prosthodontics will lead the use and innovation of new science & technologies toimprove the quality of life and the position of the specialty, promote the integration of new technologiesinto educational, research, and patient care programs, and lead the generation of new knowledge.Recommendation # 4 -Be at the forefront of technology as inventors, beta testers, and early adopters.8 votes • Anticipate disruptive and embrace sustaining technologies, ie, anti-caries, bioengineered tooth replacement, rapid prototyping, diagnostic engineering, master diagnostician and treatment plans, etc • Step outside the model of conservatism • Create a S&T section on ACP web site and ACP Messenger • Lead the field in application and education on care and practice • Convene new technology conferences • Increase collaboration with industry partnersRecommendations #5 -Increase prosthodontic competency in science and technology through Centers ofExcellence6 votes • Create Centers for Excellence to train future investigators and to share • Foster collaboration among Centers of Excellence • Expand the scope of possible prosthodontic investigation beyond beta testing, i.e. oral cancer, aging • Learn and perfect translational science and develop clinical network • Use experts to answer questions through CentersRecommendation # 6 -Integrate new science and technologies to the UG and PG dental school curricula.5 votes • Advanced technologies will be a driving force in curricula change. • Introduce CODA Standard changes to promote introduction of S&T into the educational ProgramsRecommendation #7 -Leverage new technologies for educational advances5 votes • Create a database for UG and PG education-collaborate to build a clearinghouse on ACP Web site • Teach faculty and students to develop electronic programs of instruction-partner with corporate sponsors and educational expertsPatient Care, Treatment Standards, and Education: Prosthodontists will be creators and purveyors ofthe prosthodontic knowledge base for patient care.Recommendation #13 -Be involved in dental school curriculum reform8 votes • Address knowledge gap about the basic fundamentals of prosthodontics—i.e. what is learned vs. what is practiced • Introduce CODA Standard changes to promote curriculum reform at the predoc and Advanced Program level, e.g., Oral Cancer Screening and Technologies, Science and Technology, Evidence Based Dental Practice, etc.
  • 17. • Single teaching comprehensive care provider model-fixed vs. implant prosthodontics (implants biologically superior treatment) • Create leadership and practice management for prosthodontistsRecommendation #14 -Continue efforts to increase the public and professional awareness of thespecialty of prosthodontics7 votes
  • 18. Americas Highest-Paying JobsBy Laura Morsch, CareerBuilder.com writerSource – MSN.com Career BuilderComb through the U.S. governments salary data, and one thing is clear: It pays to be a doctor. Accordingto the most recent information available from the Department of Labors Bureau of Labor Statistics,medical occupations account for nine of the 10 highest-paying jobs in the nation.Look down to the next 10 highest-income jobs, and youll find... more doctors. In all, 14 of Americas 20best-paying jobs are held by people who make careers out of fixing our minds, bodies and teeth: 1. Surgeon 2. Anesthesiologist 3. OB/GYN 4. Oral and maxillofacial surgeon 5. Internist 6. Prosthodontist 7. Orthodontist 8. Psychiatrist 9. Pediatrician 10. Family or general practitioner 11. Physician/surgeon, all other 12. Dentist 13. Podiatrist 14. Dentist, any other specialistOnce you look beyond the doctors, dentists and surgeons, however, the nations other best-salaried jobsare fairly diverse. Although all of these jobs require a college education, the types of work necessaryexperience and training vary widely.http://msn.careerbuilder.com/custom/msn/careeradvice/viewarticle.aspx?articleid=740&SiteId=cbmsnhp4740&sc_extcmp=JS_740_home1;&GT1=8132&cbRecursionCnt=1&cbsid=b7b9eaf672d74c3e8651839e0fafb8fe-199975876-W6-2
  • 19. GUEST EDITORIALReframing the Future of ProsthodonticsP ROSTHODONTICS has made great strides in recent years, demonstrated by a long litany of accomplishments: the opening of new The knowledge base was enlightening for those who participated in the summit. For example, there are approximately 90 graduates from ourprograms, an improved applicant pool, an ex- Prosthodontic Programs staying in the Unitedpanded scope of Prosthodontics, the launch of States each year. This is inadequate by any mea-the ACP’s new website, public relations successes, sure. It is less than one-half of the other corea revitalized central office, the development of specialties, and inadequate to meet the demandsa more nimble governance structure, the ACP for care. We need to act now.Education Foundation, and much more. As re- A formal summary for the summit is in devel-cently reported on MSN.com, we are sixth in the opment. This will be shared with all communitiesranking of America’s highest paying jobs (U.S. of interest as soon as it is available. The coregovernment’s salary data, Department of Labor’s conclusions include:Bureau of Labor Statistics). This is ahead of allbusiness careers and almost all other medical and • There is an urgent need to transform and growdental careers. the field of prosthodontics within the next ten While things have dramatically improved, we years.need to continue to make things better to attract • The numbers of prosthodontists and advancedthe best and brightest. We are poised to continue training programs need to grow.the successes for Prosthodontics and our patients; • Science and Technology will be the drivinghowever, this requires careful planning. forces in this transformational growth. On June 11–12, 2006 a group of 20 dental • The culture of prosthodontics needs to changeand prosthodontic leaders gathered to consider to leading the specialties and educational envi-the future of Prosthodontics. The intent was for ronment in restorative, implant, esthetic, andkey leaders to collaborate and identify the criti- reconstructive dentistry.cal strategic issues facing prosthodontics and our • Patient advocacy efforts must be increased.graduate educational programs. An external facilitator was used as part of a There was overwhelming recognition of thestructured brainstorming session to develop a se- need to grow prosthodontics. This growth needsries of propositions and strategic goals and plans. to encompass: (1) the number of prosthodontists,This involved the assimilation of a large amount of (2) the size and number of our specialty educa-background information. Some of this was avail- tional programs, (3) our presence in the academicable from previous surveys or the dental literature. environment, (4) continuing education offerings,Much of it was newly developed information from (5) the organization and membership, and (6) oursurveys and contact with the other specialties. The resources. In addition, there is a need to focusmaterials included: on establishing prosthodontics as the science and technology leader.• Need for Care and Patient Demographics The participants developed a series of visions• Private Practice and prioritized strategies to address the key issues.• Educational Programs and Environment The list of recommendations was long. The top• Science and Technology eight were:• Information on the Other Dental Specialties Workforce: The expanded prosthodontic work- force will support growth and innovation in prac- tice, education, and research. A series of core questions was used to directthe discussions. For example, “Do Prosthodonticsand our Advanced Prosthodontic Programs need • Recommendation 1 – Increase the number ofto grow? What role does developing science and trained prosthodontiststechnology play in the future of Prosthodontics?’’ • Recommendation 2 – Grow ACP membership Journal of Prosthodontics, Vol 15, No 6 (November-December), 2006: pp 1-2 1
  • 20. 2 Editorial Science and Technology: Prosthodontics will lead the summit recommendations, where strategiesthe use and innovation of new science and tech- for collaboration with stakeholder groups can benologies to improve the quality of life and the po- developed.sition of the specialty; promote the integration of Through the lens of the summit, I see the mostnew technologies into educational, research, and incredible future for prosthodontics! The vision ispatient care programs; and lead the generation of so clear. . .I see the future of a growing prosthodon-new knowledge. tic community. I see an organization and foun- dation that embrace our core value of improving • Recommendation 3 – Be at the forefront of sci- the quality of life through prosthodontics. I see ence and technology as inventors, beta testers, a future of an active and strong membership, an and early adopters organization of 4,000 members, a Central Office • Recommendation 4 – Increase prosthodontic equaled by none. I see a future of widespread pub- competency in science and technology through lic awareness and the best continuing education Centers of Excellence programs. I see a new organizational structure • Recommendation 5 – Integrate new science that will position us to be nimble and respon- and technologies to the UG and PG dental sive to our membership and the demands of the school curricula environment—a structure that will help us realize • Recommendation 6 – Leverage new technolo- our future. gies for educational advances I see a future of the top students from every dental school pursuing prosthodontics, a future Patient Care, Treatment Standards, and Education: of more and larger Prosthodontic Programs, pro-Prosthodontists will be creators and purveyors of viding leadership in the educational and patientthe prosthodontic knowledge base for patient care. care environments. I see a future of 200 new prosthodontists graduating every year. Not just numbers, but the best and brightest the specialty • Recommendation 7 – Be involved in dental has ever seen. I see a future of patients in need school curriculum reform seeking the expertise we offer, a public that ben- • Recommendation 8 – Continue efforts to in- efits from the best of care and the growth of our crease the public and professional awareness of specialty. the specialty of prosthodontics A series of task forces will be established in the coming months to further develop and realize the The summit outcomes will be the driving force series of visions and actions defined by the summit.behind two subsequent invitational meetings with Please become involved. . .It will take each andkey stakeholders in the field of prosthodontics to everyone of us.be convened by the ACP in early 2007. The twoinvitational follow-up meetings—one for corpo- Stephen D. Campbell, DDS, MMScrate partners and one for the Prosthodontic Forum President Electorganizations—will serve as venues for review of American College of Prosthodontists
  • 21. Commission on Dental AccreditationAccreditation Standards forAdvanced SpecialtyEducation Programs inProsthodontics
  • 22. Accreditation Standards for Advanced Specialty Education Programs in Prosthodontics Commission on Dental Accreditation American Dental Association 211 East Chicago Avenue Chicago, Illinois 60611-2678 (312) 440-4653 www.ada.orgProsthodontics is the dental specialty pertaining to the diagnosis, treatment planning,rehabilitation and maintenance of the oral function, comfort, appearance and health of patientswith clinical conditions associated with missing or deficient teeth and/or oral and maxillofacialtissues using biocompatible substitutes. (Adopted April 2003) Copyright©1998 Commission on Dental Accreditation American Dental Association All rights reserved. Reproduction is strictly prohibited without prior written permission.
  • 23. Accreditation Standards for Advanced Specialty Education Programs in Prosthodontics Document Revision HistoryDate Item Action July 30, 1998 Accreditation Standards for Advanced Specialty Adopted Education Programs in Prosthodontics January 1, 2000 Accreditation Standards for Advanced Specialty Implemented Education Programs in ProsthodonticsJanuary 29, 1999 Accreditation Status Definitions Revised and Adopted July 1, 1999 Accreditation Status Definitions ImplementedJanuary 29, 1999 Standards on Clinical Program (Standards 4- Revised and Adopted 21, 4-22, 4-23, 4-24, 4-25, and 4-26) January 1, 2000 Standards on Clinical Program (Standards 4- Implemented 21, 4-22, 4-23, 4-24, 4-25, and 4-26) July 28, 2000 Intent Statements added to Selected Standards Adopted and ImplementedJanuary 30, 2001 Mission Statement Revised and AdoptedJanuary 30, 2001 Policy on Advanced Standing Revised and Adopted July 27, 2001 Standard on Advanced Standing Revised and Adopted July 1, 2002 Standard on Advanced Standing ImplementedFebruary 2, 2002 Initial Accreditation Status Definition Adopted January 1, 2003 Initial Accreditation Status Definition Implemented August 1, 2003 Intent Statement deleted from Standard 1, Revised and Adopted Program Administrator August 1, 2003 Policy on Enrollment Increases in Dental Adopted Specialty ProgramsJanuary 30, 2004 Policy on Enrollment Increases in Dental Implemented Specialty ProgramsJanuary 30, 2004 Intent Statement to Standard 1 on Major Revised and Adopted Change (“student enrollment” deleted)January 30, 2004 Intent Statement and Examples of Evidence to Adopted and Standard 2 Implemented July 30, 2004 Standards on Didactic and Clinical Program Revised and Adopted (Standards 4-5 through 4-24) January 1, 2005 Standards on Didactic and Clinical Program Implemented (Standards 4-5 through 4-24)January 28, 2005 Examples of Evidence to Standard 2 (for non- Revised, Adopted and board certified directors) Implemented July 29, 2005 Term and Definition Student/Resident Adopted and Implemented July 29, 2005 Standards to Ensure Program Integrity Adopted (Standards 1, 2, and 5) Prosthodontics Standards --
  • 24. Document Revision History (continued) January 1, 2006 Standards to Ensure Program Integrity Implemented (Standards 1, 2, and 5)January 27, 2006 Intent Statement to Standard 2 Adopted and Implemented July 28, 2006 Examples of Evidence for Standard 1 Adopted and Intent Statement for Standard 5 Implemented Prosthodontics Standards --
  • 25. Table Of Contents PAGEMission Statement of the Commission on Dental Accreditation 4Accreditation Status Definitions 5Preface 6Policy on Enrollment Increases in Dental Specialty Programs 7Definition of Terms Used in Prosthodontics Accreditation Standards 8Standards1- INSTITUTIONAL COMMITMENT/PROGRAM EFFECTIVENESS 11 AFFILIATIONS 122- PROGRAM DIRECTOR AND TEACHING STAFF 143- FACILITIES AND RESOURCES 154- CURRICULUM AND PROGRAM DURATION 17 DIDACTIC PROGRAM: BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES 18 DIDACTIC PROGRAM: PROSTHODONTICS AND RELATED DISCIPLINES 18 CLINICAL PROGRAM 19 MAXILLOFACIAL PROSTHETICS: 20 PROGRAM DURATION 20 DIDACTIC PROGRAM 20 CLINICAL PROGRAM 215- ADVANCED EDUCATION STUDENTS/RESIDENTS 22 ELIGIBILITY AND SELECTION 22 EVALUATION 23 DUE PROCESS 23 RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES 236- RESEARCH 24 Prosthodontics Standards --
  • 26. Mission Statement of the Commission on Dental AccreditationThe Commission on Dental Accreditation serves the public by establishing, maintaining andapplying standards that ensure the quality and continuous improvement of dental and dental-related education and reflect the evolving practice of dentistry. The scope of the Commission onDental Accreditation encompasses dental, advanced dental and allied dental education programs. Commission on Dental Accreditation Revised: January 30, 2001 Prosthodontics Standards -5-
  • 27. Accreditation Status Definitions Programs Which Are Fully OperationalAPPROVAL (without reporting requirements): An accreditation classification granted to aneducational program indicating that the program achieves or exceeds the basic requirements foraccreditation.APPROVAL (with reporting requirements): An accreditation classification granted to aneducational program indicating that specific deficiencies or weaknesses exist in one or more areas ofthe program. Evidence of compliance with the cited standards must be demonstrated within 18months if the program is between one and two years in length or two years if the program is at leasttwo years in length. If the deficiencies are not corrected within the specified time period,accreditation will be withdrawn, unless the Commission extends the period for achieving compliancefor good cause. Programs Which Are Not Fully OperationalINITIAL ACCREDITATION: Initial Accreditation is the accreditation classification granted toany dental, advanced dental or allied dental education program which is in the planning and earlystages of development or an intermediate stage of program implementation and not yet fullyoperational. This accreditation classification provides evidence to educational institutions, licensingbodies, government or other granting agencies that, at the time of initial evaluation(s), thedeveloping education program has the potential for meeting the standards set forth in therequirements for an accredited educational program for the specific occupational area. Theclassification "initial accreditation" is granted based upon one or more site evaluation visit(s) anduntil the program is fully operational. Prosthodontics Standards -6 -
  • 28. PrefaceMaintaining and improving the quality of advanced education in the nationally recognized specialty areas ofdentistry is a primary aim of the Commission on Dental Accreditation. The Commission is recognized by thepublic, the profession, and the United States Department of Education as the specialized accrediting agency indentistry.Accreditation of advanced specialty education programs is a voluntary effort of all parties involved. Theprocess of accreditation assures students/residents, specialty boards and the public that accredited trainingprograms are in compliance with published standards.Accreditation is extended to institutions offering acceptable programs in the following recognized specialtyareas of dental practice: dental public health, endodontics, oral and maxillofacial pathology, oral andmaxillofacial radiology, oral and maxillofacial surgery, orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics, pediatricdentistry, periodontics and prosthodontics. Program accreditation will be withdrawn when the trainingprogram no longer conforms to the standards as specified in this document, when all first-year positionsremain vacant for a period of two years or when a program fails to respond to requests for programinformation. Exceptions for non-enrollment may be made by the Commission for programs with “approvalwithout reporting requirements” status upon receipt of a formal request from an institution stating reasonswhy the status of the program should not be withdrawn.Advanced education in a recognized specialty area of dentistry may be offered on either a graduate orpostgraduate basis.Accreditation actions by the Commission on Dental Accreditation are based upon information gained throughwritten submissions by program directors and evaluations made on site by assigned consultants. TheCommission has established review committees in each of the recognized specialties to review site visit andprogress reports and make recommendations to the Commission. Review committees are composed ofrepresentatives selected by the specialties and their certifying boards. The Commission has the ultimateresponsibility for determining a program’s accreditation status. The Commission is also responsible foradjudication of appeals of adverse decisions and has established policies and procedures for appeal. A copyof policies and procedures may be obtained form the Director, Commission on Dental Accreditation, 211 EastChicago Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611.This document constitutes the standards by which the Commission on Dental Accreditation and itsconsultants will evaluate advanced programs in each specialty for accreditation purposes. The Commissionon Dental Accreditation establishes general standards which are common to all dental specialties, institutionand programs regardless of specialty. Each specialty develops specialty-specific standards for educationprograms in its specialty. The general and specialty-specific standards, subsequent to approval by theCommission on Dental Accreditation, set forth the standards for the education content, instructional activities,patient care responsibilities, supervision and facilities that should be provided by programs in the particularspecialty.General standards are identified by the use of a single numerical listing (e.g., 1). Specialty-specific standardsare identified by the use of multiple numerical listings (e.g. 1-1, 1-1.2, 1-2). Prosthodontics Standards -7-
  • 29. Policy on Enrollment Increases In Dental Specialty ProgramsThe Commission on Dental Accreditation monitors increases in enrollment. The purpose formonitoring increases in enrollment through review of existing and projected program resources(faculty, patient availability, and variety of procedures, physical/clinical facilities, and allied supportservices) is to ensure that program resources exist to support the intended enrollment increase. Anincrease in enrollment must be reported to and approved by the Commission prior to itsimplementation. Failure to comply with the policy will jeopardize the program’s accreditationstatus. (CDA: 08/03:22) Prosthodontics Standards -8-
  • 30. Definitions of Terms Used in Prosthodontics Accreditation StandardsThe terms used in this document (i.e. shall, must, should, can and may) were selected carefully andindicate the relative weight that the Commission attaches to each statement. The definitions of thesewords used in the Standards are as follows:Must or Shall: Indicates an imperative need and/or duty; an essential or indispensable item;mandatory.Intent: Intent statements are presented to provide clarification to the advanced specialty educationprograms in prosthodontics in the application of and in connection with compliance with theAccreditation Standards for Advanced Specialty Education Programs in Prosthodontics. Thestatements of intent set forth some of the reasons and purposes for the particular Standards. As such,these statements are not exclusive or exhaustive. Other purposes may apply.Examples of evidence to demonstrate compliance include: Desirable condition, practice ordocumentation indicating the freedom or liberty to follow a suggested alternative.Should: Indicates a method to achieve the standards.May or Could: Indicates freedom or liberty to follow a suggested alternative.Levels of Knowledge: In-depth: A thorough knowledge of concepts and theories for the purpose of critical analysis and the synthesis of more complete understanding. Understanding: Adequate knowledge with the ability to apply. Familiarity: A simplified knowledge for the purpose of orientation and recognition of general principles.Levels of Skills: Proficient: The level of skill beyond competency. It is that level of skill acquired through advanced training or the level of skill attained when a particular activity is accomplished with repeated quality and a more efficient utilization of time. Competent: The level of skill displaying special ability or knowledge derived from training and experience. Exposed: The level of skill attained by observation of or participation in a particular activity. Prosthodontics Standards -9-
  • 31. Other Terms:Institution (or organizational unit of an institution): a dental, medical or public health school, patientcare facility, or other entity that engages in advanced specialty education.Sponsoring institution: primary responsibility for advanced specialty education programs.Affiliated institution: support responsibility for advanced specialty education programs.Advanced specialty education student/resident: a student/resident enrolled in an accreditedadvanced specialty education program.A graduate program is a planned sequence of advanced courses leading to a masters or doctoraldegree granted by a recognized and accredited educational institution.A postgraduate program is a planned sequence of advanced courses that leads to a certificate ofcompletion in a specialty recognized by the American Dental Association.Student/Resident: The individual enrolled in an accredited advanced education program.Postdoctoral: Can be equated with Advanced.Residency Program: A planned sequence of advanced courses integrated into a hospital setting thatleads to a certificate of completion in a specialty recognized by the American Dental Association.Prosthodontic Specific TermsRemovable Prosthodontics – is that branch of prosthodontics concerned with the replacement ofteeth and contiguous structures for edentulous or partially edentulous patients by artificial substitutesthat are removable from the mouth.Fixed Prosthodontics – is that branch of prosthodontics concerned with the replacement and/orrestoration of teeth by artificial substitutes that are not removable from the mouth.Implant Prosthodontics – is that branch of prosthodontics concerned with the replacement of teethand contiguous structures by artificial substitutes partially or completely supported and/or retainedby alloplastic implants.Maxillofacial Prosthetics – is that branch of prosthodontics concerned with the restoration and/orreplacement of stomatognathic and associated craniofacial structures by artificial substitutes. Prosthodontics Standards -10-
  • 32. Educationally Qualified: An individual is considered Educationally Qualified after the successfulcompletion of an advanced educational prosthodontics program, which is accredited by theCommission on Dental Accreditation .Board Eligible: An individual is Board Eligible when his/her application has been submitted to andapproved by the Board and his/her eligibility has not expired.Diplomate: Any dentist who has successfully met the requirements of the Board for certification andremains in good standing. Prosthodontics Standards -11-
  • 33. STANDARD 1 - INSTITUTIONAL COMMITMENT/PROGRAM EFFECTIVENESSThe program must develop clearly stated goals and objectives appropriate to advanced specialtyeducation, addressing education, patient care, research and service. Planning for, evaluation of andimprovement of educational quality for the program must be broad-based, systematic, continuousand designed to promote achievement of program goals related to education, patient care, researchand service.The program must document its effectiveness using a formal and ongoing outcomes assessmentprocess to include measures of advanced education student/resident achievement.Intent: The Commission on Dental Accreditation expects each program to define its own goals andobjectives for preparing individuals for the practice of prosthodontics and that one of the programgoals is to comprehensively prepare competent individuals to initially practice prosthodontics. Theoutcomes process includes steps to: (a) develop clear, measurable goals and objectives consistentwith the program’s purpose/mission; (b) develop procedures for evaluating the extent to which thegoals and objectives are met; (c) collect and maintain data in an ongoing and systematic manner;(d) analyze the data collected and share the results with appropriate audiences; (e) identify andimplement corrective actions to strengthen the program; and (f )review the assessment plan, reviseas appropriate, and continue the cyclical process.The financial resources must be sufficient to support the program’s stated goals and objectives.Intent: The institution should have the financial resources required to develop and sustain theprogram on a continuing basis. The program should have the ability to employ an adequate numberof full-time faculty, purchase and maintain equipment, procure supplies, reference material andteaching aids as reflected in annual budget appropriations. Financial allocations should ensure thatthe program will be in a competitive position to recruit and retain qualified faculty. Annualappropriations should provide for innovations and changes necessary to reflect current concepts ofeducation in the advanced specialty discipline. The Commission will assess the adequacy offinancial support on the basis of current appropriations and the stability of sources of funding forthe program.The sponsoring institution must ensure that support from entities outside of the institution does notcompromise the teaching, clinical and research components of the program.Examples of evidence to demonstrate compliance may include: • Written agreement(s) • Contracts between the institution/program and sponsor(s) (For example: contract(s)/agreement(s) related to facilities, funding, faculty allocations, etc.)Major changes as defined by the Commission must be reported promptly to the Commission onDental Accreditation. (Guidelines for Reporting Major Changes are available from the CommissionOffice.) Prosthodontics Standards -12-
  • 34. Intent: Major changes have a direct and significant impact on the program’s potential ability tocomply with the accreditation standards. Examples of major changes that must be reported include(but are not limited to) changes in program director, clinical facilities, program sponsorship orcurriculum length. The program must report such major changes in writing to theCommission within thirty (30) daysAdvanced specialty education programs must be sponsored by institutions, which are properlychartered, and licensed to operate and offer instruction leading to degrees, diplomas or certificateswith recognized education validity. Hospitals that sponsor advanced specialty education programsmust be accredited by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations or itsequivalent. Educational institutions that sponsor advanced specialty education programs must beaccredited by an agency recognized by the United States Department of Education. The bylaws,rules and regulations of hospitals that sponsor or provide a substantial portion of advanced specialtyeducation programs must assure that dentists are eligible for medical staff membership andprivileges including the right to vote, hold office, serve on medical staff committees and admit,manage and discharge patients.The authority and final responsibility for curriculum development and approval, student/residentselection, faculty selection and administrative matters must rest within the sponsoring institution.The position of the program in the administrative structure must be consistent with that of otherparallel programs within the institution and the program director must have the authorityresponsibility, and privileges necessary to manage the program. AFFILIATIONSThe primary sponsor of the educational program must accept full responsibility for the quality ofeducation provided in all affiliated institutions.Documentary evidence of agreements, approved by the sponsoring and relevant affiliatedinstitutions, must be available. The following items must be covered in such inter-institutionalagreements:a. Designation of a single program director;b. The teaching staff;c. The educational objectives of the program;d. The period of assignment of students/residents; ande. Each institution’s financial commitment.Intent: The items that must be covered in inter-institutional agreements do not have to be containedin a single document. They may be included in multiple agreements, both formal and informal (e.g.,addenda and letters of mutual understanding). Prosthodontics Standards -13-
  • 35. Policy Statement on Accreditation of Off-Campus SitesWhen an institution, which has a program accredited by the Commission on Dental Accreditation,plans to initiate a similar program in which all or the majority of the instruction occurs at anotherlocation, the Commission must be informed. In accordance with the Policy on Reporting MajorChanges in Accredited Programs, the Commission must be informed in writing within thirty (30)days.The Commission on Dental Accreditation must ensure that the necessary education as defined by thestandards is available, and appropriate supervision by faculty is provided to all students/residentsenrolled in an accredited program. When an institution has received approval to offer its accreditedprogram at more than one site, the Commission will conduct site visits to the off-campus locationswhere 20% or more of the students’/residents’ clinical instruction occurs or if other cause exists forsuch a visit.The Commission recognizes that dental assisting and dental laboratory technology programs utilizenumerous extramural dental offices and laboratories to provide students/residents withclinical/laboratory practice experience. In this instance, the Commission will randomly select andvisit several facilities during the site visit to a program.All programs accredited by the Commission pay an annual fee. There are variations in fees fordifferent disciplines, based on actual accreditation costs, including the utilization of on- and off-campus locations. The Commission office should be contacted for current information on fees. Commission on Dental Accreditation Policy, July 1998 Prosthodontics Standards -14-
  • 36. STANDARD 2 - PROGRAM DIRECTOR AND TEACHING STAFFThe program must be administered by a director who is board certified in the respective specialty ofthe program. (All program directors appointed after January 1, 1997, who have not previouslyserved as program directors, must be board certified.)Intent: The director of an advanced specialty education program is to be certified by an ADA-recognized certifying board in the specialty. Board certification is to be active. The boardcertification requirement of Standard 2 is also applicable to an interim/acting program director. Aprogram with a director who is not board certified, but who has previous experience as aninterim/acting program director in a Commission-accredited program prior to 1997 is notconsidered in compliance with Standard 2.Examples of evidence to demonstrate compliance include: For board certified directors: Copy of board certification certificate; letter from board attesting to active/current board certification. (For non-board certified directors who served prior to January 1, 1997: Current CV identifying previous directorship in a Commission on Dental Accreditation- or Commission on Dental Accreditation of Canada-accredited advanced specialty program in the respective discipline; letter from the previous employing institution verifying service.)The program director must be appointed to the sponsoring institution and have sufficient authorityand time to achieve the educational goals of the program and assess the program’s effectiveness inmeeting its goals.2-1 The program director must have primary responsibility for the organization and execution of the educational and administrative components to the program. 2-1.1 The program director must devote sufficient time to: a. Participate in the student/resident selection process, unless the program is sponsored by federal services utilizing a centralized student/resident selection process; b. Develop and implement the curriculum plan to provide a diverse educational experience in biomedical and clinical sciences; c. Maintain a current copy of the curriculum’s goals, objectives, and content outlines; d. Maintain a record of the number and variety of clinical experiences accomplished by each student/resident; e. Ensure that the majority of faculty assigned to the program are educationally qualified prosthodontists; f. Provide written faculty evaluations at least annually to determine the effectiveness of the faculty in the educational program; Prosthodontics Standards -15-
  • 37. g. Conduct periodic staff meetings for the proper administration of the educational program; and h. Maintain adequate records of clinical supervision.2-2 The program director must encourage students/residents to seek certification by the American Board of Prosthodontics.2-3 The number and time commitment of the teaching staff must be sufficient to a. Provide didactic and clinical instruction to meet curriculum goals and objectives; and b. Provide supervision of all treatment provided by students/residents through specific and regularly scheduled clinic assignments. Prosthodontics Standards -16-
  • 38. STANDARD 3 - FACILITIES AND RESOURCESInstitutional facilities and resources must be adequate to provide the educational experiences andopportunities required to fulfill the needs of the educational program as specified in these Standards.Equipment and supplies for use in managing medical emergencies must be readily accessible andfunctional.Intent: The facilities and resources (e.g.; support/secretarial staff, allied personnel and/or technicalstaff) should permit the attainment of program goals and objectives. To ensure health and safety forpatients, students/residents, faculty and staff, the physical facilities and equipment should effectivelyaccommodate the clinic and/or laboratory schedule.The program must document its compliance with the institution’s policy and applicable regulationsof local, state and federal agencies including but not limited to radiation hygiene and protection,ionizing radiation, hazardous materials, and bloodborne and infectious diseases. Policies must beprovided to all students/residents faculty and appropriate support staff and continuously monitoredfor compliance. Additionally, policies on bloodborne and infectious diseases must be madeavailable to applicants for admission and patients.Intent: The program may document compliance by including the applicable program policies. Theprogram demonstrates how the policies are provided to the students/residents faculty andappropriate support staff and who is responsible for monitoring compliance. Applicable policystates how it is made available to applicants for admission and patients should a request to reviewthe policy be made.Students/Residents, faculty and appropriate support staff must be encouraged to be immunizedagainst and/or tested for infectious diseases, such as mumps, measles, rubella and hepatitis B, priorto contact with patients and/or infectious objects or materials, in an effort to minimize the risk topatients and dental personnel.Intent: The program should have written policy that encourages (e.g., delineates the advantages of)immunization of students/residents, faculty and appropriate support staff.All students/residents, faculty and support staff involved in the direct provision of patient care mustbe continuously recognized/certified in basic life support procedures, including cardiopulmonaryresuscitation.Intent: Continuously recognized/certified in basic life support procedures means the appropriateindividuals are currently recognized/certified.The use of private office facilities as a means of providing clinical experiences in advanced specialtyeducation is not approved, unless the specialty has included language that defines the use of suchfacilities in its specialty-specific standards.Intent: Required prosthodontics clinical experiences do not occur in private office facilities.Practice management and elective experiences may be undertaken in private office facilities. Prosthodontics Standards -17-
  • 39. 3-1 Physical facilities must permit students/residents to operate under circumstances prevailing in the practice of prosthodontics. 3-1.1 The clinical facilities must be specifically identified for the advanced education program in prosthodontics. 3-1.2 There must be sufficient number of completely equipped operatories to accommodate the number of students/residents enrolled. 3-1.3 Laboratory facilities must be specifically identified for the advanced education program in prosthodontics. 3-1.4 The laboratory must be equipped to support the fabrication of most prostheses required in the program. 3-1.5 There must be sufficient laboratory space to accommodate the number of students/residents enrolled in the program, including provisions for storage of personal and laboratory armamentaria.3-2 Radiographic equipment for extra-and intraoral radiographs must be accessible to the student/resident.3-3 Lecture, seminar, study space and administrative office space must be available for the conduct of the educational program.3-4 Library resources must include access to a diversified selection of current dental, biomedical, and other pertinent reference material. 3-4.1 Library resources must also include access to appropriate current and back issues of major scientific journals as well as equipment for retrieval and duplication of information.3-5 Facilities must include access to computer, photographic, and audiovisual resources for educational, administrative, and research support.3-6 Adequate allied dental personnel must be assigned to the program to ensure clinical and laboratory technical support.3-7 Secretarial and clerical assistance must be sufficient to meet the educational and administrative needs of the program.3-8 Laboratory technical support must be sufficient to ensure efficient operation of the clinical program and meet the educational needs of the program. Prosthodontics Standards -18-
  • 40. STANDARD 4 – CURRICULUM AND PROGRAM DURATIONThe advanced specialty education program must be designed to provide special knowledge andskills beyond the D.D.S. or D.M.D. training and be oriented to the accepted standards of specialtypractice as set forth in specific standards contained in this document.Intent: The intent is to ensure that the didactic rigor and extent of clinical experience exceeds pre-doctoral, entry level dental training or continuing education requirements and the material andexperience satisfies standards for the specialty.The level of specialty area instruction in the graduate and postgraduate programs must becomparable.Intent: The intent is to ensure that the students/residents of these programs receive the sameeducational requirements as set forth in these Standards.Documentation of all program activities must be assured by the program director and available forreview.If an institution and/or program enrolls part-time students/residents, the institution must haveguidelines regarding enrollment of part-time students/residents. Part-time students/residents muststart and complete the program within a single institution, except when the program is discontinued.The director of an accredited program who enrolls students/residents on a part-time basis mustassure that: (1) the educational experiences, including the clinical experiences and responsibilities,are the same as required by full-time students/residents; and (2) there are an equivalent number ofmonths spent in the program. PROGRAM DURATION4-1 A postdoctoral program in prosthodontics must encompass a minimum of 33 months.4-2 A postdoctoral program in prosthodontics that includes integrated maxillofacial training must encompass a minimum of 45 months.4-3 A 12-month postdoctoral program in maxillofacial prosthetics must be preceded by successful completion of an accredited prosthodontics program. CURRICULUM4-4 The curriculum must be designed to enable the student/resident to attain skills representative of a clinician proficient in the theoretical and practical aspects of prosthodontics. Advanced level instruction may be provided through the following: formal courses, seminars, lectures, self-instructional modules, clinical assignments and laboratory assignments. 4-4.1 Written goals and objectives must be developed for all instruction included in this curriculum. Prosthodontics Standards -19-
  • 41. 4-4.2 Content outlines must be developed for all didactic portions of the program. 4-4.3 Students/Residents must prepare and present diagnostic data, treatment plans and the results of patient treatment. 4-4.4 The amount of time devoted to didactic instruction and research must be at least 30% of the total educational experience. 4-4.5 A minimum of 60% of the total program time must be devoted to providing patient services, including direct patient care and laboratory procedures. 4-4.6 The program may include organized teaching experience. If time is devoted to this activity, it should be carefully evaluated in relation to the goals and objectives of the overall program and the interests of the individual student/resident. DIDACTIC PROGRAM: BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES4-5 Instruction must be provided at the understanding level in each of the following: a. Oral pathology; b. Applied pharmacology; c. Craniofacial anatomy and physiology; and d. Infection control.4-6 Instruction must be provided at the familiarity level in each of the following: a. Craniofacial growth and development; b. Immunology; c. Oral microbiology; d. Risk assessment for oral disease; and e. Wound healing. DIDACTIC PROGRAM: PROSTHODONTICS AND RELATED DISCIPLINES4-7 Instruction must be provided at the in-depth level in each of the following: a. Fixed prosthodontics; b. Implant prosthodontics; c. Removable prosthodontics, and d. Occlusion.4-8 Instruction must be provided at the understanding level in each of the following: a. Biomaterials; b. Geriatrics; c. Maxillofacial prosthetics; d. Preprosthetic surgery; including surgical principles and procedures; e. Implant placement including surgical and post-surgical management f. Temporomandibular disorders and orofacial pain; g. Medical emergencies; h. Diagnostic radiology; i. Research methodology; and Prosthodontics Standards -20-
  • 42. j. Prosthodontic patient classification systems such as the Prosthodontic Diagnostic Index (ACP Classification Systems) for edentulous, partially edentulous and dentate patients.4-9 Instruction must be provided at the familiarity level in each of the following: a. Endodontics; b. Periodontics; c. Orthodontics; d. Sleep disorders; e. Intraoral photography; f. Practice management; g. Behavioral sciences; h. Ethics; i. Biostatistics; j. Scientific writing; and k. Teaching methodology. CLINICAL PROGRAM4-10 The program must provide sufficient clinical experiences for the student/resident to be proficient in the comprehensive treatment of a wide range of complex prosthodontic patients with various categories of need.4-11 The program must provide sufficient clinical experiences for the student/resident to be proficient in: a. Collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting diagnostic data; b. Determining a diagnosis; c. Developing a comprehensive treatment plan and prognosis; d. Critically evaluating the results of treatment; and e. Effectively utilizing the professional services of allied dental personnel, including but not limited to, dental laboratory technicians, dental assistants, and dental hygienists.4-12 The program must provide sufficient clinical experiences for the student/resident to be proficient in the comprehensive diagnosis, treatment planning and rehabilitation of edentulous, partially edentulous and dentate patients. a. Clinical experiences must include a variety of patients within a range of prosthodontic classifications, such as in the Prosthodontic Diagnostic Index (ACP Classification Systems) for edentulous, partially edentulous and dentate patients. b. Clinical experiences must include rehabilitative and esthetic procedures of varying complexity. c. Clinical experiences must include treatment of geriatric patients, including patients with varying degrees of cognitive and physical impairments. d. This may include defects, which are due to genetic, functional, parafunctional, microbial or traumatic causes. Prosthodontics Standards -21-
  • 43. Intent: Students/Residents should be proficient in the use of adjustable articulators to develop an integrated occlusion for opposing arches; complete and partial coverage restorations, restoration of endodontically treated teeth, fixed prosthodontics, removable partial dentures, complete dentures, implant supported and/or retained prostheses, and continual care and maintenance of restorations.4-13 The program must provide sufficient dental laboratory experience for the student/resident to be competent in the laboratory aspects of treatment of complete edentulism, partial edentulism and dentate patients.4-14 Students/Residents must be competent in the prosthodontic management of patients with temporomandibular disorders and/or orofacial pain.4-15 Students/Residents must be exposed to patients requiring various maxillofacial prosthetic services.4-16 Students/Residents must participate in all phases of implant treatment including implant placement. Intent: It is anticipated that students/residents will act as first assistant and/or primary surgeon for some of their own patients.4-17 Students/Residents must be exposed to preprosthetic surgical procedures. Intent: Surgical procedures should include contouring of residual ridges, gingival recontouring, placement of dental implants, and removal of teeth. MAXILLOFACIAL PROSTHETICSNote: Application of these Standards to programs of various scope/length is as follows: a. Prosthodontic programs that encompass a minimum of forty-five months that include integrated maxillofacial prosthetic training: all sections of these Standards apply; b. Prosthodontic programs that encompass a minimum of thirty-three months: all sections of these Standards apply except sections 4-18 through 4-24 inclusive; and c. Twelve-month maxillofacial prosthetic programs: all sections of these Standards apply except sections 4-5 through 4-17, inclusive. PROGRAM DURATION4-18 An advanced education program in maxillofacial prosthetics must be provided with a forty- five month integrated prosthodontic program which includes fixed prosthodontic, removable prosthodontic, implant prosthodontic and maxillofacial prosthetic experiences; or a one-year program devoted specifically to maxillofacial prosthetics which follows completion of a prosthodontic program. Prosthodontics Standards -22-
  • 44. DIDACTIC PROGRAM4-19 Instruction must be provided at the in-depth level in each of the following: a. Maxillary defects and soft palate defects, which are the result of disease or trauma (acquired defects); b. Mandibular defects, which are the result of disease or trauma (acquired defects); c. Maxillary defects, which are naturally acquired (congenital or developmental defects); d. Mandibular defects, which are naturally acquired (congenital or developmental defects); e. Facial defects, which are the result of disease or trauma or are naturally acquired; f. The use of implants to restore intraoral and extraoral defects; g. Maxillofacial prosthetic management of the radiation therapy patient; and h. Maxillofacial prosthetic management of the chemotherapy patient.4-20 Instruction must be provided at the familiarity level in each of the following: a. Medical oncology; b. Principles of head and neck surgery; c. Radiation oncology; d. Speech and deglutition; and e. Cranial defects. CLINICAL PROGRAM4-21 Students/Residents must be competent to perform maxillofacial prosthetic treatment procedures performed in the hospital operation room.4-22 Students/Residents must gain clinical experience to become proficient in the pre-prosthetic, prosthetic and post-prosthetic management and treatment of patients with defects of the maxilla and mandible. Clinical experience regarding management and treatment should include: a. Patients who are partially dentate and for patients who are edentulous; b. Patients who have undergone radiation therapy to the head and neck region; c. Maxillary defects of the hard palate, soft palate and alveolus; d. Mandibular continuity and discontinuity defects; and e. Acquired, congenital and developmental defects.4-23 Students/Residents must gain clinical experience to become competent in the pre-prosthetic, prosthetic and post-prosthetic management and treatment of patients with defects of facial structures. Prosthodontics Standards -23-
  • 45. 4-24 Students/Residents must demonstrate competency in interdisciplinary diagnostic and treatment planning conferences relevant to maxillofacial prosthetics, which may include: a. Cleft palate and craniofacial conferences; b. Clinical pathology conferences; c. Head and neck diagnostic conferences; d. Medical oncology treatment planning conferences; e. Radiation therapy diagnosis and treatment planning conferences; f. Reconstructive surgery conferences; and g. Tumor boards. Prosthodontics Standards -24-
  • 46. STANDARD 5 - ADVANCED EDUCATION STUDENTS/RESIDENTS ELIGIBILITY AND SELECTIONDentists with the following qualifications are eligible to enter advanced specialty educationprograms accredited by the Commission on Dental Accreditation:a. Graduates from institutions in the U.S. accredited by the Commission on Dental Accreditation;b. Graduates from institutions in Canada accredited by the Commission on Dental Accreditation of Canada; andc. Graduates of foreign dental schools who possess equivalent educational background and standing as determined by the institution and program.Policy on Advanced StandingThe Commission supports the principle, which would allow a student/resident to complete aneducation program in less time providing the individual’s competency level upon completion of theprogram is comparable to that of students/residents completing a traditional program. Further, theCommission wishes to emphasize the need for program directors to assess carefully, for advancedplacement purposes, previous educational experience to determine its level of adequacy. It isrequired that the institution granting the degree or certificate be the institution that presents theterminal portion of the educational experience. It is understood that the advanced credit may beearned at the same institution or another institution having appropriate level courses. Commission on Dental Accreditation revised: January 30, 2001Specific written criteria, policies and procedures must be followed when admittingstudents/residents.Intent: Written non-discriminatory policies are to be followed in selecting students/residents. Thesepolicies should make clear the methods and criteria used in recruiting and selectingstudents/residents and how applicants are informed of their status throughout the selection process.Admission of students/residents with advanced standing must be based on the same standards ofachievement required by students/residents regularly enrolled in the program. Transferstudents/residents with advanced standing must receive an appropriate curriculum that results in thesame standards of competence required by students/residents regularly enrolled in the program.Examples of evidence to demonstrate compliance include:• policies and procedures on advanced standing• results of appropriate qualifying examinations• course equivalency or other measures to demonstrate equal scope and level of knowledge Adopted: July 27, 2001 Implementation Date: July 1, 2002 Prosthodontics Standards -25-
  • 47. EVALUATIONA system of ongoing evaluation and advancement must assure that, through the director and faculty,each program:a. Periodically, but at least semiannually, evaluates the knowledge, skills and professional growth of its students/residents, using appropriate written criteria and procedures;b. Provide to students/residents an assessment of their performance, at least semiannually;c. Advances students/residents to positions of higher responsibility only on the basis of an evaluation of their readiness for advancement; andd. Maintains a personal record of evaluation for each student/resident which is accessible to the student/resident and available for review during site visits.Intent: (b) Student/Resident evaluations should be recorded and available in written form.(c) Deficiencies should be identified in order to institute corrective measures.(d) Student/Resident evaluation is documented in writing and is shared with the student/resident. DUE PROCESSThere must be specific written due process policies and procedures for adjudication of academic anddisciplinary complaints, which parallel those established by the sponsoring institution. RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIESAt the time of enrollment, the advanced specialty education students/residents must be apprised inwriting of the educational experience to be provided, including the nature of assignments to otherdepartments or institutions and teaching commitments. Additionally, all advanced specialtyeducation students/residents must be provided with written information which affirms theirobligations and responsibilities to the institution, the program and program faculty.Intent: Adjudication procedures should include institutional policy which provides due process forall individuals who may potentially be involved when actions are contemplated or initiated whichcould result in disciplinary actions, including dismissal of a student/resident (for academic ordisciplinary reasons). In addition to information on the program, students/residents should also beprovided with written information which affirms their obligations and responsibilities to theinstitution, the program, and the faculty. The program information provided to thestudents/residents should include, but not necessarily be limited to, information about tuition,stipend or other compensation; vacation and sick leave; practice privileges and other activityoutside the educational program; professional liability coverage; and due process policy andcurrent accreditation status of the program. Prosthodontics Standards -26-
  • 48. STANDARD 6 - RESEARCHAdvanced specialty education students/residents must engage in scholarly activity. Prosthodontics Standards -27-
  • 49. Working Definition for “Competent” As Applied To Advanced Program Educational StandardsCompetence as applied to predoctoral programs is outlined in the Commission document as “thelevels of knowledge, skills and values required by the new graduates to begin independent,unsupervised dental practice.”Competence as applied to advanced programs is slightly different, as “competent” applies to alevel of skill. The CODA advanced program standards documents describe it as “the level ofskill displaying special ability or knowledge derived from training and experience”(Prosthodontics standards document, page 9). This meaning is actually parallel to the predoctoraldefinition of the beginning practitioner. In fact, the Commission advanced program standardsapply this as to “…prepare competent individuals to initially practice prosthodontics” (Standard1).To illuminate this further, one must recognize that specialties in general and individual programsin particular can specifically describe what “competent” means. Specialties can makeclarification with intent statements within their standards document. Program directors canclearly outline their Program Goals and Objectives and subsequently specify the skills they usefor their students to meet competence in specified skill areas as entry level prosthodontists.Ongoing outcomes assessments using the measures the director deems applicable assure studentsbecome competent in the specified skill area.In summary, competence as it applies to advanced programs involves: • Identification of a skill area by the specialty within which students must gain competence. This requires the simultaneous development of intent statements that allow latitude in interpretation. • Specification of skills by the Program Director and faculty that an individual program will use to show that students develop competence. • Utilization of an ongoing outcomes assessment program that demonstrates student growth toward competence as determined by the program faculty.
  • 50. STANDARD 4 – CURRICULUM AND PROGRAM DURATIONThe advanced specialty education program must be designed to provide special knowledge and skills beyond theD.D.S. or D.M.D. training and be oriented to the accepted standards of specialty practice as set forth in specific standards contained in this document.Intent: The intent is to ensure that the didactic rigor and extent of clinical experience exceeds pre-doctoral,entry level dental training or continuing education requirements and the material and experience satisfiesstandards for the specialty.The level of specialty area instruction in the graduate and postgraduate programs must be comparable.Intent: The intent is to ensure that the residents of these programs receive the same educationalrequirements as set forth in these Standards.Documentation of all program activities must be assured by the program director and available for review.If an institution and/or program enrolls part-time students, the institution must have guidelines regardingenrollment of part-time students. Part-time students must start and complete the program within a singleinstitution, except when the program is discontinued. The director of an accredited program who enrolls studentson a part-time basis must assure that: (1) the educational experiences, including the clinical experiences andresponsibilities, are the same as required by full-time students; and (2) there are an equivalent number of monthsspent in the program. PROGRAM DURATION4-1 A postdoctoral program in prosthodontics must encompass a minimum of 33 months.4-2 A postdoctoral program in prosthodontics that includes integration of maxillofacial training must encompass a minimum of 45 months.4-3 A 12-month postdoctoral in program in maxillofacial prosthetics must be preceded by a successful completion of an accredited prosthodontics program. CURRICULUM4-4 The curriculum must be designed to enable the student to attain skills representative of a clinician proficient in the theoretical and practical aspects of prosthodontics. Advanced level instruction may be provided through the following: formal courses, seminars, lectures, self-instructional modules, clinical assignments and laboratory assignments. 4-4.1 Written goals and objectives must be developed for all instruction included in this curriculum. 4-4.2 Content outlines must be developed for all didactic portions of the program. 4-4.3 Students must prepare and present diagnostic data, treatment plans and the results of patient treatment. 4-4.4 The amount of time devoted to didactic instruction and research must be at least 30% of the total educational experience. 4-4.5 A minimum of 60% of the total program time must be devoted to providing patient services, including direct patient care and laboratory procedures. 4-4.6 The program may include organized teaching experience. If time is devoted to this activity, it
  • 51. should be carefully evaluated in relation to the goals and objectives of the overall program and the interests of the individual student. DIDACTIC PROGRAM: BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES4-5 Instruction must be provided at the understanding level in each of the following: a. Oral pathology; b. Applied pharmacology; c. Craniofacial anatomy and physiology; and d. Infection control; and e. Wound healing.4-6 Instruction must be provided at the familiarity level in each of the following: a. Craniofacial growth and development; b. Immunology; c. Oral microbiology; d. Risk assessment for oral disease; and e. Wound healing.Intent: Students must have the didactic background that supports the various aspects ofcomprehensive prosthodontic therapy they provide or guide during their clinicalexperiences with dentate, partially edentulous and completely edentulous patients. Thisfundamental didactic background is necessary whether the student provides therapy orserves as the referral source to other providers. It is expected that such learning wouldbe directly supportive of requisite clinical curriculum proficiencies and competencies.DIDACTIC PROGRAM: PROSTHODONTICS AND RELATED DISCIPLINES4-7 Instruction must be provided at the in-depth level in each of the following: a. Fixed prosthodontics; b. Implant prosthodontics, including implant placement; c. Removable prosthodontics, and d. Occlusion.Intent: Students must have in depth knowledge in all aspects of prosthodontic therapy toserve their leading role in the management of patients from various diagnosticclassifications. This includes implant placement, as well as implant surgical andpost-surgical management.4-8 Instruction must be provided at the understanding level in each of the following: a. Biomaterials; b. Geriatrics dentistry; c. Maxillofacial prosthetics; d. Preprosthetic surgery; including surgical principles and procedures; e. Evidence-based decision-making e. Implant placement including surgical and post-surgical management f. Temporomandibular disorders and orofacial pain; g. Medical emergencies; h. Diagnostic radiology; i. Research methodology; and
  • 52. j. Prosthodontic patient classification systems such as the Prosthodontic Diagnostic Index (ACP Classification Systems) for edentulous, partially edentulous and dentate patients.4-9 Instruction must be provided at the familiarity level in each of the following: a. Endodontics; b. Periodontics; c. Orthodontics; d. Sleep disorders; e. Conscious sedation f. Intraoral photography; g. Practice management; g. Behavioral sciences; i. Ethics; j. Biostatistics; k. Scientific writing; and l. Teaching methodology. CLINICAL PROGRAM4-10 The program must provide sufficient clinical experiences for the student to be proficient in the comprehensive treatment of a wide range of complex prosthodontic patients with various categories of need.4-11 The program must provide sufficient clinical experiences for the student to be proficient in: a. Collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting diagnostic data; b. Determining a diagnosis; c. Developing a comprehensive treatment plan and prognosis; d. Critically evaluating the results of treatment; and e. Effectively utilizing the professional services of allied dental personnel, including but not limited to, dental laboratory technicians, dental assistants, and dental hygienists.4-12 The program must provide sufficient clinical experiences for the student to be proficient in the comprehensive diagnosis, treatment planning and rehabilitation of edentulous, partially edentulous and dentate patients. a. Clinical experiences must include a variety of patients within a range of prosthodontic classifications, such as in the Prosthodontic Diagnostic Index (ACP Classification Systems) for edentulous, partially edentulous and dentate patients. b. Clinical experiences must include rehabilitative and esthetic procedures of varying complexity. c. Clinical experiences must include treatment of geriatric patients, including patients with varying degrees of cognitive and physical impairments. d. This may include defects, which are due to genetic, functional, parafunctional, microbial or traumatic causes.
  • 53. Intent: Students should be proficient in the use of adjustable articulators to develop an integrated occlusion for opposing arches; complete and partial coverage restorations, restoration of endodontically treated teeth, fixed prosthodontics, removable partial dentures, complete dentures, implant supported and/or retained prostheses, and continual care and maintenance of restorations. Students should provide diagnosis driven therapy using recent advances in science and technology.4-13 The program must provide sufficient dental laboratory experience for the student to be competent in the laboratory aspects of treatment of complete edentulism, partial edentulism and dentate patients.4-14 Students must be competent in the prosthodontic management of patients with temporomandibular disorders and/or orofacial pain.4-15 Students must be exposed to patients requiring various maxillofacial prosthetic services.4-16 Students must participate in all phases of implant treatment including implant placement. Intent: It is anticipated that students will act as first assistant and/or primary surgeon for some of their own patients.4-16 Students must be competent in implant placement. Intent: Students must guide implant placement beginning with initial assessment through comprehensive diagnosis and treatment planning for their patients. They must be intimately involved with surgical planning their patients. It is anticipated that students will serve as primary surgeon for some of their own patients.4-17 Students must be exposed to preprosthetic surgical procedures. Intent: Surgical procedures should include contouring of residual ridges, gingival recontouring, placement of dental implants, and removal of teeth.4-18 Students must be exposed to patient management through sedation. Intent: Students should observe surgical procedures for patients who receive sedation.4-19 Students must be competent in oral/head/neck cancer screening and patient education for prevention.
  • 54. Intent: Students should be competent in clinical identification of potential pathosis and referral to a specialist. Students must also educate patients to promote oral/head/neck cancer prevention. MAXILLOFACIAL PROSTHETICSNote: Application of these Standards to programs of various scope/length is as follows: a. Prosthodontic programs that encompass a minimum of forty-five months that include integrated maxillofacial prosthetic training: all sections of these Standards apply; b. Prosthodontic programs that encompass a minimum of thirty-three months: all sections of these Standards apply except sections 4-18 through 4-24 inclusive; and c. Twelve-month maxillofacial prosthetic programs: all sections of these Standards apply except sections 4-5 through 4-17, inclusive. PROGRAM DURATION4-18 An advanced education program in maxillofacial prosthetics must be provided with a forty-five month integrated prosthodontic program which includes fixed prosthodontic, removable prosthodontic, implant prosthodontic and maxillofacial prosthetic experiences; or a one-year program devoted specifically to maxillofacial prosthetics which follows completion of a prosthodontic program. DIDACTIC PROGRAM4-19 Instruction must be provided at the in-depth level in each of the following: a. Maxillary defects and soft palate defects, which are the result of disease or trauma (acquired defects); b. Mandibular defects, which are the result of disease or trauma (acquired defects); c. Maxillary defects, which are naturally acquired (congenital or developmental defects); d. Mandibular defects, which are naturally acquired (congenital or developmental defects); e. Facial defects, which are the result of disease or trauma or are naturally acquired; f. The use of implants to restore intraoral and extraoral defects; g. Maxillofacial prosthetic management of the radiation therapy patient; and h. Maxillofacial prosthetic management of the chemotherapy patient.4-20 Instruction must be provided at the familiarity level in each of the following: a. Medical oncology;
  • 55. b. Principles of head and neck surgery; c. Radiation oncology; d. Speech and deglutition; and e. Cranial defects. CLINICAL PROGRAM4-21 Residents must be competent to perform maxillofacial prosthetic treatment procedures performed in the hospital operation room.4-22 Residents must gain clinical experience to become proficient in the pre-prosthetic, prosthetic and post-prosthetic management and treatment of patients with defects of the maxilla and mandible. Clinical experience regarding management and treatment should include: a. Patients who are partially dentate and for patients who are edentulous; b. Patients who have undergone radiation therapy to the head and neck region; c. Maxillary defects of the hard palate, soft palate and alveolus; d. Mandibular continuity and discontinuity defects; and e. Acquired, congenital and developmental defects.4-23 Residents must gain clinical experience to become competent in the pre-prosthetic, prosthetic and post-prosthetic management and treatment of patients with defects of facial structures.4-24 Residents must demonstrate competency in interdisciplinary diagnostic and treatment planning conferences relevant to maxillofacial prosthetics, which may include: a. Cleft palate and craniofacial conferences; b. Clinical pathology conferences; c. Head and neck diagnostic conferences; d. Medical oncology treatment planning conferences; e. Radiation therapy diagnosis and treatment planning conferences; f. Reconstructive surgery conferences; and g. Tumor boards.
  • 56. Appendix 2 Page 1American 211 East Chicago Avenue Commission onDental Chicago, Illinois 60611 Dental AccreditationAssociation 312-440-46532006 Prosthodontics EducationAccreditation StandardsValidity and Reliability StudyOctober 2006American Dental Association
  • 57. Appendix 2 Page 2INTRODUCTIONAt its January 2006 meeting, the Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) decided that a validity and reliabilitystudy be conducted prior to considering any future revisions in the accreditation standards for each type ofadvanced dental specialty education program. The 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation StandardsValidity and Reliability Study was conducted as a result of this decision.CODA, with assistance from the Survey Center, designed the survey instrument used for this study (see Appendix).The survey was mailed to a number of communities of interest, including: • Random sample of professionally active prosthodontists • Directors of prosthodontics education programs • Deans of advanced dental education in dental schools • Chief administrative officers of dental programs in non-dental school institutions • CODA prosthodontics education program site visitors • Executive directors of state boards of dentistry • Executive directors of regional clinical testing agencies • Executive directors of prosthodontics organizations • Executive director and president of the American Association of Dental Examiners • Executive director and president of the American Dental Education Association • Executive director and president of the American Student Dental Association • Executive director and president of the National Dental Association • Executive director and president of the American Dental AssociationA total of 671 surveys were mailed in June 2006. In order to increase the response rate, follow-up mailings wereadministered to all non-respondents in August and September. At the time the data collection ended in October,there were 216 respondents, for an adjusted response rate of 35.6% (excluding those individuals who were notprosthodontists or were no longer in dentistry, or whose addresses were no longer valid).A breakdown of the adjusted response rate by type of respondent is found below. In cases where an individualbelonged to more than one type of respondent category (such as a program director who is also a CODA sitevisitor), that person is counted once in all applicable categories. • Random sample of 500 professionally active prosthodontists: 28.6% • 56 directors of prosthodontics education programs: 88.7% • 19 deans of advanced dental education in dental schools: 50.0% • 16 chief administrative officers of dental programs in non-dental school institutions: 57.1% • 23 CODA prosthodontics education program site visitors: 87.0% • Executive directors of 53 state boards of dentistry and four regional clinical testing agencies: 30.9% • 11 executive directors and presidents of prosthodontics organizations: 70.0% • Executive directors and presidents of ADA, ADEA, ASDA, NDA, and AADE: 10.0%NOTES TO THE READERRespondents were asked to rate each criterion in the survey using a scale from 1-5. The following descriptionscorrespond to the values in the rating scale: 1 = criterion relevant but too demanding 2 = retain criterion as is 3 = criterion relevant but not sufficiently demanding 4 = criterion not relevant 5 = no opinion.
  • 58. Appendix 2 Page 3The tables in this report provide frequency distributions for each question in the survey, broken down by type ofrespondent. Please note that the respondent types were determined by the sample background data put togetherin preparation for mailing out this survey. Respondents may have belonged in more than one category; in suchcases, the individual’s responses to the survey are included in the results for each applicable category.In addition to frequency distributions, the following tables display the average rating score for each criterion. Keepin mind that, although the responses for individuals who reported "no opinion" are included in the calculation ofpercentages shown in the report, the value of "5" was not included in the calculation of averages.After the numerical analysis, the report also includes the verbatim comments provided by respondents. The type ofrespondent is noted next to each comment. The comments are arranged by general standard area (1 through 6),and also include the responses to the “Any comments?” question at the end of the survey.For your reference, the Appendix at the end of this report contains a copy of the survey instrument used to collectthese data.
  • 59. Appendix 2 Page 4 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 1 - Institutional Commitment/Program Effectiveness The program must develop clearly stated goals and objectives appropriate to advanced specialty education, addressing education, patient care, research and service. Planning for, evaluation of and improvement of educational quality for the program must be broad-based,1a. systematic, continuous and designed to promote achievement of program goals related to education, patient care, research and service.Total 47 125 17 19 8 171 6 12.8 5 4.0 1 5.9 1 5.3 0 0.0 0 0.02 41 87.2 109 87.2 16 94.1 18 94.7 8 100.0 9 52.93 0 0.0 5 4.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 5.94 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 6 4.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 7 41.2Average 1.9 2.0 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.1 The program must document its effectiveness using a formal and ongoing outcomes assessment process to include measures of advanced1b. education student/resident achievement.Total 47 126 17 20 8 161 8 17.0 15 11.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 39 83.0 95 75.4 17 100.0 20 100.0 8 100.0 10 62.53 0 0.0 8 6.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 2 1.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 6 4.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 6 37.5Average 1.8 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.01c. The financial resources must be sufficient to support the programs stated goals and objectives.Total 47 126 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 9 7.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 44 93.6 98 77.8 17 100.0 19 95.0 6 75.0 9 56.33 3 6.4 10 7.9 0 0.0 1 5.0 2 25.0 2 12.54 0 0.0 2 1.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 7 5.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.3 2.2
  • 60. Appendix 2 Page 5 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 1 - Institutional Commitment/Program Effectiveness (continued) The sponsoring institution must ensure that support from entities outside of the institution does not compromise the teaching, clinical and1d. research components of the program.Total 46 125 17 19 8 161 1 2.2 7 5.6 1 5.9 1 5.3 0 0.0 0 0.02 39 84.8 102 81.6 16 94.1 14 73.7 7 87.5 10 62.53 4 8.7 12 9.6 0 0.0 4 21.1 1 12.5 0 0.04 1 2.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 1 2.2 4 3.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 6 37.5Average 2.1 2.0 1.9 2.2 2.1 2.01e. Major changes as defined by the Commission must be reported promptly to the Commission on Dental Accreditation.Total 47 124 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 10 8.1 1 5.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 47 100.0 94 75.8 16 94.1 19 95.0 8 100.0 10 62.53 0 0.0 8 6.5 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 3 2.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 9 7.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 6 37.5Average 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.1 2.0 2.0
  • 61. Appendix 2 Page 6 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 1 - Institutional Commitment/Program Effectiveness (continued) Advanced specialty education programs must be sponsored by institutions, which are properly chartered and licensed to operate and offer instruction leading to degrees, diplomas or certificates with recognized education validity. Hospitals that sponsor advanced specialty education programs must be accredited by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations or its equivalent. Educational institutions that sponsor advanced specialty education programs must be accredited by an agency recognized by the United States Department of Education. The bylaws, rules and regulations of hospitals that sponsor or provide a substantial portion of advanced specialty education programs must assure that dentists are eligible for medical staff membership and privileges including the right to vote, hold office,1f. serve on medical staff committees and admit, manage and discharge patients.Total 47 126 17 20 8 161 1 2.1 12 9.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 45 95.7 102 81.0 17 100.0 20 100.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 0 0.0 2 1.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 1 2.1 9 7.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 The authority and final responsibility for curriculum development and approval, student/resident selection, faculty selection and1g. administrative matters must rest within the sponsoring institution.Total 47 125 17 20 8 161 1 2.1 3 2.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 46 97.9 104 83.2 17 100.0 18 90.0 8 100.0 9 56.33 0 0.0 11 8.8 0 0.0 2 10.0 0 0.0 2 12.54 0 0.0 2 1.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 5 4.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.2
  • 62. Appendix 2 Page 7 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 1 - Institutional Commitment/Program Effectiveness (continued) The position of the program in the administrative structure must be consistent with that of other parallel programs within the institution and1h. the program director must have the authority, responsibility and privileges necessary to manage the program.Total 47 125 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 4 3.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 44 93.6 111 88.8 17 100.0 18 90.0 8 100.0 9 56.33 3 6.4 7 5.6 0 0.0 2 10.0 0 0.0 1 6.34 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 2 1.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 6 37.5Average 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.1Affiliations The primary sponsor of the educational program must accept full responsibility for the quality of education provided in all affiliated1i. institutions.Total 47 124 17 20 8 161 1 2.1 9 7.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 44 93.6 100 80.6 17 100.0 19 95.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 1 2.1 11 8.9 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 1 2.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 4 3.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.0 Documentary evidence of agreements, approved by the sponsoring and relevant affiliated institutions, must be available. The following1j.1. items must be covered in such inter-institutional agreements: Designation of a single program director;Total 46 119 17 20 8 151 0 0.0 5 4.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.02 44 95.7 99 83.2 17 100.0 20 100.0 7 87.5 10 66.73 0 0.0 5 4.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 1 2.2 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 1 2.2 8 6.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 33.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.0
  • 63. Appendix 2 Page 8 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 1 - Institutional Commitment/Program Effectiveness (continued)1j.2. The teaching staff;Total 46 117 17 20 8 151 1 2.2 6 5.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 43 93.5 92 78.6 17 100.0 20 100.0 8 100.0 9 60.03 0 0.0 11 9.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.74 1 2.2 1 0.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 1 2.2 7 6.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 33.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.11j.3. The educational objectives of the program;Total 46 117 17 20 8 151 0 0.0 7 6.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 43 93.5 94 80.3 17 100.0 20 100.0 8 100.0 10 66.73 1 2.2 8 6.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 1 2.2 1 0.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 1 2.2 7 6.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 33.3Average 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.01j.4. The period of assignment of students/residents;Total 46 117 17 20 8 151 0 0.0 4 3.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 44 95.7 95 81.2 17 100.0 20 100.0 7 87.5 10 66.73 0 0.0 8 6.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.04 1 2.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 1 2.2 10 8.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 33.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.0
  • 64. Appendix 2 Page 9 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 1 - Institutional Commitment/Program Effectiveness (continued)1j.5. Each institutions financial commitment.Total 47 116 17 20 8 151 1 2.1 4 3.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 42 89.4 87 75.0 17 100.0 18 90.0 7 87.5 9 60.03 2 4.3 12 10.3 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 1 2.1 3 2.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.05 1 2.1 10 8.6 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 6 40.0Average 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.3 2.0Standard 2 - Program Director and Teaching Staff The program must be administered by a director who is board certified in the respective specialty of the program. (All program directors2a. appointed after January 1, 1997, who have not previously served as program directors, must be board certified.)Total 47 121 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 16 13.2 1 5.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 45 95.7 91 75.2 16 94.1 18 90.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 2 4.3 8 6.6 0 0.0 2 10.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 5 4.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.1 2.0 2.0 The program director must be appointed to the sponsoring institution and have sufficient authority and time to achieve the educational goals2b. of the program and assess the programs effectiveness in meeting its goals.Total 47 121 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 5 4.1 1 5.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 45 95.7 105 86.8 16 94.1 20 100.0 8 100.0 10 62.53 2 4.3 9 7.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.34 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.1
  • 65. Appendix 2 Page 10 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 2 - Program Director and Teaching Staff (continued) The program director must have primary responsibility for the organization and execution of the educational and administrative components2-1. to the program.Total 47 121 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 7 5.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 47 100.0 103 85.1 17 100.0 20 100.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 0 0.0 8 6.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 The program director must devote sufficient time to: Participate in the student/resident selection process, unless the program is sponsored2-1.1a. by federal services utilizing a centralized student/resident selection process;Total 47 119 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 5 4.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 47 100.0 101 84.9 17 100.0 20 100.0 8 100.0 10 62.53 0 0.0 8 6.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.35 0 0.0 4 3.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.22-1.1b. Develop and implement the curriculum plan to provide a diverse educational experience in biomedical and clinical sciences;Total 47 119 17 20 8 161 2 4.3 6 5.0 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 1 6.32 44 93.6 101 84.9 17 100.0 19 95.0 8 100.0 10 62.53 1 2.1 6 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 4 3.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9
  • 66. Appendix 2 Page 11 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 2 - Program Director and Teaching Staff (continued)2-1.1c. Maintain a current copy of the curriculum’s goals, objectives, and content outlines;Total 47 119 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 7 5.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 47 100.0 105 88.2 17 100.0 20 100.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 0 0.0 3 2.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 3 2.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.02-1.1d. Maintain a record of the number and variety of clinical experiences accomplished by each student/resident;Total 47 119 17 20 8 161 6 12.8 12 10.1 0 0.0 1 5.0 1 12.5 1 6.32 41 87.2 91 76.5 17 100.0 19 95.0 7 87.5 10 62.53 0 0.0 12 10.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 3 2.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.92-1.1e. Ensure that the majority of faculty assigned to the program are educationally qualified prosthodontists;Total 47 119 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 4 3.4 1 5.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 45 95.7 98 82.4 16 94.1 17 85.0 8 100.0 9 56.33 2 4.3 13 10.9 0 0.0 3 15.0 0 0.0 2 12.54 0 0.0 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 1.9 2.2 2.0 2.2
  • 67. Appendix 2 Page 12 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 2 - Program Director and Teaching Staff (continued)2-1.1f. Provide written faculty evaluations at least annually to determine the effectiveness of the faculty in the educational program;Total 47 120 17 20 8 161 3 6.4 10 8.3 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 43 91.5 90 75.0 17 100.0 18 90.0 8 100.0 10 62.53 0 0.0 15 12.5 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 1 6.34 1 2.1 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 3 2.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.12-1.1g. Conduct periodic staff meetings for the proper administration of the educational program;Total 47 119 17 20 8 161 1 2.1 4 3.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 44 93.6 97 81.5 17 100.0 19 95.0 8 100.0 9 56.33 1 2.1 11 9.2 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 2 12.54 1 2.1 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 5 4.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.22-1.1h. Maintain adequate records of clinical supervision;Total 47 120 17 20 8 161 2 4.3 4 3.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 45 95.7 102 85.0 17 100.0 20 100.0 8 100.0 10 62.53 0 0.0 7 5.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.34 0 0.0 4 3.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 3 2.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1
  • 68. Appendix 2 Page 13 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 2 - Program Director and Teaching Staff (continued)2-2. The program director must encourage students/residents to seek certification by the American Board of Prosthodontics.Total 47 119 17 20 8 161 1 2.1 11 9.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.02 45 95.7 78 65.5 17 100.0 17 85.0 6 75.0 8 50.03 1 2.1 20 16.8 0 0.0 3 15.0 1 12.5 2 12.54 0 0.0 4 3.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.35 0 0.0 6 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.2 2.0 2.2 2.0 2.4 The number and time commitment of the teaching staff must be sufficient to: Provide didactic and clinical instruction to meet curriculum2-3.a. goals and objectives;Total 47 120 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 6 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 46 97.9 101 84.2 17 100.0 20 100.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 1 2.1 12 10.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.02-3.b. Provide supervision of all treatment provided by students/residents through specific and regularly scheduled clinic assignments.Total 47 119 17 20 8 161 1 2.1 8 6.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 45 95.7 98 82.4 17 100.0 20 100.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 1 2.1 12 10.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
  • 69. Appendix 2 Page 14 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 3 - Facilities and Resources Institutional facilities and resources must be adequate to provide the educational experiences and opportunities required to fulfill the needs of the educational program as specified in these Standards. Equipment and supplies for use in managing medical emergencies must be3a. readily accessible and functional.Total 47 121 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 3 2.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 44 93.6 102 84.3 16 94.1 19 95.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 3 6.4 14 11.6 1 5.9 1 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0 The program must document its compliance with the institution’s policy and applicable regulations of local, state and federal agencies including but not limited to radiation hygiene and protection, ionizing radiation, hazardous materials, and bloodborne and infectious diseases. Policies must be provided to all students/residents, faculty and appropriate support staff and continuously monitored for compliance.3b. Additionally, policies on bloodborne and infectious diseases must be made available to applicants for admission and patients.Total 47 121 17 20 8 161 4 8.5 5 4.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.02 42 89.4 109 90.1 17 100.0 19 95.0 7 87.5 10 62.53 0 0.0 5 4.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.34 1 2.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1 1.9 2.1 Students/Residents, faculty and appropriate support staff must be encouraged to be immunized against and/or tested for infectious diseases, such as mumps, measles, rubella and hepatitis B, prior to contact with patients and/or infectious objects or materials, in an effort to3c. minimize the risk to patients and dental personnel.Total 47 121 17 20 8 161 1 2.1 6 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.02 44 93.6 95 78.5 16 94.1 19 95.0 6 75.0 9 56.33 1 2.1 18 14.9 1 5.9 0 0.0 1 12.5 2 12.54 1 2.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.2
  • 70. Appendix 2 Page 15 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 3 - Facilities and Resources (continued) All students/residents, faculty and support staff involved in the direct provision of patient care must be continuously recognized/certified in3d. basic life support procedures, including cardiopulmonary resuscitation.Total 47 121 17 20 8 161 1 2.1 5 4.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.02 45 95.7 104 86.0 16 94.1 18 90.0 7 87.5 11 68.83 0 0.0 10 8.3 1 5.9 1 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 1 2.1 1 0.8 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.2 1.9 2.0 The use of private office facilities as a means of providing clinical experiences in advanced specialty education is not approved, unless the3e. specialty has included language that defines the use of such facilities in its specialty-specific standards.Total 47 119 16 19 8 161 4 8.5 11 9.2 1 6.3 1 5.3 1 12.5 0 0.02 39 83.0 72 60.5 13 81.3 14 73.7 6 75.0 8 50.03 2 4.3 12 10.1 1 6.3 2 10.5 1 12.5 1 6.34 1 2.1 10 8.4 1 6.3 1 5.3 0 0.0 1 6.35 1 2.1 14 11.8 0 0.0 1 5.3 0 0.0 6 37.5Average 2.0 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.0 2.33-1. Physical facilities must permit students/residents to operate under circumstances prevailing in the practice of prosthodontics.Total 47 121 17 20 8 161 2 4.3 2 1.7 1 5.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 42 89.4 102 84.3 15 88.2 19 95.0 7 87.5 9 56.33 3 6.4 15 12.4 1 5.9 1 5.0 1 12.5 2 12.54 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.2
  • 71. Appendix 2 Page 16 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 3 - Facilities and Resources (continued)3-1.1 The clinical facilities must be specifically identified for the advanced education program in prosthodontics.Total 47 120 17 20 8 161 1 2.1 7 5.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 45 95.7 93 77.5 16 94.1 19 95.0 8 100.0 9 56.33 1 2.1 16 13.3 1 5.9 1 5.0 0 0.0 2 12.54 0 0.0 3 2.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.23-1.2 There must be sufficient number of completely equipped operatories to accommodate the number of students/residents enrolled.Total 47 121 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 5 4.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 47 100.0 96 79.3 17 100.0 19 95.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 0 0.0 18 14.9 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.03-1.3 Laboratory facilities must be specifically identified for the advanced education program in prosthodontics.Total 47 121 17 20 8 151 3 6.4 12 9.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 43 91.5 87 71.9 16 94.1 20 100.0 8 100.0 10 66.73 1 2.1 16 13.2 1 5.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 5 4.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 33.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0
  • 72. Appendix 2 Page 17 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 3 - Facilities and Resources (continued)3-1.4 The laboratory must be equipped to support the fabrication of most prostheses required in the program.Total 47 120 17 20 8 161 3 6.4 8 6.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 43 91.5 90 75.0 17 100.0 19 95.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 1 2.1 17 14.2 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 4 3.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.0 There must be sufficient laboratory space to accommodate the number of students/residents enrolled in the program, including provisions for3-1.5 storage of personal and laboratory armamentaria.Total 47 121 17 20 8 161 2 4.3 6 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 44 93.6 95 78.5 16 94.1 20 100.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 1 2.1 18 14.9 1 5.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.03-2. Radiographic equipment for extra-and intraoral radiographs must be accessible to the student/resident.Total 47 121 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 4 3.3 1 5.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 47 100.0 105 86.8 16 94.1 20 100.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 0 0.0 9 7.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0
  • 73. Appendix 2 Page 18 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 3 - Facilities and Resources (continued)3-3. Lecture, seminar, study space and administrative office space must be available for the conduct of the educational program.Total 47 123 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 45 95.7 112 91.1 17 100.0 18 90.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 2 4.3 9 7.3 0 0.0 2 10.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.03-4. Library resources must include access to a diversified selection of current dental, biomedical, and other pertinent reference material.Total 47 123 17 20 8 161 1 2.1 5 4.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 45 95.7 107 87.0 17 100.0 18 90.0 7 87.5 11 68.83 1 2.1 9 7.3 0 0.0 2 10.0 1 12.5 0 0.04 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.0 Library resources must also include access to appropriate current and back issues of major scientific journals as well as equipment for3-4.1 retrieval and duplication of information.Total 47 122 17 20 8 161 1 2.1 7 5.7 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 45 95.7 101 82.8 17 100.0 18 90.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 1 2.1 11 9.0 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 2 1.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
  • 74. Appendix 2 Page 19 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 3 - Facilities and Resources (continued)3-5. Facilities must include access to computer, photographic, and audiovisual resources for educational, administrative, and research support.Total 47 123 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 3 2.4 1 5.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 45 95.7 105 85.4 16 94.1 19 95.0 8 100.0 10 62.53 2 4.3 12 9.8 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 1 6.34 0 0.0 2 1.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 1.9 2.1 2.0 2.13-6. Adequate allied dental personnel must be assigned to the program to ensure clinical and laboratory technical support.Total 47 121 17 20 8 161 2 4.3 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 39 83.0 106 87.6 17 100.0 18 90.0 7 87.5 11 68.83 6 12.8 12 9.9 0 0.0 2 10.0 1 12.5 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.03-7. Secretarial and clerical assistance must be sufficient to meet the educational and administrative needs of the program.Total 47 122 17 20 8 161 1 2.1 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 43 91.5 104 85.2 17 100.0 18 90.0 7 87.5 11 68.83 3 6.4 16 13.1 0 0.0 2 10.0 1 12.5 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.0
  • 75. Appendix 2 Page 20 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 3 - Facilities and Resources (continued) Laboratory technical support must be sufficient to ensure efficient operation of the clinical program and meet the educational needs of the3-8. program.Total 47 122 17 20 8 161 3 6.4 4 3.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 39 83.0 102 83.6 17 100.0 19 95.0 7 87.5 11 68.83 5 10.6 14 11.5 0 0.0 1 5.0 1 12.5 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 2 1.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.0Standard 4 - Curriculum and Program Duration The advanced specialty education program must be designed to provide special knowledge and skills beyond the D.D.S. or D.M.D. training4a. and be oriented to the accepted standards of specialty practice as set forth in specific standards contained in this document.Total 47 120 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 5 4.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 45 95.7 106 88.3 17 100.0 20 100.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 2 4.3 5 4.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 3 2.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.04b. The level of specialty area instruction in the graduate and postgraduate programs must be comparable.Total 47 119 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 4 3.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 44 93.6 87 73.1 15 88.2 19 95.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 0 0.0 12 10.1 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 1 2.1 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 2 4.3 14 11.8 2 11.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.0
  • 76. Appendix 2 Page 21 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 4 - Curriculum and Program Duration (continued)4c. Documentation of all program activities must be assured by the program director and available for review.Total 47 121 17 20 8 161 4 8.5 5 4.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 42 89.4 108 89.3 17 100.0 20 100.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 1 2.1 5 4.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 3 2.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 If an institution and/or program enrolls part-time students/residents, the institution must have guidelines regarding enrollment of part-time students/residents. Part-time students/residents must start and complete the program within a single institution, except when the program is discontinued. The director of an accredited program who enrolls students/residents on a part-time basis must assure that: (1) the educational experiences, including the clinical experiences and responsibilities, are the same as required by full-time students/residents; and4d. (2) there are an equivalent number of months spent in the program.Total 46 121 17 20 8 161 2 4.3 4 3.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 32 69.6 83 68.6 14 82.4 16 80.0 7 87.5 10 62.53 2 4.3 16 13.2 2 11.8 2 10.0 1 12.5 1 6.34 3 6.5 4 3.3 1 5.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 7 15.2 14 11.6 0 0.0 2 10.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1Program Duration4-1. A postdoctoral program in prosthodontics must encompass a minimum of 33 months.Total 46 121 17 20 8 161 1 2.2 12 9.9 1 5.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.32 44 95.7 88 72.7 15 88.2 20 100.0 7 87.5 9 56.33 1 2.2 8 6.6 1 5.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 5 4.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 8 6.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 6 37.5Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9
  • 77. Appendix 2 Page 22 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 4 - Curriculum and Program Duration (continued)4-2. A postdoctoral program in prosthodontics that includes integrated maxillofacial training must encompass a minimum of 45 months.Total 46 121 17 20 8 161 2 4.3 17 14.0 2 11.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.32 38 82.6 81 66.9 14 82.4 18 90.0 7 87.5 9 56.33 0 0.0 6 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 4 3.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 6 13.0 13 10.7 1 5.9 2 10.0 1 12.5 6 37.5Average 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.0 2.0 1.9 A 12-month postdoctoral program in maxillofacial prosthetics must be preceded by successful completion of an accredited prosthodontics4-3. program.Total 47 121 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 8 6.6 1 5.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 43 91.5 97 80.2 16 94.1 19 95.0 7 87.5 10 62.53 0 0.0 8 6.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 1 2.1 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 3 6.4 6 5.0 0 0.0 1 5.0 1 12.5 6 37.5Average 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0Curriculum The curriculum must be designed to enable the student/resident to attain skills representative of a clinician proficient in the theoretical and practical aspects of prosthodontics. Advanced level instruction may be provided through the following: formal courses, seminars, lectures,4-4. self-instructional modules, clinical assignments and laboratory assignments.Total 47 123 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 2 1.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 47 100.0 115 93.5 17 100.0 20 100.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 0 0.0 4 3.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 2 1.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
  • 78. Appendix 2 Page 23 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 4 - Curriculum and Program Duration (continued)4-4.1 Written goals and objectives must be developed for all instruction included in this curriculum.Total 47 123 17 20 8 161 5 10.6 5 4.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 42 89.4 109 88.6 17 100.0 20 100.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 0 0.0 5 4.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 2 1.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 2 1.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.04-4.2 Content outlines must be developed for all didactic portions of the program.Total 47 121 17 20 8 161 6 12.8 9 7.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.02 41 87.2 105 86.8 17 100.0 20 100.0 7 87.5 11 68.83 0 0.0 3 2.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 3 2.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.04-4.3 Students/Residents must prepare and present diagnostic data, treatment plans and the results of patient treatment.Total 47 122 17 20 8 161 1 2.1 3 2.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 46 97.9 110 90.2 17 100.0 20 100.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 0 0.0 7 5.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 2 1.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
  • 79. Appendix 2 Page 24 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 4 - Curriculum and Program Duration (continued)4-4.4 The amount of time devoted to didactic instruction and research must be at least 30% of the total educational experience.Total 47 123 17 20 8 161 7 14.9 12 9.8 1 5.9 1 5.0 1 12.5 0 0.02 40 85.1 85 69.1 16 94.1 19 95.0 7 87.5 9 56.33 0 0.0 13 10.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.34 0 0.0 3 2.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 10 8.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 6 37.5Average 1.9 2.1 1.9 2.0 1.9 2.1 A minimum of 60% of the total program time must be devoted to providing patient services, including direct patient care and laboratory4-4.5 procedures.Total 47 123 17 20 8 161 3 6.4 8 6.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.02 42 89.4 91 74.0 17 100.0 19 95.0 7 87.5 8 50.03 2 4.3 13 10.6 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 2 12.54 0 0.0 2 1.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 9 7.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 6 37.5Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.1 1.9 2.2 The program may include organized teaching experience. If time is devoted to this activity, it should be carefully evaluated in relation to the4-4.6 goals and objectives of the overall program and the interests of the individual student/resident.Total 47 123 16 20 8 161 3 6.4 10 8.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.32 37 78.7 93 75.6 16 100.0 16 80.0 7 87.5 8 50.03 5 10.6 10 8.1 0 0.0 4 20.0 1 12.5 1 6.34 1 2.1 6 4.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.35 1 2.1 4 3.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.2 2.1 2.2
  • 80. Appendix 2 Page 25 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 4 - Curriculum and Program Duration (continued)Didactic Program: Biomedical Scences4-5.a. Instruction must be provided at the understanding level in each of the following: Oral pathology;Total 44 122 17 20 8 161 1 2.3 3 2.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 42 95.5 108 88.5 16 94.1 20 100.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 1 2.3 9 7.4 1 5.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.04-5.b. Applied pharmacology;Total 44 121 17 20 8 161 1 2.3 9 7.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.32 43 97.7 102 84.3 17 100.0 20 100.0 8 100.0 10 62.53 0 0.0 8 6.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.94-5.c. Craniofacial anatomy and physiology;Total 44 122 17 20 8 161 1 2.3 3 2.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 42 95.5 107 87.7 17 100.0 20 100.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 1 2.3 10 8.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
  • 81. Appendix 2 Page 26 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 4 - Curriculum and Program Duration (continued)4-5.d. Infection control.Total 44 122 17 20 8 161 2 4.5 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 41 93.2 110 90.2 16 94.1 20 100.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 1 2.3 9 7.4 1 5.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.04-6.a. Instruction must be provided at the familiarity level in each of the following: Craniofacial growth and development;Total 44 121 17 20 8 161 3 6.8 5 4.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 38 86.4 101 83.5 15 88.2 20 100.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 2 4.5 14 11.6 2 11.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 1 2.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.04-6.b. Immunology;Total 44 122 17 20 8 161 7 15.9 12 9.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 1 6.32 35 79.5 95 77.9 17 100.0 20 100.0 7 87.5 10 62.53 0 0.0 11 9.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 2 4.5 3 2.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.9
  • 82. Appendix 2 Page 27 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 4 - Curriculum and Program Duration (continued)4-6.c. Oral microbiology;Total 44 121 17 20 8 161 6 13.6 13 10.7 0 0.0 1 5.0 1 12.5 0 0.02 36 81.8 96 79.3 17 100.0 19 95.0 7 87.5 11 68.83 1 2.3 10 8.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 1 2.3 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.04-6.d. Risk assessment for oral disease;Total 44 121 17 20 8 161 2 4.5 3 2.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 41 93.2 105 86.8 17 100.0 20 100.0 7 87.5 11 68.83 0 0.0 11 9.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 1 2.3 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.04-6.e. Wound healing.Total 44 122 17 20 8 161 1 2.3 5 4.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 39 88.6 97 79.5 16 94.1 20 100.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 2 4.5 18 14.8 1 5.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 2 4.5 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0
  • 83. Appendix 2 Page 28 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 4 - Curriculum and Program Duration (continued)Didactic Program: Prosthodontics and Related Disciplines4-7.a. Instruction must be provided at the in-depth level in each of the following: Fixed prosthodontics;Total 45 121 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 45 100.0 113 93.4 17 100.0 20 100.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 0 0.0 6 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.04-7.b. Implant prosthodontics;Total 45 121 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 45 100.0 107 88.4 17 100.0 20 100.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 0 0.0 12 9.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.04-7.c. Removable prosthodontics;Total 45 121 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 45 100.0 110 90.9 17 100.0 20 100.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 0 0.0 8 6.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
  • 84. Appendix 2 Page 29 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 4 - Curriculum and Program Duration (continued)4-7.d. Occlusion.Total 45 121 17 20 8 161 1 2.2 3 2.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 44 97.8 108 89.3 17 100.0 20 100.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 0 0.0 9 7.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.04-8.a. Instruction must be provided at the understanding level in each of the following: Biomaterials;Total 45 119 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 43 95.6 100 84.0 16 94.1 20 100.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 2 4.4 16 13.4 1 5.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.04-8.b. Geriatrics;Total 45 119 17 20 8 161 4 8.9 3 2.5 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 38 84.4 102 85.7 17 100.0 17 85.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 3 6.7 13 10.9 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
  • 85. Appendix 2 Page 30 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 4 - Curriculum and Program Duration (continued)4-8.c. Maxillofacial prosthetics;Total 45 118 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 4 3.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 43 95.6 97 82.2 17 100.0 19 95.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 2 4.4 15 12.7 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.04-8.d. Preprosthetic surgery; including surgical principles and procedures;Total 45 119 17 20 8 161 2 4.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 39 86.7 100 84.0 16 94.1 19 95.0 7 87.5 11 68.83 2 4.4 15 12.6 1 5.9 1 5.0 1 12.5 0 0.04 2 4.4 3 2.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.04-8.e. Implant placement including surgical and post-surgical management;Total 45 119 16 20 8 161 1 2.2 5 4.2 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 38 84.4 85 71.4 15 93.8 16 80.0 5 62.5 11 68.83 6 13.3 26 21.8 1 6.3 3 15.0 3 37.5 0 0.04 0 0.0 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.4 2.0
  • 86. Appendix 2 Page 31 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 4 - Curriculum and Program Duration (continued)4-8.f. Temporomandibular disorders and orofacial pain;Total 45 120 17 20 8 161 3 6.7 5 4.2 0 0.0 2 10.0 1 12.5 0 0.02 39 86.7 98 81.7 17 100.0 18 90.0 7 87.5 11 68.83 3 6.7 16 13.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.9 2.04-8.g. Medical emergencies;Total 45 119 17 20 8 161 1 2.2 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.02 42 93.3 100 84.0 17 100.0 19 95.0 6 75.0 11 68.83 1 2.2 15 12.6 0 0.0 1 5.0 1 12.5 0 0.04 1 2.2 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.04-8.h. Diagnostic radiology;Total 45 118 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 44 97.8 101 85.6 17 100.0 19 95.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 0 0.0 12 10.2 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 1 2.2 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.0
  • 87. Appendix 2 Page 32 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 4 - Curriculum and Program Duration (continued)4-8.i. Research methodology;Total 45 120 17 20 8 161 4 8.9 8 6.7 1 5.9 1 5.0 1 12.5 0 0.02 40 88.9 92 76.7 16 94.1 18 90.0 6 75.0 11 68.83 1 2.2 16 13.3 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 3 2.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 1.9 2.1 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.0 Prosthodontic patient classification systems such as the Prosthodontic Diagnostic Index (ACP Classification Systems) for edentulous,4-8.j. partially edentulous and dentate patients.Total 43 117 17 19 8 161 6 14.0 9 7.7 2 11.8 2 10.5 1 12.5 1 6.32 27 62.8 82 70.1 15 88.2 10 52.6 6 75.0 10 62.53 3 7.0 18 15.4 0 0.0 1 5.3 0 0.0 0 0.04 7 16.3 5 4.3 0 0.0 5 26.3 1 12.5 0 0.05 0 0.0 3 2.6 0 0.0 1 5.3 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.3 2.2 1.9 2.5 2.1 1.94-9.a. Instruction must be provided at the familiarity level in each of the following: Endodontics;Total 45 121 17 20 8 161 3 6.7 5 4.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.32 37 82.2 98 81.0 16 94.1 20 100.0 8 100.0 10 62.53 0 0.0 13 10.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 3 6.7 4 3.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 2 4.4 1 0.8 1 5.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9
  • 88. Appendix 2 Page 33 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 4 - Curriculum and Program Duration (continued)4-9.b. Periodontics;Total 45 121 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 3 2.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 39 86.7 102 84.3 14 82.4 19 95.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 2 4.4 13 10.7 2 11.8 1 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 2 4.4 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 2 4.4 1 0.8 1 5.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.04-9.c. Orthodontics;Total 45 121 17 20 8 161 2 4.4 5 4.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.32 38 84.4 97 80.2 16 94.1 20 100.0 8 100.0 10 62.53 1 2.2 13 10.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 2 4.4 5 4.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 2 4.4 1 0.8 1 5.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.1 2.2 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.94-9.d. Sleep disorders;Total 45 121 17 20 8 161 4 8.9 12 9.9 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 35 77.8 84 69.4 15 88.2 19 95.0 6 75.0 9 56.33 2 4.4 20 16.5 1 5.9 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.04 2 4.4 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.05 2 4.4 3 2.5 1 5.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 7 43.8Average 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.4 2.0
  • 89. Appendix 2 Page 34 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 4 - Curriculum and Program Duration (continued)4-9.e. Intraoral photography;Total 44 121 17 19 8 161 1 2.3 6 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 41 93.2 92 76.0 17 100.0 19 100.0 7 87.5 10 62.53 0 0.0 19 15.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.34 0 0.0 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.05 2 4.5 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.3 2.14-9.f. Practice management;Total 44 121 17 19 8 161 1 2.3 7 5.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 38 86.4 86 71.1 17 100.0 19 100.0 8 100.0 10 62.53 2 4.5 24 19.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.34 1 2.3 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 2 4.5 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.1 2.2 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.14-9.g. Behavioral sciences;Total 44 120 17 19 8 161 3 6.8 9 7.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 36 81.8 94 78.3 17 100.0 19 100.0 8 100.0 10 62.53 1 2.3 12 10.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.34 2 4.5 3 2.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 2 4.5 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1
  • 90. Appendix 2 Page 35 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 4 - Curriculum and Program Duration (continued)4-9.h. Ethics;Total 44 120 17 19 8 161 1 2.3 3 2.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 38 86.4 97 80.8 17 100.0 19 100.0 7 87.5 11 68.83 1 2.3 16 13.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.04 2 4.5 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 2 4.5 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.04-9.i. Biostatistics;Total 43 121 17 19 8 161 2 4.7 9 7.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 12.52 37 86.0 95 78.5 17 100.0 19 100.0 8 100.0 8 50.03 2 4.7 11 9.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 1 2.3 4 3.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 1 2.3 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 6 37.5Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.84-9.j. Scientific writing;Total 43 121 17 19 8 161 2 4.7 10 8.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 36 83.7 90 74.4 17 100.0 19 100.0 8 100.0 10 62.53 3 7.0 13 10.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 1 2.3 6 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 1 2.3 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 6 37.5Average 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
  • 91. Appendix 2 Page 36 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 4 - Curriculum and Program Duration (continued)4-9.k. Teaching methodology.Total 44 121 17 19 8 161 3 6.8 12 9.9 1 5.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 34 77.3 88 72.7 16 94.1 18 94.7 7 87.5 10 62.53 3 6.8 16 13.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 1 2.3 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.05 3 6.8 3 2.5 0 0.0 1 5.3 0 0.0 6 37.5Average 2.0 2.1 1.9 2.0 2.3 2.0Clinical Program The program must provide sufficient clinical experiences for the student/resident to be proficient in the comprehensive treatment of a wide4-10. range of complex prosthodontic patients with various categories of need.Total 45 118 17 20 8 161 2 4.4 3 2.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 43 95.6 104 88.1 17 100.0 20 100.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 0 0.0 9 7.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 The program must provide sufficient clinical experiences for the student/resident to be proficient in: Collecting, organizing, analyzing, and4-11.a. interpreting diagnostic data;Total 45 121 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 4 3.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 45 100.0 111 91.7 17 100.0 20 100.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 0 0.0 5 4.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
  • 92. Appendix 2 Page 37 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 4 - Curriculum and Program Duration (continued)4-11.b. Determining a diagnosis;Total 45 121 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 44 97.8 115 95.0 17 100.0 20 100.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 1 2.2 4 3.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.04-11.c. Developing a comprehensive treatment plan and prognosis;Total 45 121 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 44 97.8 114 94.2 17 100.0 20 100.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 1 2.2 5 4.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.04-11.d. Critically evaluating the results of treatment;Total 45 121 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 44 97.8 112 92.6 17 100.0 20 100.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 1 2.2 7 5.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
  • 93. Appendix 2 Page 38 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 4 - Curriculum and Program Duration (continued) Effectively utilizing the professional services of allied dental personnel, including but not limited to, dental laboratory technicians, dental4-11.e. assistants, and dental hygienists.Total 45 120 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 43 95.6 111 92.5 17 100.0 19 95.0 8 100.0 10 62.53 1 2.2 7 5.8 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 1 6.34 1 2.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.1 The program must provide sufficient clinical experiences for the student/resident to be proficient in the comprehensive diagnosis, treatment planning and rehabilitation of edentulous, partially edentulous and dentate patients. Clinical experiences must include a variety of patients within a range of prosthodontic classifications, such as in the Prosthodontic Diagnostic Index (ACP Classification Systems) for edentulous,4-12.a. partially edentulous and dentate patients.Total 45 121 17 20 8 161 1 2.2 4 3.3 0 0.0 1 5.0 1 12.5 0 0.02 41 91.1 104 86.0 15 88.2 16 80.0 6 75.0 11 68.83 0 0.0 6 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 3 6.7 4 3.3 1 5.9 2 10.0 1 12.5 0 0.05 0 0.0 3 2.5 1 5.9 1 5.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.04-12.b. Clinical experiences must include rehabilitative and esthetic procedures of varying complexity.Total 45 121 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.02 44 97.8 108 89.3 16 94.1 18 90.0 7 87.5 11 68.83 1 2.2 8 6.6 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 2 1.7 1 5.9 1 5.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.1 1.9 2.0
  • 94. Appendix 2 Page 39 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 4 - Curriculum and Program Duration (continued) Clinical experiences must include treatment of geriatric patients, including patients with varying degrees of cognitive and physical4-12.c. impairments.Total 45 121 17 20 8 161 4 8.9 9 7.4 1 5.9 2 10.0 1 12.5 0 0.02 38 84.4 98 81.0 15 88.2 16 80.0 7 87.5 11 68.83 3 6.7 12 9.9 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 2 1.7 1 5.9 1 5.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.04-12.d. This may include defects, which are due to genetic, functional, parafunctional, microbial or traumatic causes.Total 45 121 17 20 8 161 1 2.2 6 5.0 0 0.0 1 5.0 1 12.5 0 0.02 42 93.3 101 83.5 16 94.1 17 85.0 7 87.5 11 68.83 1 2.2 12 9.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 1 2.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 2 1.7 1 5.9 1 5.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.1 1.9 2.0 The program must provide sufficient dental laboratory experience for the student/resident to be competent in the laboratory aspects of4-13. treatment of complete edentulism, partial edentulism and dentate patients.Total 44 121 17 19 8 161 3 6.8 9 7.4 0 0.0 1 5.3 0 0.0 0 0.02 40 90.9 94 77.7 16 94.1 16 84.2 8 100.0 11 68.83 1 2.3 16 13.2 0 0.0 1 5.3 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 2 1.7 1 5.9 1 5.3 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
  • 95. Appendix 2 Page 40 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 4 - Curriculum and Program Duration (continued) Students/Residents must be competent in the prosthodontic management of patients with temporomandibular disorders and/or orofacial4-14. pain.Total 45 120 17 19 8 161 9 20.0 15 12.5 1 5.9 3 15.8 1 12.5 0 0.02 34 75.6 87 72.5 14 82.4 15 78.9 6 75.0 10 62.53 2 4.4 16 13.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.34 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.05 0 0.0 2 1.7 2 11.8 1 5.3 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 1.8 2.0 1.9 1.8 2.1 2.14-15. Students/Residents must be exposed to patients requiring various maxillofacial prosthetic services.Total 45 121 17 20 8 161 6 13.3 18 14.9 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 37 82.2 85 70.2 15 88.2 18 90.0 8 100.0 10 62.53 2 4.4 14 11.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.34 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 3 2.5 2 11.8 1 5.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 1.9 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.0 2.14-16. Students/Residents must participate in all phases of implant treatment including implant placement.Total 45 121 17 20 8 161 6 13.3 14 11.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 30 66.7 83 68.6 13 76.5 12 60.0 4 50.0 11 68.83 9 20.0 17 14.0 2 11.8 7 35.0 3 37.5 0 0.04 0 0.0 5 4.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.05 0 0.0 2 1.7 2 11.8 1 5.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.4 2.6 2.0
  • 96. Appendix 2 Page 41 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 4 - Curriculum and Program Duration (continued)4-17. Students/Residents must be exposed to preprosthetic surgical procedures.Total 45 121 17 20 8 161 3 6.7 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.02 38 84.4 101 83.5 15 88.2 16 80.0 6 75.0 11 68.83 2 4.4 13 10.7 0 0.0 3 15.0 1 12.5 0 0.04 2 4.4 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 3 2.5 2 11.8 1 5.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.2 2.0 2.0Program Duration An advanced education program in maxillofacial prosthetics must be provided with a forty-five month integrated prosthodontic program which includes fixed prosthodontic, removable prosthodontic, implant prosthodontic and maxillofacial prosthetic experiences; or a one-year4-18. program devoted specifically to maxillofacial prosthetics which follows completion of a prosthodontic program.Total 34 116 14 15 8 161 0 0.0 11 9.5 1 7.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.32 26 76.5 80 69.0 9 64.3 9 60.0 7 87.5 9 56.33 0 0.0 6 5.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 4 3.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 8 23.5 15 12.9 4 28.6 6 40.0 1 12.5 6 37.5Average 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.0 2.0 1.9 Instruction must be provided at the in-depth level in each of the following: Maxillary defects and soft palate defects, which are the result of4-19.a. disease or trauma (acquired defects);Total 33 117 14 15 8 161 0 0.0 3 2.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 23 69.7 98 83.8 11 78.6 10 66.7 8 100.0 11 68.83 0 0.0 6 5.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 10 30.3 10 8.5 3 21.4 5 33.3 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
  • 97. Appendix 2 Page 42 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 4 - Curriculum and Program Duration (continued)4-19.b. Mandibular defects, which are the result of disease or trauma (acquired defects);Total 33 117 14 15 8 161 1 3.0 4 3.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 22 66.7 96 82.1 11 78.6 10 66.7 8 100.0 11 68.83 0 0.0 7 6.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 10 30.3 10 8.5 3 21.4 5 33.3 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.04-19.c. Maxillary defects, which are naturally acquired (congenital or developmental defects);Total 34 117 14 15 8 161 1 2.9 5 4.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 22 64.7 96 82.1 11 78.6 10 66.7 8 100.0 11 68.83 0 0.0 6 5.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 11 32.4 10 8.5 3 21.4 5 33.3 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.04-19.d. Mandibular defects, which are naturally acquired (congenital or developmental defects);Total 34 114 14 15 8 161 1 2.9 5 4.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 22 64.7 96 84.2 11 78.6 10 66.7 8 100.0 11 68.83 0 0.0 3 2.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 11 32.4 10 8.8 3 21.4 5 33.3 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
  • 98. Appendix 2 Page 43 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 4 - Curriculum and Program Duration (continued)4-19.e. Facial defects, which are the result of disease or trauma or are naturally acquired:Total 34 116 14 15 8 161 1 2.9 5 4.3 1 7.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 22 64.7 95 81.9 10 71.4 10 66.7 8 100.0 11 68.83 0 0.0 5 4.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 11 32.4 11 9.5 3 21.4 5 33.3 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.04-19.f. The use of implants to restore intraoral and extraoral defects;Total 34 117 14 15 8 161 1 2.9 4 3.4 1 7.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 21 61.8 93 79.5 10 71.4 10 66.7 8 100.0 11 68.83 0 0.0 8 6.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 1 2.9 1 0.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 11 32.4 11 9.4 3 21.4 5 33.3 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.04-19.g. Maxillofacial prosthetic management of the radiation therapy patient;Total 34 117 14 15 8 161 0 0.0 4 3.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 23 67.6 95 81.2 11 78.6 10 66.7 8 100.0 10 62.53 0 0.0 8 6.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.34 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 11 32.4 10 8.5 3 21.4 5 33.3 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1
  • 99. Appendix 2 Page 44 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 4 - Curriculum and Program Duration (continued)4-19.h. Maxillofacial prosthetic management of the chemotherapy patient.Total 34 117 14 15 8 161 1 2.9 5 4.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 22 64.7 92 78.6 11 78.6 10 66.7 8 100.0 10 62.53 0 0.0 10 8.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.34 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 11 32.4 10 8.5 3 21.4 5 33.3 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.14-20.a. Instruction must be provided at the familiarity level in each of the following: Medical oncology;Total 34 117 13 15 8 161 0 0.0 5 4.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.02 23 67.6 95 81.2 11 84.6 10 66.7 7 87.5 10 62.53 0 0.0 9 7.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.34 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 11 32.4 8 6.8 2 15.4 5 33.3 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.14-20.b. Principles of head and neck surgery;Total 34 117 14 15 8 161 0 0.0 4 3.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.32 23 67.6 95 81.2 12 85.7 10 66.7 8 100.0 10 62.53 0 0.0 9 7.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 11 32.4 9 7.7 2 14.3 5 33.3 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9
  • 100. Appendix 2 Page 45 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 4 - Curriculum and Program Duration (continued)4-20.c. Radiation oncology;Total 34 117 14 15 8 161 0 0.0 4 3.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.02 23 67.6 94 80.3 12 85.7 10 66.7 7 87.5 10 62.53 0 0.0 11 9.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.34 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 11 32.4 8 6.8 2 14.3 5 33.3 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.14-20.d. Speech and deglutition;Total 34 117 14 15 8 161 0 0.0 5 4.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 23 67.6 95 81.2 12 85.7 10 66.7 8 100.0 11 68.83 0 0.0 8 6.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 11 32.4 9 7.7 2 14.3 5 33.3 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.04-20.e. Cranial defects.Total 34 117 14 15 8 161 0 0.0 5 4.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 23 67.6 95 81.2 12 85.7 10 66.7 7 87.5 10 62.53 0 0.0 8 6.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.34 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.05 11 32.4 9 7.7 2 14.3 5 33.3 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.3 2.1
  • 101. Appendix 2 Page 46 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 4 - Curriculum and Program Duration (continued)Clinical Program4-21. Students/Residents must be competent to perform maxillofacial prosthetic treatment procedures performed in the hospital operation room.Total 34 118 13 15 8 161 1 2.9 14 11.9 1 7.7 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.02 22 64.7 86 72.9 9 69.2 9 60.0 7 87.5 11 68.83 0 0.0 9 7.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 11 32.4 7 5.9 3 23.1 6 40.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.0 1.9 2.0 Students/Residents must gain clinical experience to become proficient in the pre-prosthetic, prosthetic and post-prosthetic management and treatment of patients with defects of the maxilla and mandible. Clinical experience regarding management and treatment should include:4-22.a. Patients who are partially dentate and for patients who are edentulous;Total 34 118 13 15 8 161 0 0.0 3 2.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.02 23 67.6 105 89.0 10 76.9 9 60.0 7 87.5 11 68.83 0 0.0 3 2.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 11 32.4 7 5.9 3 23.1 6 40.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.04-22.b. Patients who have undergone radiation therapy to the head and neck region;Total 34 118 13 15 8 161 0 0.0 3 2.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 23 67.6 105 89.0 10 76.9 9 60.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 0 0.0 3 2.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 11 32.4 7 5.9 3 23.1 6 40.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
  • 102. Appendix 2 Page 47 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 4 - Curriculum and Program Duration (continued)4-22.c. Maxillary defects of the hard palate, soft palate and alveolus;Total 34 118 12 15 8 161 0 0.0 3 2.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 23 67.6 102 86.4 9 75.0 9 60.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 0 0.0 6 5.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 11 32.4 7 5.9 3 25.0 6 40.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.04-22.d. Mandibular continuity and discontinuity defects;Total 34 118 13 15 8 161 1 2.9 5 4.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.02 22 64.7 99 83.9 9 69.2 9 60.0 7 87.5 11 68.83 0 0.0 6 5.1 1 7.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 11 32.4 8 6.8 3 23.1 6 40.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.0 1.9 2.04-22.e. Acquired, congenital and developmental defects.Total 34 118 12 15 8 161 0 0.0 4 3.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.02 23 67.6 102 86.4 9 75.0 9 60.0 7 87.5 11 68.83 0 0.0 4 3.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 11 32.4 8 6.8 3 25.0 6 40.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.0
  • 103. Appendix 2 Page 48 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 4 - Curriculum and Program Duration (continued) Students/Residents must gain clinical experience to become competent in the pre-prosthetic, prosthetic and post-prosthetic management4-23. and treatment of patients with defects of facial structures.Total 34 117 13 15 8 161 3 8.8 4 3.4 1 7.7 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.02 20 58.8 96 82.1 10 76.9 9 60.0 7 87.5 11 68.83 0 0.0 8 6.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 1 0.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 11 32.4 8 6.8 2 15.4 6 40.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 1.9 2.1 1.9 2.0 1.9 2.0 Students/Residents must demonstrate competency in interdisciplinary diagnostic and treatment planning conferences relevant to4-24.a. maxillofacial prosthetics, which may include: Cleft palate and craniofacial conferences;Total 34 118 13 15 8 161 1 2.9 4 3.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.02 22 64.7 99 83.9 10 76.9 9 60.0 7 87.5 11 68.83 0 0.0 8 6.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 11 32.4 7 5.9 3 23.1 6 40.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.04-24.b. Clinical pathology conferences;Total 34 118 13 15 8 161 0 0.0 7 5.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 1 6.32 23 67.6 94 79.7 10 76.9 9 60.0 7 87.5 10 62.53 0 0.0 10 8.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 11 32.4 7 5.9 3 23.1 6 40.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.9
  • 104. Appendix 2 Page 49 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 4 - Curriculum and Program Duration (continued)4-24.c. Head and neck diagnostic conferences;Total 34 118 13 15 8 161 1 2.9 5 4.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 22 64.7 96 81.4 10 76.9 9 60.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 0 0.0 9 7.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 11 32.4 7 5.9 3 23.1 6 40.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.04-24.d. Medical oncology treatment planning conferences;Total 34 118 12 15 8 161 1 2.9 9 7.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 1 6.32 22 64.7 93 78.8 9 75.0 9 60.0 7 87.5 10 62.53 0 0.0 8 6.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 11 32.4 7 5.9 3 25.0 6 40.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.94-24.e. Radiation therapy diagnosis and treatment planning conferences;Total 34 118 13 15 8 161 1 2.9 8 6.8 1 7.7 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.02 22 64.7 94 79.7 9 69.2 9 60.0 7 87.5 11 68.83 0 0.0 9 7.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 11 32.4 7 5.9 3 23.1 6 40.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.0 1.9 2.0
  • 105. Appendix 2 Page 50 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 4 - Curriculum and Program Duration (continued)4-24.f. Reconstructive surgery conferences;Total 34 118 13 15 8 161 0 0.0 6 5.1 1 7.7 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.02 23 67.6 94 79.7 9 69.2 9 60.0 7 87.5 11 68.83 0 0.0 9 7.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 2 1.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 11 32.4 7 5.9 3 23.1 6 40.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 1.9 2.0 1.9 2.04-24.g. Tumor boards.Total 34 118 13 15 8 161 1 2.9 9 7.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.02 22 64.7 92 78.0 10 76.9 9 60.0 7 87.5 11 68.83 0 0.0 9 7.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 11 32.4 7 5.9 3 23.1 6 40.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.0Standard 5 - Advanced Education Students/ResidentsEligibility and Selection Dentists with the following qualifications are eligible to enter advanced specialty education programs accredited for the Commission on5a.1. Dental Accreditation: Graduates from institutions in the U.S. accredited by the Commission on Dental Accreditation;Total 46 123 17 19 8 161 1 2.2 3 2.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 45 97.8 118 95.9 17 100.0 19 100.0 7 87.5 10 62.53 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 2 1.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 6 37.5Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
  • 106. Appendix 2 Page 51 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 5 - Advanced Education Students/Residents (continued)5a.2. Graduates from institutions in Canada accredited by the Commission on Dental Accreditation of Canada;Total 46 123 17 19 8 161 1 2.2 2 1.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 42 91.3 109 88.6 15 88.2 18 94.7 7 87.5 10 62.53 1 2.2 6 4.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 1 2.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 1 2.2 6 4.9 2 11.8 1 5.3 1 12.5 6 37.5Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 Graduates of foreign dental schools who possess equivalent educational background and standing as determined by the institution and5a.3. program.Total 47 123 17 20 8 161 1 2.1 3 2.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 36 76.6 73 59.3 8 47.1 15 75.0 5 62.5 7 43.83 6 12.8 30 24.4 6 35.3 4 20.0 1 12.5 2 12.54 2 4.3 6 4.9 1 5.9 0 0.0 1 12.5 1 6.35 2 4.3 11 8.9 2 11.8 1 5.0 1 12.5 6 37.5Average 2.2 2.3 2.5 2.2 2.4 2.45b. Specific written criteria, policies and procedures must be followed when admitting students/residents.Total 47 122 17 20 8 161 1 2.1 5 4.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 45 95.7 102 83.6 16 94.1 20 100.0 7 87.5 11 68.83 1 2.1 9 7.4 1 5.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 5 4.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0
  • 107. Appendix 2 Page 52 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 5 - Advanced Education Students/Residents (continued) Admission of students/residents with advanced standing must be based on the same standards of achievement required by students/residents regularly enrolled in the program. Transfer students/residents with advanced standing must receive an appropriate5c. curriculum that results in the same standards of competence required by students/residents regularly enrolled in the program.Total 47 122 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 41 87.2 109 89.3 13 76.5 18 90.0 8 100.0 9 56.33 1 2.1 5 4.1 2 11.8 2 10.0 0 0.0 1 6.34 1 2.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.35 4 8.5 7 5.7 2 11.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.3Evaluation A system of ongoing evaluation and advancement must assure that, through the director and faculty, each program: Periodically, but at least semiannually, evaluates the knowledge, skills and professional growth of its students/residents, using appropriate written criteria and5d.1. procedures;Total 47 124 17 20 8 161 3 6.4 6 4.8 0 0.0 1 5.0 1 12.5 0 0.02 44 93.6 108 87.1 17 100.0 19 95.0 7 87.5 11 68.83 0 0.0 6 4.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 3 2.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.05d.2. Provides to students/residents an assessment of their performance, at least semiannually;Total 47 123 17 20 8 161 3 6.4 4 3.3 0 0.0 1 5.0 1 12.5 0 0.02 44 93.6 110 89.4 17 100.0 19 95.0 7 87.5 10 62.53 0 0.0 5 4.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.34 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 3 2.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.1
  • 108. Appendix 2 Page 53 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 5 - Advanced Education Students/Residents (continued)5d.3. Advances students/residents to positions of higher responsibility only on the basis of an evaluation of their readiness for advancement;Total 47 124 17 20 8 161 2 4.3 2 1.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 45 95.7 109 87.9 17 100.0 20 100.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 0 0.0 8 6.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 5 4.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 Maintains a personal record of evaluation for each student/resident which is accessible to the student/resident and available for review5d.4. during site visits.Total 47 124 17 20 8 161 2 4.3 4 3.2 0 0.0 1 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 45 95.7 111 89.5 17 100.0 19 95.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 0 0.0 6 4.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 3 2.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0Due Process There must be specific written due process policies and procedures for adjudication of academic and disciplinary complaints, which parallel5e. those established by the sponsoring institution.Total 47 122 17 20 8 151 0 0.0 2 1.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 46 97.9 108 88.5 17 100.0 20 100.0 7 87.5 9 60.03 0 0.0 7 5.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 6.74 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 12.5 0 0.05 1 2.1 5 4.1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 33.3Average 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.3 2.1
  • 109. Appendix 2 Page 54 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study Chief Academic Prosthodontics & State Dental Officer, CODA Site National Dental Board, TestingStandard/ Program Director Prosthodontist Associate Dean Visitor Organizations AgencyRating N % N % N % N % N % N %Standard 5 - Advanced Education Students/Residents (continued)Rights and Responsibilities At the time of enrollment, the advanced specialty education students/residents must be apprised in writing of the educational experience to be provided, including the nature of assignments to other departments or institutions and teaching commitments. Additionally, all advanced specialty education students/residents must be provided with written information which affirms their obligations and responsibilities to the5f. institution, the program and program faculty.Total 47 123 17 20 8 161 0 0.0 2 1.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 47 100.0 108 87.8 17 100.0 20 100.0 8 100.0 11 68.83 0 0.0 8 6.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 4 3.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 5 31.3Average 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0Standard 6 - Research6a. Advanced specialty education students/residents must engage in scholarly activity.Total 46 122 17 19 8 161 3 6.5 13 10.7 1 5.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.02 37 80.4 84 68.9 16 94.1 15 78.9 8 100.0 10 62.53 6 13.0 14 11.5 0 0.0 4 21.1 0 0.0 0 0.04 0 0.0 8 6.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.05 0 0.0 3 2.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 6 37.5Average 2.1 2.1 1.9 2.2 2.0 2.0
  • 110. Appendix 2 Page 55Open-ended CommentsStandard 1 - Institutional Commitment/Program EffectivenessSurvey ID Occ. Status Comment 1a: Research component of standard too vague & may weak for some types of students, I.e. 2889 Prosthodontist faculty member certificate only without masters or doctoral research training degree. 1a. Students simply work the cases they are assign no balance or goal for TA specific procedures. 1b. Students receive no written evaluations only oral feedback. 1c. Procera crown are pushed heavily. Faculty assignment change each term residents work their family or Adjuct Asstn. Clinical Prof patients its possible to complete the program w/o restoring an implant, RPD etc. No written or 2940 Owner Dentist formal evaluation for clinical performance, Procera crown are pushed by the director. Access to program admission by lesser qualified and lesser experienced foreign trained 2943 Prosthodontist dentists needs to be significantly limited as program quality is clearly compromised! 3120 Prosthodontist 1f. Since when does the dept of education have a clue about dentistry, let alone PROS? 1b: the ultimate program effectiveness is formally determined by the residents success in 3122 Prosthodontist challenging the ABP. Prosthodontist / Clinical director of pre-doc restorative University based, hospital based and military based must be allowed same degree of flexibility 3182 dentistry depending upon their ability to provide faculty, and facilities. Suggestion, guidelines, and examples would be helpful to clarify satisfactory completion of this standard 1a, I would like more detail of a better explanation for standard 1a and 1b to assure Prosthodontist program satisfactory achievement for outcomes assessment. What would be minimal achievement for a 3624 director successful outcomes assessment program? Prosthodontist program director / executive director or president of testing agency or dental board (immediate past president of ABP) / 3638 Prosthodontist Affiliated institutions are often reluctant to make financial commitments, especially on paper. Prosthodontics program director/CODA prosthodontist Documentation is ok but I really feel that we have gone "over the top" in a number of these site visitor(have areas. Single program directors have to be "swamped" in this regard. This comment applies to 3641 been)/prosthodontist all our standards. Prosthodontics program 3645 director It is difficult to measure effectiveness for international students who return to country of origin.
  • 111. Appendix 2 Page 56Open-ended CommentsStandard 1 - Institutional Commitment/Program EffectivenessSurvey ID Occ. Status Comment *Directors must have adequate, dedicated secretarial support to effectively administer the program. *Institutions affiliated with programs (example: VA Medical Centers) MUST state clear Prosthodontics program educational objectives, including their willingness to provide DIRECT resident supervision 3649 director during patient care and their expectation of contribution(s) to didactic instruction. All standard criteria are relevant and have been shown to be valid measures of program Prosthodontics Program success if evaluated objectively by site visitors. Intent statements are essential for program 3650 Director interpretation of standards and should be maintained. Outcomes assessment if important but difficult to assess & difficult to monitor. Financial Prosthodontics program support for all necessary parts of the program need to be more specific & accreditation should 3654 director / prosthodontist require The University provide a budget for the program. Prosthodontics program Outcomes assessment requirements may have become excessive I am not totally convinced of 3655 director / Prosthodontist that, but Im leaning that way. Prosthodontics program director / CODA prosthodontics 3734 site visitor / prosthodontist All components of this standard are relevant and appropriate. Chief academic officer in a non- 3927 dental school institution 1g: Program director not institution. Prosthodontics program 1a: Service is an important aspect of professional life but I question its emphasis in this 4136 director standard.
  • 112. Appendix 2 Page 57Open-ended CommentsStandard 2 - Program Director and Teaching StaffSurvey ID Occ. Status Comment Prosthodontist / Board of directors, American college of 2761 prosthodontists. 2-2: YES ! ! 2762 Prosthodontist Is the process of the board certification adequate/reasonable? The prosthodontists must have sound knowledge in all specialty areas to be able to discuss & present treatment plans & alternatives to a patient requiring pre-prosthodontic therapy such as endodontics, periodontics, orthodontics, oral & maxillofacial surgery for both functional and 2847 Prosthodontist esthetic outcome (i.e. prognosis). g: Staff meetings very important for discussion, evaluation, planning etc., we have 2/year need 2889 Prosthodontist faculty member 8 to 12/year. Adjuct Asstn. Clinical Prof No written clinical goals or experiences. No written faculty evaluations. Little Biomedical 2940 Owner Dentist exposure. The importance of board certification is FAR over emphasized. The board certification 2943 Prosthodontist procedures of the A.C.P. have lost touch with the realities of prosthodontics as a whole. In my opinion the director should not be required to be board certified as long as preparation for 2962 Prosthodontist / assistant dean the board is stressed. Prosthodontist / part time faculty-graduate prosthodontic 3081 program 30+ years. Program Director - should be full time - not part time Too many programs have under - trained non - prosthodontists teaching residents both 3097 Prosthodontist clinically and didactically. Prosthodontist / private The program director & all staff should give equal time and grading and instruction to all 3126 practitioner students regardless of race, creed, color or personal preference. *Faculty assigned to clinic coverage should be enforced to be there. Prosthodontist / maxillofacial * Faculty need to enjoy teaching not being upset when students need help. 3163 prosthodontist *Teach - dont complain undergrads are not familiar with procedures. Prosthodontist / Clinical director of pre-doc restorative Direct supervision not necessary for procedures where competence has been clearly 3182 dentistry demonstrated or procedures not sufficiently complex, i.e. crown preparation.
  • 113. Appendix 2 Page 58Open-ended CommentsStandard 2 - Program Director and Teaching StaffSurvey ID Occ. Status Comment *Director MUST have a full-time appointment, devoted to running the prosthodontic program. Attempting to split time between graduate education and dental student education is ultimately detrimental to graduate education. Any assigned duties for the Director outside the advanced prosthodontic program MUST be justified by showing how they SUBSTANTIALLY contribute to the overall good of the advanced prosthodontic program. Prosthodontics program *Current Requirements for didactic instruction in the biomedical sciences are excess and 3649 director redundant to expected knowledge levels of entering students. All standard criteria are relevant and have been shown to be valid measures of program Prosthodontics Program success if evaluated objectively by site visitors. Intent statements are essential for program 3650 Director interpretation of standards and should be maintained. Prosthodontics program 3652 director Strongly support 2a 2a: The objective of this standard is to ensure that all program directors are board certified. Someone appointed before January 1, 1997 and still director of the same program should be "grandfathered" as a program director. Obviously, we dont want someone to lose his or her job because of this standard. However, the way this standard reads, someone who is not board certified but who has previously served as a program director anywhere before January 1, 1997 could be newly hired at any time to be a program director. The standard should read "Anyone hired to be program director after January 1, 1997 must be board certified in the respective specialty. 2e: All faculty assigned to supervise prosthodontic treatment of patients by prosthodontic residents should be educationally qualified prosthodontists. I see no reason to have general practitioners assigned to supervise prosthodontic care by prosthodontic residents. Prosthodontics program 2g: This standard should be more specific. "Periodic" doesnt mean much. I would suggest director / CODA prosthodontics mandating staff meetings to be held at least twice annually (which would coincide with the 3734 site visitor / prosthodontist formal semi-annual review of residents as found in standard 5-d). CODA prosthodontics site visitor/Executive director or president of prosthodontics organization(past 3872 president)/prosthodontist We need greater emphasis on encouraging residents to pursue board certification (2-2) CODA prosthodontics site visitor / prosthodontist / assistant prosthodontics 3874 program director 2-1.1e: All faculty assigned to the program….
  • 114. Appendix 2 Page 59Open-ended CommentsStandard 2 - Program Director and Teaching StaffSurvey ID Occ. Status Comment Associate dean for advanced dental education in a dental For 2-1.2: Should there be a set minimum time commitment for the program director, e.g. at 4131 school least 24 hrs / week. Executive director or president of testing agency or dental board / executive director or president of prosthodontics 4244 organization / prosthodontist 2-2: Need outcomes.
  • 115. Appendix 2 Page 60Open-ended CommentsStandard 3 - Facilities and ResourcesSurvey ID Occ. Status Comment 3e: Freedom to use mentors from private practice, and/or take advantage of their hospitality is 2752 Prosthodontist a tremendous asset which should not be constrained or limited by needless constraints. Prosthodontist / Division chair 2779 CAD 3-2: Radiographic equipment accessible: A radiographic service would serve equally well! Im not quite sure how to word this, but, in effect, due to the increasing complexity of clinical/laboratory procedures, i.e. reimplants, cad-cam, digital modeling, etc.., that this may Contract dentist for native place an undue burden on any institution. Perhaps some kind of laboratory "teaming", using 2933 American tribe. labs approved by college would take some burden off institution and broaden lab options. Laboratory support-off site. Need more clerical staff, assistants should be assigned to resident. Adjuct Asstn. Clinical Prof Computers are in the basement. Laboratory is small & crowded, used for storage of multiple 2940 Owner Dentist items. Lab is not Labeled. Operatories are too few. Where was the emergency kit? Executive director or president 2969 of other dental organization 3-13: Shared facilities may be adequate. 2971 Prosthodontist 3c: Required! Prosthodontist/Hospital - Program should require each candidate to complete a significant number of lab cases in each 2973 Based Prosthodontist sub specialty area. This should be continuous with the clinical treatment of these cases. 3-1.4: More and more highly technical procedures, e.g. CAD/CAM lessen the relevance of this 3007 Prosthodontist criteria. Prosthodontist/Part - time faculty and former program All current dental peer reviewed journals and should include copies from their origins. This 3059 director, USC, OSU, LLU. include several oral implant journals. Prosthodontist / Assoc Dean 3062 for clinics 3c "Must" not "must be encouraged" The students MUST know how to do (and have done themselves) every technique they need to 3120 Prosthodontist know to practice Pros. Prosthodontist / private 3126 practitioner 3a: And monitored frequently Prosthodontist / Clinical director of pre-doc restorative 3182 dentistry Laboratory facilities may be shared with other grad programs.
  • 116. Appendix 2 Page 61Open-ended CommentsStandard 3 - Facilities and ResourcesSurvey ID Occ. Status Comment 3e: This standard is confusing. What is wrong with observing an outstanding clinician performing important, clinically relevant techniques? In his own office? Perhaps I am Prosthodontist program misreading this standard. Are you suggesting that clinical experiences for treatment rendered 3624 director by residents should not be accomplished in private offices. This sounds fine to me. Prosthodontics program 3e. A move exists to educate pre - docs in private practice settings. This may have positive 3632 director potential for some pros programs. Prosthodontist program director / executive director or president of testing agency or 3-6.3: Auxiliary personnel support is always a problem. Adequate and sufficiency are wide dental board (immediate past open to interpretation, usually on the inadequate and insufficient side. 3-1 also applies here. president of ABP) / Most prosthodontic practices have multiple support personnel in all categories listed in 3.6 - 3.8 3638 Prosthodontist for each prosthodontist. All 4 criteria should be more specific and demanding. Dental laboratory technical support MUST be adequate THROUGHOUT THE ACADEMIC Prosthodontics program YEAR to efficient operate the clinical program. Consideration should be given to establishing a 3649 director mandate that dental laboratory technician(s) be assigned to programs on a full-time basis. All standard criteria are relevant and have been shown to be valid measures of program Prosthodontics Program success if evaluated objectively by site visitors. Intent statements are essential for program 3650 Director interpretation of standards and should be maintained. Prosthodontics program director/CODA prosthodontist 3732 site visitor/prosthodontist 3b-3d. Should be institutionally driven. Prosthodontics program director / CODA prosthodontics 3734 site visitor / prosthodontist All components of this standard are relevant and appropriate. Prosthodontics program director/Chairman of the department of restorative dentistry/Director of pre-doc 3.4.1-Most journals can be reviewed on line. Library resources should include or permit 3736 implant program variations so that on-line use of journals be permitted rather than buying subscriptions. 3-1.2: 1 op > 1 student Executive director or president 3-3, 3-4, 3-6, 3-7: define 3867 of other dental organization Facilities & resources standard is too vague and open to interpretation by administration. 3959 Prosthodontist Excellent facilities & resources
  • 117. Appendix 2 Page 62Open-ended CommentsStandard 3 - Facilities and ResourcesSurvey ID Occ. Status Comment Prosthodontics program Students should provide some computer & photographic support. Audio visual equipment & 4136 director internet connections should be supplied by the institution.
  • 118. Appendix 2 Page 63Open-ended CommentsStandard 4 - Curriculum and Program DurationSurvey ID Occ. Status Comment 2759 Prosthodontist Evaluating Adv. Prosthodontic Program where theres just maxillofacial exposure. I, myself, had a maxillofacial prosthetic training. I believe maxillofacial training should remain 2762 Prosthodontist as a separate/additional program. 4-9: Should already have a basic understanding. 2786 Prosthodontist 4-20: Only if program includes maxillofacial prost. 4-4.4: Research not defined & may be too ambitious especially for certificate only students! 4-13: Some aspects of laboratory skill development may be too ambitious implant retained 2889 Prosthodontist faculty member restorations. I received most of my exposure to familiarity as a dental student. The prosthodontic program Adjuct Asstn. Clinical Prof taught me how to analyze journal articles, give oral presentations and treat complex crown and 2940 Owner Dentist bridge cases. Maxillofacial patient services demand is so low and skills required are so intensely over lapping 2943 Prosthodontist with removable prosthodontic procedures that 12 months is sufficient. 2957 Prosthodontist 4-12c & d: Hard to find these types of patients in sufficient numbers. 4-4.6: This allows for improved learning in areas not previously addressed as an undergraduate. 4-8i: And statistics *Appears a challenge to include all of the above exposures in the time available. I feel my programs are outstanding when reading these guidelines, but I also had the opportunity to become a faculty member to teach, treat patients (grad & undergrad) and work and teach in a Prosthodontist / Past president cleft palate maxillofacial clinic for 14 years. This provided me with an outstanding career and 2960 of prosthodontics organization education. 4-4.4 & 4-4.5: Delete or reward-each program should be able to establish their own Executive director or president didactic/clinic ratio 2969 of other dental organization 4-16: Implant placement (when possible) Prosthodontist/Hospital - Integrated Experience should be provided in surgical prosthodontics in relation to both elective 2973 Based Prosthodontist and emergent oral surgery. IE. Trauma type and orthogenetic type. Prosthodontist/Part - time 4-11c Only oral related sleep disorders as this is a broad field of investigation, much of which is faculty and former program beyond the clinical relevance to prosthodontics. Treatment sequencing must be stressed 3059 director, USC, OSU, LLU. more. There should be no option to be a "part - time resident" - full time only. Should place a limit on the amount of teaching post - doctoral residents are allowed to - to many institutions take 3097 Prosthodontist advantage of residents time. This document is a survey-not a set of standards. Relative to lab techs, if the doctor hasn’t done the lab technique himself to proficient level, 3120 Prosthodontist he/she will be unable to judge what lab techs are doing right or wrong.
  • 119. Appendix 2 Page 64Open-ended CommentsStandard 4 - Curriculum and Program DurationSurvey ID Occ. Status Comment Prosthodontist / private 3126 practitioner 4b: To What? 4-9b: More than just familiar with perio. 4-9c: Perio / pros very important 4d: It would take a very special/disciplined operator to be able to complete a pros residency on Prosthodontist / and Asst. a part-time basis! clinical professor 3128 undergraduate prosthodontics (Comment part 1) *Repeated references to the PDI serve no purpose - the PDI is a non- validated diagnostic index that is not prognostic, not communicative and has no utility as a planning instrument. Use of classification systems makese sense but this system is not a standard! *Standards 4-4.4 and 4-4.5 are too prescriptive in nature and they lack clarity. Do these Prosthodontics program standards apply to a 40 hour work week, a 35 hour work week or some other work week time? director / CODA prosthodontics Do the standards apply to a 33 month program only and not apply to a 12 month MFP site visitor / Executive director program? If there is a different level of application for a 12 month program and a 33 month or president of prosthodontics program then how do the standards apply to a 45 month program? organization / executive *Consider that there are dental school programs that are minimally clinical, heavily laboratory director or president of other and heavily didactic and these schools count laboratory work as equivalent to clinical work. Is dental organization / this realistic? Similarly, hospital based programs may be heavily clinical and weak in didactics 3308 prosthodontist or the didactic training may come primarily from monitored self study, is this reasonable? Prosthodontics program director / CODA prosthodontics site visitor / Executive director or president of prosthodontics organization / executive director or president of other dental organization / (Comment part 2) *Frankly if a program accomplishes the standards written for didactic and 3308 prosthodontist clinical portions of the program the allocation of percentage of time is not meaningful.
  • 120. Appendix 2 Page 65Open-ended CommentsStandard 4 - Curriculum and Program DurationSurvey ID Occ. Status Comment (Comment part 3) *Standards 4-16 and 4-17 address surgical procedures. In specialty training every student must be trained to a skill level that is appropriate to a specialist. Exposure to a Prosthodontics program surgical procedure is not going to establish clinical proficiency and clinical proficiency is the skill director / CODA prosthodontics level associated with a specialist (using CODA terminology). Consequently, these two site visitor / Executive director standards train specialists to skill levels that are well below the level mandated for a specialist. or president of prosthodontics Training to a level of proficiency would demand expansion of program length by 24-36 months organization / executive as prosthodontics has not been and is not currectly a surgical specialty. Attempts to outsource director or president of other training do not meet with standards identified under heading 3 which then means that any dental organization / attempts to outsource training could not be accomplished without formal agreements that are 3308 prosthodontist not likely with continuing education groups. (Comment part 4) *These two standards are not in keeping with the specialty of prosthodontics. Indeed 4-16 and 4-17 may be in keeping with general dentistry or general practice residencies Prosthodontics program but they are not compatible with a non-surgical specialty like prosthodontics. To truly director / CODA prosthodontics accomplish meaningful specialty training the specialty of prosthodontics would need to site visitor / Executive director significantly increase training in pathology, anatomy, pharmacology, pain control, would healing, or president of prosthodontics pathology, flap design, medical emergencies, anesthesia, etc. At this point a number of these organization / executive subjects are included in prosthodontic training but they are included at a level commensurate director or president of other with the specialty as a non surgical specialty. These two standards, to be in keeping with dental organization / specialty training, either need to be elevated to proficiency level, with commensurate increase 3308 prosthodontist of program length to 57-69 months, or the standards need to be dropped. Prosthodontics program (Comment part 5) *Inclusion of these standards was a political move on the part of small director / CODA prosthodontics groups of leaders of the prosthodontic organizations. None of these leaders understand the site visitor / Executive director scholarly aspects of these requirements, none of these leaders manage or direct graduate or president of prosthodontics education programs. for this reason there is little or no appreciation of the fact that EVERY organization / executive STANDARD must apply to every program and every student every day. There is nothing director or president of other selective about standards, standards are mandates. standards are not political agenda based, dental organization / instead standards are designed only to ensure adequate education to protect the safety and 3308 prosthodontist well being of patients who will ultimately be treated by individuals completing such training. Prosthodontics program 3636 director Residents need to be proficient in all survey aspects of implants.
  • 121. Appendix 2 Page 66Open-ended CommentsStandard 4 - Curriculum and Program DurationSurvey ID Occ. Status Comment Prosthodontist program director / executive director or president of testing agency or dental board (immediate past 4-8d and 4-17: Preprosthetic surgery procedures have been largely limited to placement of president of ABP) / implants and reduction of exostoses and ???. This should be removed from standards. 3638 Prosthodontist 4-14: TMD should be reduced from competent to exposed. Prosthodontics program 3639 director ACP classification has not been validated! Prosthodontics program The standards do not take into consideration the extensive basic science, etc.. Background of 3640 director / prosthodontist DDS graduates prior to (???) acceptance. Prosthodontics program director/CODA prosthodontist site visitor(have 3641 been)/prosthodontist There is unnecessary redundancy between 4-7, 8, 9 and 4-12-4-17. This should be corrected. *The required clinic-to-didactic ratio should change from a minimum of 60:30 to a minimum of 80:10. *If programs include organized teaching experience, they should be made to CLEARLY DEMONSTRATE that the students prosthodontic residency is BEST served by this experience. The wording MUST be strong in this regard since many institutions are currently balancing their teaching staff numbers/obligations on the backs of residents AT THE DISTINCT EDUCATIONAL DISADVANTAGE OF THE RESIDENTS. *Didactic demands listed in the currect standard are FAR TOO DEMANDING and GROSSLY REDUNDANT to the educational requirements of dental school and the expected knowledge base of incoming residents. Time and resources ARE NOT available at many institutions to provide for this educationally needles redundancy. Didactic areas CRITICAL to the practice of prosthodontics should be identified and carry MUST statements relative to instruction at the Prosthodontics program UNDERSTANDING level. All other didactic areas should be eliminated, or reduces to a MAY 3649 director statement with instructional requirements at a FAMILIARITY level (at most!). All standard criteria are relevant and have been shown to be valid measures of program Prosthodontics Program success if evaluated objectively by site visitors. Intent statements are essential for program 3650 Director interpretation of standards and should be maintained. 4-4.1: ALL instruction might be excessive. Prosthodontics program 4-4.6: With increasing pressure on diminishing faculty I would welcome a maximum % of 3652 director resident teaching time - 10% or less.
  • 122. Appendix 2 Page 67Open-ended CommentsStandard 4 - Curriculum and Program DurationSurvey ID Occ. Status Comment Prosthodontics program 4-4: Didactic instruction & research should be a minimum of 25%. 3654 director / prosthodontist 4-15: Some schools have very little or few Maxillofacial patients. 4-16: Implant surgery should be elevated to a must statement. All students must have Prosthodontics program experience in surgical placement of implants. This in addition to experience in all emphasis of 3731 director implant therapy. Prosthodontics program director/CODA prosthodontist 3732 site visitor/prosthodontist 4-8J. Too specific, we don’t dictate in any other area, as is done here. 4-8-b: Geriatrics represents an entire specialty of medicine. This standard is relevant but instruction should be of the familiarity level. 4-8j: We have been teaching and using the ACP classification system (prosthodontic diagnostic index) since it was added to the standards. I feel that this classification system is subjective and unrelated to the prognosis of treatment. It is not evidence based. Either a more simplified and relevant system should be developed, or this standard should be dropped entirely. 4-12a: Although clinical experiences must include a variety of patients, this requirement should not be linked to the ACP classification system. 4-12c: Although clinical experiences must include geriatric patients, the statement "including patients with varying degrees of cognitive and physical impairments" is vague and unnecessary. Prosthodontics program 4-12d: This statement is vague. What does "this refer to? director / CODA prosthodontics 4-16: This statement should be more specific with regard to the level of instruction (familiarity? 3734 site visitor / prosthodontist understanding?) and expected outcome of the clinical experiences (exposure? competence?). Past Prosthodontics program director / CODA prosthodontics site visitor / Prosthodontist / 4-16, 4-17: Should be moved to the competent level. "Participate" & "exposed to" are not 3865 Director implant dentistry. sufficient levels today relating to implant surgical treatments in prosthodontics! Executive director or president 4-4.6: Define % 3867 of other dental organization 4-8j: Give it up
  • 123. Appendix 2 Page 68Open-ended CommentsStandard 4 - Curriculum and Program DurationSurvey ID Occ. Status Comment CODA prosthodontics site visitor / prosthodontist / assistant prosthodontics 4b: The level of instruction in the graduate program should be more "in depth" than post- 3874 program director graduate (AEGD) programs. 3959 Prosthodontist Programs should be a full 48 months or 4 years. Associate dean for advanced dental education in a dental 4131 school 4-2 & 4-18: Not sure of the length of the program. Prosthodontics program director / CODA prosthodontics site visitor / Executive director or president of prosthodontics organization / executive director or president of other 4-4, 4-5: Too prescriptive -% ages are not appropriate. Many of the standards are too dental organization / prescriptive! When standards are too prescriptive this limits creativity without improving quality 4211 prosthodontist in general. Executive director or president of testing agency or dental board / executive director or president of prosthodontics 4244 organization / prosthodontist MF Pros is dying due to 3rd party indifference
  • 124. Appendix 2 Page 69Open-ended CommentsStandard 5 - Advanced Education Students/ResidentsSurvey ID Occ. Status Comment 2934 Prosthodontist 5a: Foreign pros programs may not be sufficient preparation for 1 year maxillofacial programs. Adjuct Asstn. Clinical Prof 2940 Owner Dentist Few U.S. citizen study here in this program. The department needs to do a better job recruiting. Too many poorly qualified foreign students dilutes the educational effectiveness of our post 2943 Prosthodontist doctoral prosthodontic education programs. Prosthodontist/Part - time faculty and former program How do we determine equivalency if there is not an accreditation process for foreign dental 3059 director, USC, OSU, LLU. schools! All residents should have to pass part 1 of Board Certification & have one clinical case ready for 3148 Prosthodontist presentation to Board of Examiners prior to graduation from residency. Prosthodontist / Clinical director of pre-doc restorative 5f: This standard seems to not allow changes (improvement) in additional experiences 3182 dentistry (rotations) at other locations. All standard criteria are relevant and have been shown to be valid measures of program Prosthodontics Program success if evaluated objectively by site visitors. Intent statements are essential for program 3650 Director interpretation of standards and should be maintained. Prosthodontics program director / CODA prosthodontics 3734 site visitor / prosthodontist All components of this standard are relevant and appropriate. 3959 Prosthodontist none - agree as stated. Prosthodontics program director / CODA prosthodontics site visitor / Executive director or president of prosthodontics organization / executive director or president of other dental organization / 4211 prosthodontist Evaluation standards assume larger programs with multiple.
  • 125. Appendix 2 Page 70Open-ended CommentsStandard 6 - ResearchSurvey ID Occ. Status Comment 2762 Prosthodontist I saw some programs emphasizing too much on technical aspects. 6a: Exposure to scientific literature, design & statistics with critical review but this aspect of standards poorly defined as actual experimental data collection, etc, too rigorous & unattainable 2889 Prosthodontist faculty member by most certificate only residents in 33 month program. 2934 Prosthodontist Scholarly activity covers quite a range which may not include basic research. Adjuct Asstn. Clinical Prof The resident who get adequate help w/ their research work w/ the program director on a 2940 Owner Dentist procera project. Prosthodontist / Past president 2960 of prosthodontics organization Standard 6a is pretty vague. Executive director or president 2969 of other dental organization 6a: Program specific A graduate of a Pros. Program should know how to conceptumize, design, conduct, analyze Prosthodontist/Hospital - and report to the body of literature. A clinical study in prosthodontics. It is essential to what we 2973 Based Prosthodontist do. Prosthodontist / Assoc Dean 3062 for clinics "Should be encourage to engage…." 3120 Prosthodontist What the heck else would they be doing? Research should be associated with a (Masters) graduate program and require at least 45 3122 Prosthodontist months, not 33 month program. 6a: Should define scholarly activity. Paper submitted for publication? Collaboration with Prosthodontist / Clinical other(s), but not required to submit paper? Preparation of and presentation of materials to director of pre-doc restorative meetings? Each program should be allowed to be different-but must be advised in advance of 3182 dentistry enrollment. All standard criteria are relevant and have been shown to be valid measures of program Prosthodontics Program success if evaluated objectively by site visitors. Intent statements are essential for program 3650 Director interpretation of standards and should be maintained. Prosthodontics program director/CODA prosthodontist 3732 site visitor/prosthodontist How do you define "scholarly activity" under the heading of "Research". Prosthodontics program director / CODA prosthodontics 3734 site visitor / prosthodontist All components of this standard are relevant and appropriate.
  • 126. Appendix 2 Page 71Open-ended CommentsStandard 6 - ResearchSurvey ID Occ. Status Comment Prosthodontics program director/Chairman of the Scholarly activity is a way broad concept. Why only list research. How about lecture department of restorative development, presentation oral presentations/poster presentations at national meeting, articles dentistry/Director of pre-doc accepted for publication, tutoring. To only list research implies that is the extent of 3736 implant program accomplishments that meet the criteria for scholarly activity. Past Prosthodontics program director / CODA prosthodontics The term "scholarly activity" is not well defined and perhaps should be replaced with "research site visitor / Prosthodontist / activity" which could take many forms from a comprehensive literature review on selected topic 3865 Director implant dentistry. to a definitive research project.
  • 127. Appendix 2 Page 72Open-ended Comments"Any comments?" questionSurvey ID Occ. Status Comment I am a State of Illinois Licensed used specialist of prosthodontics, by examination in 1967-My qualification was based in teaching in the discipline of prosthodontics, or the dent of 2857 BLANK Prosthodontics at the University of Illinois, College of Dentistry. Why does the ADA commission on Dental Accreditation not intervene when State Boards dont accept the degrees of graduates of ADA accredited programs. In Kentucky prosthodontist must take a State Board to practice (a SPECIALTY state board taken after the general dentistry board was taken). This disrespects the ADA accreditation process, it is wrong and sets a wrong tone. It undermines the specialty and the ADA. The specialty boards were instituted in states because there was no ADA accreditation for specialty programs. That is long over with...most state specialty boards are haphazardly given without oversight and proper examination protocol. That is absolutely ridiculous and unprofessional. The ADA needs to 2881 Prosthodontist save face and change this as soon as possible. (Comment part 1) *I have been in private practice as a prosthodontist since 1988, I have no institutional experience. *I strongly believe that courses/disciplines taught in dental school (endo, perio, anatomy pharmacology) should not be repeated in prosthodontic graduate training. *Instruction in ethics, behavioral sciences scientific writing and teaching methodology should be elective not mandatory. *The didactic requirements for the practice of maxillofacial (intra & extra) prosthodontics represent a significant and difficult educational burden for the student. * Not all prosthodontists are motivated to include maxillofacial work within their scope of practice. Thus, lengthy and in depth education in this field would not serve their needs. It seems a separate program in maxillofacial prosthodontics administerred at the post graduate 2932 Prosthodontist (meaning post graduate degree in prosthodontics is most appropriate). (Comment part 2) * It is very important, perhaps key, that the art of prosthodontics continues to be held in high esteem by dental educators and taught to their graduate students by direct example. Yes, prosthodontics is art and science. However, without the art: the precision, the beauty, the esthetics, the specialty area of prosthodontics will become a dim shadow of what it once was. *The true Challenge in prosthodontics is for educators to transmit the love of the art of 2932 Prosthodontist prosthodontics to its future practitioners. Adjuct Asstn. Clinical Prof I learned a lot. But I could have had a wider experience base. When I returned from maternity 2940 Owner Dentist leave the director stopped assigning me cases.
  • 128. Appendix 2 Page 73Open-ended Comments"Any comments?" questionSurvey ID Occ. Status Comment 1) Longer programs are not needed. 2) Better quality applicants/students are needed. This can in part be accomplished by reduction of foreign student populations. 3) ACP fellowship requirement are unrealistic. 4) If schools keep programs alive by admitting under qualified foreign applicants to generate 2943 Prosthodontist tuition dollars this needs regulation at the accreditation level to close there doors! Training guidelines appear inadequate in length for comprehensive maxillofacial prosthetic training e.g. cranial plates, ears, noses, eyes, etc. and speech aids for cleft palate and 2968 Prosthodontist submucous cleft patients. Prosthodontist / private 3027 practice Im drained mentally after this. Leave me alone. Stop sending me these surveys. These are a waste of my time, over money. 3046 Dentist Stop pursuing me with these surveys ! ! Do not bury students or faculty/admin in paperwork. Keep clinical experiences as the key thing in residencies. A good resident should have a natural curiosity toward Prosthodontic knowledge. Test them on classic articles/current research once or 2x/yr, but that shouldnt be the "be all, end all" of a Pros program...Helping patients & learning techniques should be. 3120 Prosthodontist P.S. This took me hours. As much practical experience with treating difficult cases as possible in the time allowed, is Prosthodontist / private recommended. These cases should be difficult mentally and anatomically so that general 3126 practitioner practitioners would not want to treat them. I hope I have been of some help. Prosthodontics program 3365 director I feel the standards are just fine. Executive director or president of testing agency or dental I am an administrator of a dental board. I have no opinion on the issues only because I am not 4170 board. qualified, not because a lack of interest. Program Manager - State BA / 4195 Commission These issues not within my purview & this state does not have Specialty licensing reqts
  • 129. Appendix 2 Page 74Open-ended Comments"Any comments?" questionSurvey ID Occ. Status Comment Prosthodontics program director / CODA prosthodontics site visitor / Executive director or president of prosthodontics organization / executive director or president of other dental organization / 4211 prosthodontist Standards 1, 2 and 3 are all rather generic. It is difficult to argue against any of these.
  • 130. Appendix 2 Page 75 AppendixSurvey Instrument
  • 131. Appendix 2 Page 76 American 211 East Chicago Avenue Commission on Dental Chicago, Illinois 60611 Dental Accreditation Association 312-440-2788 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study This survey lists the accreditation standards criteria by which the Commission on Dental Accreditation and its site visitors evaluate advanced education programs in prosthodontics for accreditation purposes. For each standard, please circle the appropriate number, as defined by the scale below, that corresponds to your rating of the relevance of the criterion to the prosthodontics curriculum. (Note that certain standard criteria have multiple items to be rated.) If you are unsure of the relevancy of a particular standard, or do not feel qualified to rate it, circle 5 (“no opinion”). Please use the spaces after each section to write in comments related to the standards. Rating scale for each standard criterion: 3 = criterion relevant but not sufficiently demanding 1 = criterion relevant but too demanding 4 = criterion not relevant 2 = retain criterion as is 5 = no opinionSTANDARD 1 – INSTITUTIONAL COMMITMENT/PROGRAM EFFECTIVENESS1a. The program must develop clearly stated goals and objectives appropriate to advanced specialty education, addressing education, patient care, research and service. Planning for, evaluation of and improvement of educational quality for the program must be broad-based, systematic, continuous and designed to promote achievement of program goals related to education, patient care, research and service. .....................................................................................1 2 3 4 51b. The program must document its effectiveness using a formal and ongoing outcomes assessment process to include measures of advanced education student/resident achievement. ........................................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 51c. The financial resources must be sufficient to support the programs stated goals and objectives. .............................................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 51d. The sponsoring institution must ensure that support from entities outside of the institution does not compromise the teaching, clinical and research components of the program. ................................1 2 3 4 51e. Major changes as defined by the Commission must be reported promptly to the Commission on Dental Accreditation. ........................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 51f. Advanced specialty education programs must be sponsored by institutions, which are properly chartered and licensed to operate and offer instruction leading to degrees, diplomas or certificates with recognized education validity. Hospitals that sponsor advanced specialty education programs must be accredited by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations or its equivalent. Educational institutions that sponsor advanced specialty education programs must be accredited by an agency recognized by the United States Department of Education. The bylaws, rules and regulations of hospitals that sponsor or provide a substantial portion of advanced specialty education programs must assure that dentists are eligible for medical staff membership and privileges including the right to vote, hold office, serve on medical staff committees and admit, manage and discharge patients. ...............................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 51g. The authority and final responsibility for curriculum development and approval, student/resident selection, faculty selection and administrative matters must rest within the sponsoring institution. .............................................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 51h. The position of the program in the administrative structure must be consistent with that of other parallel programs within the institution and the program director must have the authority, responsibility and privileges necessary to manage the program. ..........................................................1 2 3 4 5Affiliations1i. The primary sponsor of the educational program must accept full responsibility for the quality of education provided in all affiliated institutions. ......................................................................................1 2 3 4 5
  • 132. Appendix 2 Page 77 Rating scale for each standard criterion: 3 = criterion relevant but not sufficiently demanding 1 = criterion relevant but too demanding 4 = criterion not relevant 2 = retain criterion as is 5 = no opinionSTANDARD 1 – INSTITUTIONAL COMMITMENT/PROGRAM EFFECTIVENESS (continued)1j. Documentary evidence of agreements, approved by the sponsoring and relevant affiliated institutions, must be available. The following items must be covered in such inter-institutional agreements: 1. Designation of a single program director; .......................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 2. The teaching staff; ..........................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 3. The educational objectives of the program; ...................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 4. The period of assignment of students/residents; ...........................................................................1 2 3 4 5 5. Each institutions financial commitment. ........................................................................................1 2 3 4 5List comments related to Standard 1 – Institutional Commitment/Program Effectiveness. (PLEASE PRINT. Attach additionalsheets if necessary.)STANDARD 2 – PROGRAM DIRECTOR AND TEACHING STAFF2a. The program must be administered by a director who is board certified in the respective specialty of the program. (All program directors appointed after January 1, 1997, who have not previously served as program directors, must be board certified.) ........................................................1 2 3 4 52b. The program director must be appointed to the sponsoring institution and have sufficient authority and time to achieve the educational goals of the program and assess the programs effectiveness in meeting its goals. ........................................................................................................1 2 3 4 52-1. The program director must have primary responsibility for the organization and execution of the educational and administrative components to the program. ................................................................1 2 3 4 52-1.1 The program director must devote sufficient time to: a. Participate in the student/resident selection process, unless the program is sponsored by federal services utilizing a centralized student/resident selection process; ....................................1 2 3 4 5 b. Develop and implement the curriculum plan to provide a diverse educational experience in biomedical and clinical sciences; ....................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 c. Maintain a current copy of the curriculum’s goals, objectives, and content outlines; .....................1 2 3 4 5 d. Maintain a record of the number and variety of clinical experiences accomplished by each student/resident; ............................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 e. Ensure that the majority of faculty assigned to the program are educationally qualified prosthodontists; .............................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 f. Provide written faculty evaluations at least annually to determine the effectiveness of the faculty in the educational program; .................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 g. Conduct periodic staff meetings for the proper administration of the educational program; ...........1 2 3 4 5 h. Maintain adequate records of clinical supervision; .........................................................................1 2 3 4 52-2. The program director must encourage students/residents to seek certification by the American Board of Prosthodontics. ......................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 52-3. The number and time commitment of the teaching staff must be sufficient to: a. Provide didactic and clinical instruction to meet curriculum goals and objectives; .........................1 2 3 4 5 b. Provide supervision of all treatment provided by students/residents through specific and regularly scheduled clinic assignments. .........................................................................................1 2 3 4 5
  • 133. Appendix 2 Page 78 Rating scale for each standard criterion: 3 = criterion relevant but not sufficiently demanding 1 = criterion relevant but too demanding 4 = criterion not relevant 2 = retain criterion as is 5 = no opinionSTANDARD 2 – PROGRAM DIRECTOR AND TEACHING STAFF (continued)List comments related to Standard 2 – Program Director and Teaching Staff. (PLEASE PRINT. Attach additional sheets ifnecessary.)STANDARD 3 – FACILITIES AND RESOURCES3a. Institutional facilities and resources must be adequate to provide the educational experiences and opportunities required to fulfill the needs of the educational program as specified in these Standards. Equipment and supplies for use in managing medical emergencies must be readily accessible and functional. .....................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 53b. The program must document its compliance with the institution’s policy and applicable regulations of local, state and federal agencies including but not limited to radiation hygiene and protection, ionizing radiation, hazardous materials, and bloodborne and infectious diseases. Policies must be provided to all students/residents, faculty and appropriate support staff and continuously monitored for compliance. Additionally, policies on bloodborne and infectious diseases must be made available to applicants for admission and patients. ........................1 2 3 4 53c. Students/Residents, faculty and appropriate support staff must be encouraged to be immunized against and/or tested for infectious diseases, such as mumps, measles, rubella and hepatitis B, prior to contact with patients and/or infectious objects or materials, in an effort to minimize the risk to patients and dental personnel. ..............................................................................1 2 3 4 53d. All students/residents, faculty and support staff involved in the direct provision of patient care must be continuously recognized/certified in basic life support procedures, including cardiopulmonary resuscitation. ............................................................................................................1 2 3 4 53e. The use of private office facilities as a means of providing clinical experiences in advanced specialty education is not approved, unless the specialty has included language that defines the use of such facilities in its specialty-specific standards. ..................................................................1 2 3 4 53-1. Physical facilities must permit students/residents to operate under circumstances prevailing in the practice of prosthodontics. ..............................................................................................................1 2 3 4 53-1.1 The clinical facilities must be specifically identified for the advanced education program in prosthodontics. .....................................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 53-1.2 There must be sufficient number of completely equipped operatories to accommodate the number of students/residents enrolled. .................................................................................................1 2 3 4 53-1.3 Laboratory facilities must be specifically identified for the advanced education program in prosthodontics. .....................................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 53-1.4 The laboratory must be equipped to support the fabrication of most prostheses required in the program. ...............................................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 53-1.5 There must be sufficient laboratory space to accommodate the number of students/residents enrolled in the program, including provisions for storage of personal and laboratory armamentaria. .......................................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 53-2. Radiographic equipment for extra-and intraoral radiographs must be accessible to the student/resident. ...................................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5
  • 134. Appendix 2 Page 79 Rating scale for each standard criterion: 3 = criterion relevant but not sufficiently demanding 1 = criterion relevant but too demanding 4 = criterion not relevant 2 = retain criterion as is 5 = no opinionSTANDARD 3 – FACILITIES AND RESOURCES (continued)3-3. Lecture, seminar, study space and administrative office space must be available for the conduct of the educational program. .....................................................................................................1 2 3 4 53-4. Library resources must include access to a diversified selection of current dental, biomedical, and other pertinent reference material. .................................................................................................1 2 3 4 53-4.1 Library resources must also include access to appropriate current and back issues of major scientific journals as well as equipment for retrieval and duplication of information. .............................1 2 3 4 53-5. Facilities must include access to computer, photographic, and audiovisual resources for educational, administrative, and research support. ...............................................................................1 2 3 4 53-6. Adequate allied dental personnel must be assigned to the program to ensure clinical and laboratory technical support. .................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 53-7. Secretarial and clerical assistance must be sufficient to meet the educational and administrative needs of the program. ....................................................................................................1 2 3 4 53-8. Laboratory technical support must be sufficient to ensure efficient operation of the clinical program and meet the educational needs of the program. ...................................................................1 2 3 4 5List comments related to Standard 3 – Facilities and Resources. (PLEASE PRINT. Attach additional sheets if necessary.)STANDARD 4 – CURRICULUM AND PROGRAM DURATIONNote: Application of these Standards to programs of various scope/length is as follows: a. Prosthodontic programs that encompass a minimum of forty-five months that include integrated maxillofacial prosthetic training: all sections of these Standards apply; b. Prosthodontic programs that encompass a minimum of thirty-three months: all sections of these Standards apply except sections 4-18 through 4-24 inclusive; and c. Twelve-month maxillofacial prosthetic programs: all sections of these Standards apply except sections 4-5 through 4-17, inclusive.4a. The advanced specialty education program must be designed to provide special knowledge and skills beyond the D.D.S. or D.M.D. training and be oriented to the accepted standards of specialty practice as set forth in specific standards contained in this document. ..................................1 2 3 4 54b. The level of specialty area instruction in the graduate and postgraduate programs must be comparable. ..........................................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 54c. Documentation of all program activities must be assured by the program director and available for review. .............................................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5
  • 135. Appendix 2 Page 80 Rating scale for each standard criterion: 3 = criterion relevant but not sufficiently demanding 1 = criterion relevant but too demanding 4 = criterion not relevant 2 = retain criterion as is 5 = no opinionSTANDARD 4 – CURRICULUM AND PROGRAM DURATION (continued)4d. If an institution and/or program enrolls part-time students/residents, the institution must have guidelines regarding enrollment of part-time students/residents. Part-time students/residents must start and complete the program within a single institution, except when the program is discontinued. The director of an accredited program who enrolls students/residents on a part- time basis must assure that: (1) the educational experiences, including the clinical experiences and responsibilities, are the same as required by full-time students/residents; and (2) there are an equivalent number of months spent in the program. ........................................................................1 2 3 4 5Program Duration4-1. A postdoctoral program in prosthodontics must encompass a minimum of 33 months. ........................1 2 3 4 54-2. A postdoctoral program in prosthodontics that includes integrated maxillofacial training must encompass a minimum of 45 months. ..................................................................................................1 2 3 4 54-3. A 12-month postdoctoral program in maxillofacial prosthetics must be preceded by successful completion of an accredited prosthodontics program. ...........................................................................1 2 3 4 5Curriculum4-4. The curriculum must be designed to enable the student/resident to attain skills representative of a clinician proficient in the theoretical and practical aspects of prosthodontics. Advanced level instruction may be provided through the following: formal courses, seminars, lectures, self-instructional modules, clinical assignments and laboratory assignments. ......................................1 2 3 4 54-4.1 Written goals and objectives must be developed for all instruction included in this curriculum. ............1 2 3 4 54-4.2 Content outlines must be developed for all didactic portions of the program. .......................................1 2 3 4 54-4.3 Students/Residents must prepare and present diagnostic data, treatment plans and the results of patient treatment. ..............................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 54-4.4 The amount of time devoted to didactic instruction and research must be at least 30% of the total educational experience. ................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 54-4.5 A minimum of 60% of the total program time must be devoted to providing patient services, including direct patient care and laboratory procedures. .......................................................................1 2 3 4 54-4.6 The program may include organized teaching experience. If time is devoted to this activity, it should be carefully evaluated in relation to the goals and objectives of the overall program and the interests of the individual student/resident. .....................................................................................1 2 3 4 5Didactic Program: Biomedical Sciences4-5. Instruction must be provided at the understanding level in each of the following: a. Oral pathology; ..............................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 b. Applied pharmacology; ..................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 c. Craniofacial anatomy and physiology; ............................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 d. Infection control. ............................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 54-6. Instruction must be provided at the familiarity level in each of the following: a. Craniofacial growth and development; ...........................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 b. Immunology; ..................................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 c. Oral microbiology; ..........................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 d. Risk assessment for oral disease; .................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 e. Wound healing. ..............................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5
  • 136. Appendix 2 Page 81 Rating scale for each standard criterion: 3 = criterion relevant but not sufficiently demanding 1 = criterion relevant but too demanding 4 = criterion not relevant 2 = retain criterion as is 5 = no opinionSTANDARD 4 – CURRICULUM AND PROGRAM DURATION (continued)Didactic Program: Prosthodontics and Related Disciplines4-7. Instruction must be provided at the in-depth level in each of the following: a. Fixed prosthodontics; .....................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 b. Implant prosthodontics; ..................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 c. Removable prosthodontics; ...........................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 d. Occlusion. ......................................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 54-8. Instruction must be provided at the understanding level in each of the following: a. Biomaterials; ..................................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 b. Geriatrics; ......................................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 c. Maxillofacial prosthetics; ................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 d. Preprosthetic surgery; including surgical principles and procedures; ............................................1 2 3 4 5 e. Implant placement including surgical and post-surgical management; ..........................................1 2 3 4 5 f. Temporomandibular disorders and orofacial pain; .........................................................................1 2 3 4 5 g. Medical emergencies; ....................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 h. Diagnostic radiology; .....................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 i. Research methodology; .................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 j. Prosthodontic patient classification systems such as the Prosthodontic Diagnostic Index (ACP Classification Systems) for edentulous, partially edentulous and dentate patients. ..............1 2 3 4 54-9. Instruction must be provided at the familiarity level in each of the following: a. Endodontics; ..................................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 b. Periodontics; ..................................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 c. Orthodontics; .................................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 d. Sleep disorders; .............................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 e. Intraoral photography; ....................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 f. Practice management; ...................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 g. Behavioral sciences; ......................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 h. Ethics; ............................................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 i. Biostatistics; ...................................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 j. Scientific writing; ...........................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 k. Teaching methodology. .................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5Clinical Program4-10. The program must provide sufficient clinical experiences for the student/resident to be proficient in the comprehensive treatment of a wide range of complex prosthodontic patients with various categories of need. ...........................................................................................................1 2 3 4 54-11. The program must provide sufficient clinical experiences for the student/resident to be proficient in: a. Collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting diagnostic data; ...............................................1 2 3 4 5 b. Determining a diagnosis; ...............................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 c. Developing a comprehensive treatment plan and prognosis; ........................................................1 2 3 4 5 d. Critically evaluating the results of treatment; .................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 e. Effectively utilizing the professional services of allied dental personnel, including but not limited to, dental laboratory technicians, dental assistants, and dental hygienists. .........................1 2 3 4 5
  • 137. Appendix 2 Page 82 Rating scale for each standard criterion: 3 = criterion relevant but not sufficiently demanding 1 = criterion relevant but too demanding 4 = criterion not relevant 2 = retain criterion as is 5 = no opinionSTANDARD 4 – CURRICULUM AND PROGRAM DURATION (continued)4-12. The program must provide sufficient clinical experiences for the student/resident to be proficient in the comprehensive diagnosis, treatment planning and rehabilitation of edentulous, partially edentulous and dentate patients. a. Clinical experiences must include a variety of patients within a range of prosthodontic classifications, such as in the Prosthodontic Diagnostic Index (ACP Classification Systems) for edentulous, partially edentulous and dentate patients. .............................................1 2 3 4 5 b. Clinical experiences must include rehabilitative and esthetic procedures of varying complexity. .....................................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 c. Clinical experiences must include treatment of geriatric patients, including patients with varying degrees of cognitive and physical impairments. ................................................................1 2 3 4 5 d. This may include defects, which are due to genetic, functional, parafunctional, microbial or traumatic causes. ..........................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 54-13. The program must provide sufficient dental laboratory experience for the student/resident to be competent in the laboratory aspects of treatment of complete edentulism, partial edentulism and dentate patients. ............................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 54-14. Students/Residents must be competent in the prosthodontic management of patients with temporomandibular disorders and/or orofacial pain. .............................................................................1 2 3 4 54-15. Students/Residents must be exposed to patients requiring various maxillofacial prosthetic services. ...............................................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 54-16. Students/Residents must participate in all phases of implant treatment including implant placement. ............................................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 54-17. Students/Residents must be exposed to preprosthetic surgical procedures. ........................................1 2 3 4 5Program Duration4-18. An advanced education program in maxillofacial prosthetics must be provided with a forty-five month integrated prosthodontic program which includes fixed prosthodontic, removable prosthodontic, implant prosthodontic and maxillofacial prosthetic experiences; or a one-year program devoted specifically to maxillofacial prosthetics which follows completion of a prosthodontic program. .........................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 54-19. Instruction must be provided at the in-depth level in each of the following: a. Maxillary defects and soft palate defects, which are the result of disease or trauma (acquired defects); .........................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 b. Mandibular defects, which are the result of disease or trauma (acquired defects); .......................1 2 3 4 5 c. Maxillary defects, which are naturally acquired (congenital or developmental defects); ................1 2 3 4 5 d. Mandibular defects, which are naturally acquired (congenital or developmental defects); .............1 2 3 4 5 e. Facial defects, which are the result of disease or trauma or are naturally acquired:.......................1 2 3 4 5 f. The use of implants to restore intraoral and extraoral defects; ......................................................1 2 3 4 5 g. Maxillofacial prosthetic management of the radiation therapy patient; ...........................................1 2 3 4 5 h. Maxillofacial prosthetic management of the chemotherapy patient. ...............................................1 2 3 4 54-20. Instruction must be provided at the familiarity level in each of the following: a. Medical oncology; ..........................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 b. Principles of head and neck surgery; .............................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 c. Radiation oncology; .......................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 d. Speech and deglutition; .................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 e. Cranial defects................................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5
  • 138. Appendix 2 Page 83 Rating scale for each standard criterion: 3 = criterion relevant but not sufficiently demanding 1 = criterion relevant but too demanding 4 = criterion not relevant 2 = retain criterion as is 5 = no opinionSTANDARD 4 – CURRICULUM AND PROGRAM DURATION (continued)Clinical Program4-21. Students/Residents must be competent to perform maxillofacial prosthetic treatment procedures performed in the hospital operation room. ..........................................................................1 2 3 4 54-22. Students/Residents must gain clinical experience to become proficient in the pre-prosthetic, prosthetic and post-prosthetic management and treatment of patients with defects of the maxilla and mandible. Clinical experience regarding management and treatment should include: a. Patients who are partially dentate and for patients who are edentulous; .......................................1 2 3 4 5 b. Patients who have undergone radiation therapy to the head and neck region; ..............................1 2 3 4 5 c. Maxillary defects of the hard palate, soft palate and alveolus; .......................................................1 2 3 4 5 d. Mandibular continuity and discontinuity defects; ............................................................................1 2 3 4 5 e. Acquired, congenital and developmental defects. ..........................................................................1 2 3 4 54-23. Students/Residents must gain clinical experience to become competent in the pre-prosthetic, prosthetic and post-prosthetic management and treatment of patients with defects of facial structures. .............................................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 54-24. Students/Residents must demonstrate competency in interdisciplinary diagnostic and treatment planning conferences relevant to maxillofacial prosthetics, which may include: a. Cleft palate and craniofacial conferences; .....................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 b. Clinical pathology conferences; .....................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 c. Head and neck diagnostic conferences; ........................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 d. Medical oncology treatment planning conferences; .......................................................................1 2 3 4 5 e. Radiation therapy diagnosis and treatment planning conferences; ................................................1 2 3 4 5 f. Reconstructive surgery conferences; .............................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 g. Tumor boards. ...............................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5List comments related to Standard 4 – Curriculum and Program Duration. (PLEASE PRINT. Attach additional sheets ifnecessary.)STANDARD 5 – ADVANCED EDUCATION STUDENTS/RESIDENTSEligibility and Selection5a. Dentists with the following qualifications are eligible to enter advanced specialty education programs accredited for the Commission on Dental Accreditation: 1. Graduates from institutions in the U.S. accredited by the Commission on Dental Accreditation;..................................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 2. Graduates from institutions in Canada accredited by the Commission on Dental Accreditation of Canada; ................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5 3. Graduates of foreign dental schools who possess equivalent educational background and standing as determined by the institution and program. ................................................................1 2 3 4 55b. Specific written criteria, policies and procedures must be followed when admitting students/residents. ................................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5
  • 139. Appendix 2 Page 84 Rating scale for each standard criterion: 3 = criterion relevant but not sufficiently demanding 1 = criterion relevant but too demanding 4 = criterion not relevant 2 = retain criterion as is 5 = no opinionSTANDARD 5 – ADVANCED EDUCATION STUDENTS/RESIDENTS (continued)5c. Admission of students/residents with advanced standing must be based on the same standards of achievement required by students/residents regularly enrolled in the program. Transfer students/residents with advanced standing must receive an appropriate curriculum that results in the same standards of competence required by students/residents regularly enrolled in the program. ........................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5Evaluation5d. A system of ongoing evaluation and advancement must assure that, through the director and faculty, each program: 1. Periodically, but at least semiannually, evaluates the knowledge, skills and professional growth of its students/residents, using appropriate written criteria and procedures; .......................1 2 3 4 5 2. Provides to students/residents an assessment of their performance, at least semiannually;..........1 2 3 4 5 3. Advances students/residents to positions of higher responsibility only on the basis of an evaluation of their readiness for advancement; .............................................................................1 2 3 4 5 4. Maintains a personal record of evaluation for each student/resident which is accessible to the student/resident and available for review during site visits. .....................................................1 2 3 4 5Due Process5e. There must be specific written due process policies and procedures for adjudication of academic and disciplinary complaints, which parallel those established by the sponsoring institution. .............................................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5Rights and Responsibilities5f. At the time of enrollment, the advanced specialty education students/residents must be apprised in writing of the educational experience to be provided, including the nature of assignments to other departments or institutions and teaching commitments. Additionally, all advanced specialty education students/residents must be provided with written information which affirms their obligations and responsibilities to the institution, the program and program faculty. ..................................................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 5List comments related to Standard 5 – Advanced Education Students/Residents. (PLEASE PRINT. Attach additional sheets ifnecessary.)STANDARD 6 – RESEARCH6a. Advanced specialty education students/residents must engage in scholarly activity. ...........................1 2 3 4 5List comments related to Standard 6 – Research. (PLEASE PRINT. Attach additional sheets if necessary.)
  • 140. Appendix 2 Page 85Which of the following categories describes your current Any other comments? (PLEASE PRINT. Attach additionaloccupational status? (Please circle all that apply.) sheets if necessary.)a. Prosthodontics program director .........................................1b. Associate dean for advanced dental education in a dental school .......................................................................2c. Chief academic officer in a non-dental school institution.....3d. CODA prosthodontics site visitor.........................................4e. Executive director or president of testing agency or dental board .........................................................................5f. Executive director or president of prosthodontics organization ........................................................................6g. Executive director or president of other dental organization ........................................................................7h. Prosthodontist .....................................................................8i. Other, please specify_______________________________Thank you for your assistance in this research project. Please return this questionnaire and additional comments (ifapplicable) in the return envelope provided. Drop it in the mail; postage is already paid.
  • 141. American 211 East Chicago Avenue Commission onDental Chicago, Illinois 60611 Dental AccreditationAssociation 312-440-4653 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability StudyJanuary 9, 2007Report: ADA/CODA/Pros Review Committee (Report by RFW)INTRODUCTIONCurrent standards were implemented in 2000 at its January 2006 meeting, the Commission on DentalAccreditation (CODA) decided that a validity and reliability study be conducted prior to considering anyfuture revisions in the accreditation standards for each type of advanced dental specialty education program.The 2006 Prosthodontics Education Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study was conductedas a result of this decision. CODA, with assistance from the Survey Center, designed the survey instrumentused for this study (see Appendix).The survey was mailed to a number of communities of interest, including:• Random sample of professionally active prosthodontists• Directors of prosthodontics education programs• Deans of advanced dental education in dental schools• Chief administrative officers of dental programs in non-dental school institutions• CODA prosthodontics education program site visitors• Executive directors of state boards of dentistry• Executive directors of regional clinical testing agencies• Executive directors of prosthodontics organizations• Executive director and president of the American Association of Dental Examiners• Executive director and president of the American Dental Education Association• Executive director and president of the American Student Dental Association• Executive director and president of the National Dental Association• Executive director and president of the American Dental AssociationA total of 671 surveys were mailed in June 2006. In order to increase the response rate, follow-upmailings were administered to all non-respondents in August and September. At the time the data collectionended in October, there were 216 respondents, for an adjusted response rate of 35.6 %( excluding thoseindividuals who were not prosthodontists or were no longer in dentistry, or whose addresses were no longervalid). 1
  • 142. A breakdown of the adjusted response rate by type of respondent is found below: (In cases where anindividual belonged to more than one type of respondent category (such as a program director who isalso a CODA site visitor), that person is counted once in all applicable categories).• Random sample of 500 professionally active prosthodontists: 28.6%• 56 directors of prosthodontics education programs: 88.7%• 19 deans of advanced dental education in dental schools: 50.0%• 16 chief administrative officers of dental programs in non-dental school institutions: 57.1%• 23 CODA prosthodontics education program site visitors: 87.0%• Executive directors of 53 state boards of dentistry and four regional clinical testing agencies: 30.9%• 11 executive directors and presidents of prosthodontics organizations: 70.0%• Executive directors and presidents of ADA, ADEA, ASDA, NDA, and AADE: 10.0%Respondents were asked to rate each criterion in the survey using a scale from 1-5. The followingdescriptions correspond to the values in the rating scale:1 = criterion relevant but too demanding2 = retain criterion as is3 = criterion relevant but not sufficiently demanding4 = criterion not relevant5 = no opinion.Results:Results will be discussed where there are “outliers” or where there is a large deviationfrom “retain criterion as is.”Standard 1 – Institutional Commitment/Program Effectiveness:1b. (page 4) The program must document its effectiveness using a formal ongoingoutcomes process to include measures of advanced student/resident achievement.17% of program directors felt it was relevant but too demanding1c. (page 4) The financial resources must be sufficient to support the program’s goalsand objectives.25% of Pros leaders and nat’l dental organizations felt it was relevant but not sufficientlydemanding compared to 7% of program directors.1d. (page 5) The sponsoring institution must ensure support from entities outside of theinstitution does not compromise the teaching, clinical and research components of theprogram.21% of CODA site visitors said it was relevant but not sufficiently demanding as opposedto 8.7% of program directors. 2
  • 143. Standard 2 – Program Director and Teaching Staff:2-1.1d (page 13) Maintain and record the number and variety of clinical experiencesaccomplished by each student/resident.13% of program directors and pros. And nat’l leadership felt this was relevant but toodemanding.Standard 3 – Facilities and Resources:3-6 (page 19) Adequate allied dental personnel must be assigned to the program to ensureclinical and laboratory technical support.13% of program directors, 10% of site visitors, and 10% of prosthodontists felt it wasinsufficiently demanding.3-7 (page 19) Secretarial and clerical assistance must be sufficient to meet theeducational and administrative needs of the program.13% of program directors, 13% of prosthodontists and 10% of site visitors felt this wasinsufficiently demanding.Standard 4 – Curriculum and Program Duration4d (page 21) If an institution and/or program enrolls part-time students/residents, theinstitution must have guidelines regarding enrollment of part-time students/residents.Part-time students/residents must start and complete the program within a singleinstitution, except when the program is discontinued. The director of an accreditedprogram who enrolls students/residents on a part-time basis must assure that: (1) theeducational experiences, including the clinical experiences and responsibilities, are thesame as required by full-time students/residents; and (2) there are an equivalent numberof months spent in the program.10-13% of prosthodontists, site visitors, and deans thought this was insufficientlydemanding.4-4.4 (page24) The amount of time devoted to didactic instruction and research must beat least 30% of the total educational experience.15% of program directors thought this was relevant but too demanding.4-4.6 (page 24) The program may include organized teaching experience. If time isdevoted to this activity, it should be carefully evaluated in relation to the goals andobjectives of the overall program and interests of the individual student/resident.20% of site visitors felt this was insufficiently demanding. 3
  • 144. Didactic program:4-6.b&c (page 26-27) Biomedical sciences/immunology and micro biology.14-16% of program directors felt this was relevant but too demanding.4-8.e & j (page 30 & 32) Didactic curriculum/Implant surgery and PDI.Implant placement and surgical and post-surgical management.37.5% pros. leaders and nat’l dental orgs., 15% of site visitors, 13% program directors,and 22% of prosthodontists felt this was insufficiently demanding.PDI taught to the understanding level.8-15% of program directors, deans and admin., site visitors, and pros/nat’l orgs felt thiswas relevant but too demanding.4-9f (page 34) Practice management (understanding level).20% of prosthodontists felt this was insufficiently demanding.Clinical program:4-14 (page 40) Competent in TMD.20% of program directors and 16% of site visitors felt this was too demanding.4-15 (page 40) Exposed to maxfac. prostho.13% of program directors and 15% of prosthodontists felt this was too demanding.4-16 (page 40) Students/residents must participate in all phases of implant treatmentincluding implant placement.12-38% of 5 of the six categories surveyed felt this was insufficiently demanding.Maxillofacial Prosthetics:4-18 to 4-24 (pages 41-50) _ Most responses were “retain as is” or no opinion sincethose parties maybe don’t fully understand the sub-specialty. The exception was thatsome programs did not have enough facial defects and there was a small percentage thatfelt this was too demanding (4-23). 4
  • 145. Standard 5 – Advanced Education Students/Residents5a.3. (page 51) Graduates of foreign dental schools who possess equivalent educationalbackground and standing as determined by the institution and program.13-35% of all respondents in all communities of interest felt this was insufficientlydemanding.Standard 6 (page 54) Research21.1% of CODA site visitors felt this was insufficiently demanding. Maybe because ofthe wording – “students/residents must engage in scholarly activity.”Open-ended Comments are listed at the end of the report which provideinsight to the thinking of the respondents.RFW/CODA Pros. Review Committee1/9/07 5
  • 146. From: Schneid Thomas R Col 59 DS/MRDP [mailto:Thomas.Schneid@LACKLAND.AF.MIL]Sent: Friday, March 23, 2007 3:11 PMTo: Nancy Deal Chandler; araigrod@u.washington.edu; candres@iupui.edu;Carlo_Ercoli@urmc.rochester.edu; Christopher.Minke@med.va.gov; cronin@uthscsa.edu;dcagna@utmem.edu; dennis-weir@uiowa.edu; agar@nso2.uchc.edu; eoneill@dental.ufl.edu;flinton@umdnj.edu; fv1@nyu.edu; hiroshi.hirayama@tufts.edu; Holta001@umn.edu;JHOCHS@lsuhsc.edu; kentk@uic.edu; mikemc@uab.edu; mloza@rcm.upr.edu;Robert.L.Engelmeier@uth.tmc.edu; robert_wright@hsdm.harvard.edu; snelson@mail.mcg.edu;wnagy@bcd.tamhsc.edu; worlddent@aol.com; Alan Sheiner; cdriscoll@umaryland.edu; Dr. EleniRoumanas; drsilken@msn.com; edwardjr@buffalo.edu; Fritz.Finzen@ucsf.edu;gerald.ziebert@marquette.edu; Jandali, Rami; jbeumer@dentnet.dent.ucla.edu; JohnVanDercreek; Julie Holloway; kl341@columbia.edu; lyndon_cooper@dentistry.unc.edu;mkattadiyil@llu.edu; merim@umich.edu; mrichards@hsc.wvu.edu;peter.gronet@se.amedd.army.mil; millrich@nova.edu; richard.leupold@med.va.gov; RobertSchulman; sancowit@hotmail.com; Eckert, Steven E. D.D.S.; smorgano@bu.edu;tdonovan@hsc.usc.edu; Schneid Thomas R Col 59 DS/MRDP; Winston CheeCc: Carla Baker; Lauren Dethloff; Stephen Campbell; cGoodacre@llu. edu; Jennifer Jackson;Temp Staff; Laura Boehmke; D. Net; Knoernschild, Kent; Pamela KruegerSubject: RE: RSVP Reminder Important ACP Program Directors Meeting---May 11-12, 2007Deal,Thank you for the invitation and thanks to the ACPEF for funding the expenses. I e-mailed my RSVP earlier today and I look forward to attending the meeting. I do have afew questions and concerns that I would like to express.The importance of this meeting is quiet clear from your e-mail as well as the wording inthe “First Blast Email for Meeting” document.I am curious as to why such an important meeting was scheduled giving only 2 monthsnotice prior to the meeting? Why did this come on so suddenly? The last time theProgram Directors (PDs) discussed/voted/decided on recommendations for AccreditationStandards changes, discussions were held over multiple Educators’/Mentors’ meetings atAnnual ACP meetings. Following the discussions, e-mail documents were circulated toall of the PDs so their input could be coordinated and circulated. Eventually, we reacheda consensus on our proposed changes. Why are we now using a different procedure ...one that might result in more sparse participation from the PDs? Your e-mail and the“First Blast ...” document state that “official voting” will be held at the meeting. Whatabout PDs that can’t attend? Even with a stipulation for a program representative, someprograms could go unrepresented. Will their voices be heard before the process isfinalized? What if discussion can’t be completed during the allotted time?I also have concerns specific to the “First Blast ...” document. I must object to thewording in the announcement. I am referring to “These updates to Standard 4 are basedupon the nearly unanimous recommendations of the more than 30 program directorattendees at the ACP mentors’ meeting in Miami.” Although I will admit that sometopics discussed enjoyed near unanimous support of the attendees, there were issues (onefor certain) that were definitely not supported nearly unanimously by those inattendance. The statement as written does not convey the proceedings accurately and
  • 147. gives those not in attendance the mistaken impression that all proposed standards changeswere unanimously supported. In addition, when the votes in that session were taken,those voting were assured that the results of the vote would not be used for any purposesother than to merely determine the general sentiment of the group. I am disappointed thatthis was not the case---a reference to the Miami vote may sway the outcome of the“official” vote.Finally, would you please send me the reference that governs this process for the ACP, asI would like to thoroughly review any applicable guidelines prior to the meeting.Again, I thank you for the invitation and the ACPEF for the financial support. I wouldalso like to thank you, in advance, for addressing my concerns.Thomas R. Schneid, Col, USAF, DCMilitary Consultant for Prosthodontics to the AF/SGSpecial Consultant for Prosthodontics to the Assistant SG for Dental ServicesProgram Director, USAF Prosthodontics ResidencyWilford Hall Medical Center59th Dental Training Squadron2450 Pepperrell StLackland AFB TX 78236-5345DSN 554-6959 Comm (210) 292-6959FAX 554-2618 Comm (210) 292-2618thomas.schneid@lackland.af.mil
  • 148. THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF PROSTHODONTISTS Implant, Esthetic and Reconstructive Dentistry....................................................................................................................................................................... March 28, 2007 Dear Tom, Thank you for your e-mail and comments regarding the upcoming ACP program directors meeting in May 2007. Your concern over the rationale for the meeting and desire to be fully aware of the process is the approach the program directors should take in considering the current status and potential future directions of our programs. The May meeting is actually a part of an ongoing process that started a year ago, when the ACP Board of Directors formed the Program Directors Committee on Accreditation Standards and charged its members to assess current standards and consider their appropriateness. From this committee assessment, I submitted to all program directors a document for discussion at the Mentors meeting at the ACP Annual Session last fall in Miami. We had extremely productive discussions at that meeting, and you saw me edit on-screen at the meeting exactly what I will submit next week to the program directors as a proposed updated Standard 4 document. This document includes additions or deletions that are either highlighted or stricken, respectively, that exactly reflect what we discussed. I have already received comments on this document from Program Directors Committee and have made clarifications accordingly. Ultimately, using the same process we began in Miami, we will move line by line through the document and thoroughly discuss proposed updates. We will vote, and any decisions we make will ultimately be forwarded to the CODA Prosthodontics Review Group. This would initiate the nationwide review process. Many on the Program Directors Committee, by the way, are on the CODA review committee. A primary goal is to ensure that our Standards continue to reflect the needs of prosthodontics program in support of the specialty, and the needs of program directors in support of their programs. Program directors must expect to discuss and vote on recommended changes. It is critical that this is clear to everyone as they consider their participation. Obviously, if those in attendance are not comfortable with an issue, the discussion will continue to occur at subsequent meeting like the Annual Session. The intent is only to move ahead on issues that have general consensus and more than a simple majority. There will be plenty of opportunity for discussion, and if issues warrant, then the Annual Session and/or subsequent meetings can be utilized. Completing the process face-to-face rather than electronically will hopefully increase both quantity and quality of interaction, thereby helping to more effectively assess the issues. 1
  • 149. This process will also be a timely analysis and response to the ADA 2006 ProsthodonticsEducation Accreditation Standards Validity and Reliability Study. The ACP Board ofDirectors charged us with considering the Validity and Reliability report as soon aspossible, and the Program Directors Committee seeks every director to be a part of thatprocess. Robert Wright has developed a summary document of the release report. CODAhas further requested feedback regarding those outcomes. When you receive the updatedstandard 4, you will also receive the official ADA study results as well as Dr. Wright’ssummary document. Following our analysis of the proposed updates, in light of theValidity and Reliability Study report, we will be able to submit an initial response to theACP Board of Directors and an initial report to CODA prior to its July 2007 meeting.This looks to be a highly interactive and productive year for program directors.Ideally every Director should be involved in this process, and ideally every voice shouldbe heard. It is for that reason the blast email was sent out last fall to encourage all toattend the Mentors session for discussion of the existing Standards. Not all could attendthat meeting, nor have all attended any of the Mentors meetings we have had over theyears. To have the best attendance possible at the May meeting when the official votingwill occur, the ACPEF is providing travel support in response to a Program Director’sCommittee request. Further, if program directors can’t attend, a program can send a non-voting representative to participate in the discussion. Finally, for all to be involved, andfor all to have a chance to voice their opinions, a day and a half focused discussionoutside of the normal Annual Session time constraints seemed more ideal and moreeffective. This process really is about including everyone, and every effort has been madeto allow that to occur.Group discussions like these that occur more than once a year can only further serve tohelp us function more effectively. This meeting will be an opportunity to strengthen tiesamong programs and start dialogue about ways to better work together to meet ourstudent’s learning goals. Beyond the planned discussion of the standards, this is also anopportunity to plant new seed for discussion of problems we are facing at the programlevel. We could potentially initiate discussion of shared solutions with goals of buildingstrong prosthodontic programs filled with the best students. Again, this is hopefullyanother opportunity for continued group input, discussion, team-building and decision-making.Every desire is to make this process totally transparent. Every effort is made to ensure allreceive the information well in advance. Every opportunity is available to participate inmany ways. I do apologize for the two-month notice on the meeting if that seems short,but I simply thought that would be adequate. Planning this just took a little longer than Iimagined.Thanks again first for participating and second for voicing your concerns. This emailhopefully clarifies some of the issues you and others have been having about the processin general and the meeting in particular. Please let me know if you have further questionsor concerns. 2
  • 150. See you in May!KentKent L. Knoernschild, DMD, MSChair, ACP Program Directors Committee on Accreditation Standards................................................................................................................................................ .................................. Headquarters Office: 211 East Chicago Avenue Suite 1000 Chicago, Illinois 60611-2688 Tel: 312.573.1260 Fax: 312.573.1257 www.prosthodontics.org 3
  • 151. Task Force Progress Reports – May 2007Education Task Force ReportSpecific Goals: 1. Outline Digital Resource Library by drafting major categories and detailing index of proposed content for each category. 2. Gather Content for Digital Resource Library through solicitation of materials to ACP BOD, Prosthodontic Program Directors and Department Chairs and ACP Members. 3. Gain corporate and federal financial support for training, development and distribution of resources. 4. Develop a diagnosis and treatment planning curriculum a. Develop course description b. Incorporate an updated PDI and include modification factors c. Oral Cancer awareness initiative developed d. Disease recognition initiative developed 5. Accreditation standards developed.Growth Task Force ReportSpecific Goals: 1. Increase enrollment to 550 in post-graduate prosthodontic programs. 2. Increase the number of trained prosthodontists in the United States. 3. Increase the number of Private Practice and Federal Services Prosthodontists who are members of the ACP.Objective 1: Add 6 new post-graduate prosthodontic programs.A Post-graduate Prosthodontics Program Support sub-committee of the Task Force has beenformed to primarily focus on two aspects of post-graduate programs: • Applicant Pool - A business plan will be developed to include initiatives to improve the quantity and quality of the applicant pool, increase clinical revenue, corporate support, and research dollars. • Academic Initiatives - These initiatives will include but are not limited to the follow categories: program development, CODA accreditation, site visit preparation, and shared program design.
  • 152. Objective 2: Increase the size of existing programsThe 9 Programs that indicated on PG Program Survey that they would like to increase their numberof residents have been identified. 1. A letter will be sent to the Program Directors to determine the most effect means of support that can be developed to assist their programs with increasing their current student numbers.Objective 3: Increase the number and quality of applicants 1. Coordinate efforts with Forum organizations. 2. ASDA/Undergraduate Outreach Plan has been developed and is currently underway with ACP representation provided at ASDA regional meetings. 3. ASDA Postdoc Guide will be coordinated through the ACP Central Office to assist with 100% submission rate of data to ensure representation of Prosthodontic programs.Objective 4: Increase the number of Private Practice and Federal Service prosthodontists who are members of the ACPA Federal Services sub-committee of the Growth Task Force has been formed to create a FederalServices Survey and distribute to all Federal Service prosthodontists. A strategy to increaseparticipation and to determine a proactive stance for the ACP to support the Federal ServiceProsthodontists will be developed.Science and Technology Task ForceThe mission of the Science and Technology Task Force is to enrich the science culture inProsthodontics and to expand the role of technology in Prosthodontics. The Science andTechnology Task Force is divided into three subcommittees to encouraging growth throughcollaboration. 1. UNC / ACPEF Scope of Prosthodontic Research Symposium on January 11 and 12, 2007 a. The Symposium gathered prosthodontic researchers to assess and evaluate the current scope of research among prosthodontists and in Prosthodontics. Their goals were to: i. identify opportunities for collaboration to increase success ii. minimize costs, and increase alignment in the specialty iii. identify ways to increase number of new prosthodontic researchers iv. determine methods of supporting current researchers and identify mentors v. increase the awareness of all prosthodontists vi. identify current and emerging priorities in prosthodontics-related research vii. create a compelling case for support to increase resources for funding
  • 153. 2. As part of this Program Director’s meeting on May 12, 2007, the Science and Technology Task Force conducted a technology curriculum survey to measure the extent of technology utilized in dental school patient care and to compare the level of technology use in undergraduate and graduate education. 3. The Science and Technology Task Force is working with a corporate partner to create prosthodontic networks of product evaluators to secure prosthodontists’ position as leaders of cutting-edge dentistry and early adopters of the latest technologies. 4. A Scope of Technology in Prosthodontics Corporate Roundtable is being developed that will gather industry representatives, prosthodontists and lab technicians for a facilitated discussion on the scope of available technologies related to prosthodontics.Oral Cancer Screening Task Force ReportRecognizing that 30,000 people are diagnosed with oral cancer each year, of which 8,000 will dieannually. Since oral cancer can be very disfiguring and psychologically traumatic and early detectionis the key to treatment success, the ACP created the Oral Cancer Screening Task Force.The task force is charged with the following initiatives: 1. Define/describe best practices in oral cancer screening. 2. Consider the current technologies available for oral cancer screening. 3. Work with the Program Directors Committee Chair, Dr. Kent Knoernschild to include an appropriate educational standard as part of our Advanced Programs. 4. Consider Educational Programs for Prosthodontic practitioners and faculty.
  • 154. THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF PROSTHODONTISTS Implant, Esthetic and Reconstructive Dentistry ………………………………………………………………………………………… ADVANCING PROSTHODONTICS – ACP AND ACPEF HIGHLIGHTSThe ACP with the support of the ACPEF advances the specialty of prosthodontics through the support ofa wide variety of initiatives related to education, practice, science, technology, research, other dentalprofessionals and the general public. A $1 million endowment provides a permanent funding source forprojects and programs that continually advance the prosthodontic discipline and specialty. Awareness andexcitement continue to grow – the ACPEF Annual Fund has increased 900% in just the last three years.In June 2006, the ACPEF underwrote the ACP Summit to Reframe the Future of Prosthodontics, which gatheredleaders in prosthodontics and academics to create a plan that instructs the immediate and future growth ofthe specialty in education and training, science and technology and membership benefits and services.ACPEF Support of Graduate Prosthodontic training and students Financial support provides residents’ entrée to the community of prosthodontics and possession of the information necessary to maximize their training and education. Having students as ACP members strengthens the influence of prosthodontics in the larger dental community. • ACPEF sponsorship for ACP Membership for all post-graduate prosthodontic students • ACPEF sponsorship for Annual Session registrations for all post-graduate prosthodontic students • ACPEF sponsorship of travel stipends for students attending the ACP Annual Session • $250,000 in scholarships for post-graduate prosthodontic students in 2004 - 2006Newly Re-designed ACP Web site The ACP Web site is critical to the future of the College and all of its initiatives. The first phase of the Web site redesign was launched in December 2006. • New Member’s Only Options and Resources • Find-a-Prosthodontist Search Engine is enhanced and contains new search functionality • Digital Education and Resource Library is under development for future implementation phases • ACP Member Directory is now available online • Create Your Own Web site Option now available to Members • Members have the ability to register for CPE Courses and the 2007 Annual Session online • Member contact information now accessible to members for updating and review • New Dental Technician Search Engine will be available during phase twoGrowth of the Discipline and the Specialty • Groundbreaking symposia on undergraduate and graduate prosthodontic education • Two new post-graduate prosthodontic programs opened with support from the ACP and ACPEF • Funding of laboratory equipment at NYC College of Technology dental technician program • Initiative is underway to increase the number of candidates for prosthodontic programs • Support of the Gerald N. Graser Fellowship at the University of Rochester Medical Center • Expanding the Scope of Prosthodontics - Nearly 90% of all graduate prosthodontic programs now teach implant placement – creating new generations of leaders and teachers
  • 155. THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF PROSTHODONTISTS Implant, Esthetic and Reconstructive Dentistry …………………………………………………………………………………………Support for the Growth of Science, Technology, and Research in Prosthodontics • ACPEF Scope of Prosthodontic Research Symposium was held to assess and evaluate the current scope of research among prosthodontists • Development of a Clinical Evaluators Program – providing leading edge product evaluation • Initiative to identify and evaluate new prosthodontic technology for possible implementation in our Advanced Prosthodontic Programs • Funding of graduate prosthodontic related researchDirect-to-Consumer Marketing • ACP Web site uses current search engine optimization tools to drive Internet searchers to the Find-a-Prosthodontist directory of ACP Members • Esthetic and implant dentistry marketing through local and national print and broadcast media driving patients into prosthodontic practices • Over 93 million consumer impressions in just two years through PSA’s sent to stations across the Nation • Grassroots public relations include clever, eye-catching ads for prosthodontists to advertise their practice and specialty in community newspapers • Live satellite television interviews from the ACP Annual Session promoting science and technology related to the field of prosthodontics • ACP leaders met with editors of nine national publications to place stories relating positive life changes through prosthodontic care • Radio interviews in more than 15 key markets reached millions during prime time • Linked prosthodontists nation-wide with National Foundation for Ectodermal Displaysia to provide network of care for children unable to grow teethACP Center for Prosthodontic Education • ACP Center for Prosthodontic Education (CPE) offers courses advancing the discipline and the specialty of prosthodontics • CPE offers programs throughout the year for prosthodontists and other dental professionals including: implant placement, implant treatment planning, complete dentures, and esthetics • CPE provides continuing education for prosthodontic dental assistants and laboratory technicians • ACP’s Annual Session was a huge success focused on new technology and patient careACP Journal of Prosthodontics • Increased the number of pages per issue to provide ACP Members with the latest prosthodontic articles and research documents • Increased to six issues per year in 2006 • Number of submissions increased by 300% in the last two years • Increase in number of issues provides companies with an excellent opportunity to advertise and reach this unique audience
  • 156. THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF PROSTHODONTISTS Implant, Esthetic and Reconstructive Dentistry Technology in Prosthodontics A 2007 Survey of Graduate Prosthodontic EducatorsIntent: The questions posed are intended to elicit information that will assist the American College ofProsthodontists Education Foundation and the Board of Directors to develop policy and make fundingdecisions that will enhance patient care, education and research by our membership.Please thoughtfully answer these questions and return this survey by May 4, 2007. The surveyresults will be vital to the discussions at the Graduate Program Directors Meeting in Chicago on May 11-12, 2007. 46 Programs Total 30 Programs RespondingDoes your advanced education program in prosthodontics teach the following at eitherthe clinical or didactic level? 1. Digital radiography 26 YES 5 NO 2. Digital photography 30 YES 3. Digital intraoral imaging 17 YES 13 NO 4. Optical impression making 9 YES 21 NO 5. Optical extraoral imaging (scanning) procedures 19 YES 11 NO 6. Computer aided design (CAD) 22 YES 8 NO 7. Computer aided manufacture (CAM) a. ink jet printing 13 YES 17 NO b. Laser lithography 9 YES 19 NO c. CNC milling protocols 16 YES 14 NO d. Robotics in surgery or dentistry 3 YES 26 NO e. Digital recording of mandibular motion 19 YES 10 NO f. Digital evaluation of occlusal contacts 6 YES 23 NO g. Digital (spectrophotometric) shade analysis 13 YES 16 NO h. Digital imaging/treatment planning 19 YES 11 NODoes your advanced education program in prosthodontics possess equipment for the following? 8. Electronic Patient Records 21 YES 10 NO 9. Digital Charting 18 YES 12 NO 10. Digital radiography a. periapical 25 YES 6 NO b. panoramic 22 YES 8 NO c. conebeam CT 24 YES 6 NO 2007 ACP Graduate Program Director’s Technology Survey 1
  • 157. THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF PROSTHODONTISTS Implant, Esthetic and Reconstructive Dentistry 11. Optical magnification a. laboratory 22 YES 8 NO b. clinical 18 YES 11 NO 12. Digital recording or mandibular motion (e.g. Cadiax) 17 YES 13 NO 13. Digital assessment of occlusal contacts (e.g. T-scan) 5 YES 24 NODoes your advanced education program in prosthodontics possess equipment for the following? 14. Optical oral lesion identification systems (e.g Vizilite) 2 YES 28 NO 15. Electromyography (e.g., bio-emg) 5 YES 25 NO 16. Three-dimensional software for planning of implants 23 YES 7 NO (e.g. Nobelguide, Simplant, Facilitate) 17. CAD/CAM Scanners (e.g. Procera, Lava, Cerec, Cercon, etc) 25 YES 6 NO 18. CNC milling systems (e.g. Cerec, D4D, etc.) 14 YES 16 NO 19. Hard or soft tissue lasers 6 YES 24 NO 20. Laboratory communication software 14 YES 16 NO 21. Guided implant surgery 19 YES 11 NO 22. . What other digital / IT diagnostic tools does your institution utilize? -Cone beam -None -Photography into dental software (Kodak) 23. What other CAD/CAM equipment does your institution utilize? -Cerec -Procera -PiccoloRegarding education, does your program have access to or utilize the following? 24. Digital textbooks (e.g. Blackboard) 12 YES 16 NO 25. Electronic educational supplements (e.g. 3-D tooth atlas) 15 YES 15 NO 26. Web-based educational programs 17 YES 13 NO 27. Web-based patient conferences 11 YES 19 NO 28. Videoconferences for seminars 15 YES 16 NO 2007 ACP Graduate Program Director’s Technology Survey 2
  • 158. THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF PROSTHODONTISTS Implant, Esthetic and Reconstructive Dentistry 29. Virtual reality-based training for tooth preparation (e.g. Dent-Sim; DenX) 5 YES 23 NO 30. What two or three technologies do you feel should be implemented in your graduate program? a. CAD/CAM, Cone beam, Digital Radiography b. Hard and soft tissue lasers, Digital Records, 3-D software planning for implants c. Optical Impressions, Web-based education, electromyography 31. What is the largest impediment to introducing new technology in your graduate Prosthodontic program? -Money -Time in the schedule -Beaurocracy -Proven effectiveness of the new technologies -Technology is not valued at the level required for investment and integrated thinking at the administrative level about the impact of digital dentistry has not emerged -Cost and manpower to oversee the implementation and operationDo you agree or disagree with the following statements? Please use the scale below to determineyour score for each of the following questions. Then type the number of your score in the textbox that follows each question. 1-strongly agree; 2 – agree, 3 – not sure, 4 – disagree, 5 strongly disagree 32. My institution has resources to provide new technology to directly improve practice management in the Prosthodontic program (e.g. digital radiography, electronic patient records). Scale Number of Programs Responding 1 – Strongly Agree 9 2 – Agree 11 3 - Not Sure 3 4 – Disagree 5 5 – Strongly Disagree 5 33. My institution has resources to provide new technology to directly improve Prosthodontic therapeutics in the Prosthodontic program (e.g., scanner, Cadiax, magnification etc) Scale Number of Programs Responding 1 – Strongly Agree 9 2 – Agree 10 3 - Not Sure 2 4 – Disagree 3 5 – Strongly Disagree 5 2007 ACP Graduate Program Director’s Technology Survey 3
  • 159. THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF PROSTHODONTISTS Implant, Esthetic and Reconstructive Dentistry34. My institution has resources to provide novel technologies that enable my program to offer alternative treatment to our patients (e.g. Guided surgery and immediate provisionalization, optical impressions and direct crowns). Scale Number of Programs Responding 1 – Strongly Agree 7 2 – Agree 10 3 - Not Sure 2 4 – Disagree 8 5 – Strongly Disagree 335. Digital diagnostics will strongly affect the practice of Prosthodontics within the next 3 years. Scale Number of Programs Responding 1 – Strongly Agree 11 2 – Agree 10 3 - Not Sure 8 4 – Disagree 1 5 – Strongly Disagree 036. Digital imaging of teeth, bones and mucosa will alter the process of Prosthodontic laboratory technology within the next 5 years. Scale Number of Programs Responding 1 – Strongly Agree 7 2 – Agree 14 3 - Not Sure 8 4 – Disagree 1 5 – Strongly Disagree 037. Virtual environments will be commonly employed in planning tooth and / or implant therapy within the next 5 years. Scale Number of Programs Responding 1 – Strongly Agree 10 2 – Agree 11 3 - Not Sure 7 4 – Disagree 1 5 – Strongly Disagree 1 2007 ACP Graduate Program Director’s Technology Survey 4
  • 160. THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF PROSTHODONTISTS Implant, Esthetic and Reconstructive Dentistry38. Treatment planning and diagnosis will be taught using electronic media-based simulations within the next 5 years. Scale Number of Programs Responding 1 – Strongly Agree 9 2 – Agree 6 3 - Not Sure 9 4 – Disagree 6 5 – Strongly Disagree 039. Acquisition of clinical information such as mandibular motion, tooth contacts and tooth position by imaging technology improves traditional Prosthodontic methods. Scale Number of Programs Responding 1 – Strongly Agree 7 2 – Agree 9 3 - Not Sure 5 4 – Disagree 9 5 – Strongly Disagree 040. Novel methods of manufacturing dental restorations are more accurate, reproducible and robust than conventional methods of fabricating crowns, fixed partial dentures, removable partial dentures, and complete dentures. Scale Number of Programs Responding 1 – Strongly Agree 1 2 – Agree 6 3 - Not Sure 10 4 – Disagree 11 5 – Strongly Disagree 241. Novel materials for dental restorations (e.g. zirconia ceramics, milled titanium, etc) are inherently better suited for treatment of Prosthodontic patients. Scale Number of Programs Responding 1 – Strongly Agree 2 2 – Agree 4 3 - Not Sure 10 4 – Disagree 9 5 – Strongly Disagree 4 2007 ACP Graduate Program Director’s Technology Survey 5
  • 161. THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF PROSTHODONTISTS Implant, Esthetic and Reconstructive Dentistry42. New technology and materials will improve treatment of the prosthodontic patient. Scale Number of Programs Responding 1 – Strongly Agree 8 2 – Agree 16 3 - Not Sure 5 4 – Disagree 1 5 – Strongly Disagree 0 2007 ACP Graduate Program Director’s Technology Survey 6
  • 162. Updated 9.15.06 Prosthodontic Program Director Survey July 2006 45 Prosthodontic Programs 44 Programs Responded to the Survey 1 Program still to respond1. How many residents will you have enrolled as of July 1, 2006? (Compiled data represent the total numbers from all responding programs.) 144 Post-Graduate Year 1 135 Post-Graduate Year 2 129 Post-Graduate Year 3 PG Year 4 and/or 11 Maxillofacial Resident2. How many students will graduate from your Program this year? 1263. How many of your graduating students will remain in the United States to practice and/or teach? 1034. Has your program recently changed its size? 13 YES 32 NO If Yes……… 13 Increased 0 Decreased5. Is your school contemplating increasing or decreasing the size of your Program? 9 Increasing 2 Decreasing 33 Remaining the same6. How many applicants did you have for your July 1, 2006 PG Year 1 class? 1140 Headquarters Office: 211 East Chicago Avenue, Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60611 Phone: 312.573.1260 Fax: 312.573.1257 1
  • 163. 7. Are you happy with the current applicant pool? 27 YES 16 NO If you are NOT happy, please explain why not: Responses to why they are unhappy with the current applicant pool: • Needs improvement • Not attracting the most qualified students • Predoctoral preparation is minimal • Applicants using the program as a means to gain US licensure • Would prefer more applicants with general practice resident training or private practice experience • Would like more US/Canadian applicants • Need more US trained applicants • We need more applicants so we can have a more selective process. Our applicant quality is good, but in short supply and unpredictable from year to year • For the past several years, we were unable to fill the class 8. Does your program provide experience in the placement of dental implants? 36 YES 8 NO 9. Does your program teach conscious sedation? 7 YES 37 NO10. Do you teach (didactic and clinical) any of the following technologies as part of your Program? CAD-CAM Restorations 36 YES 8 NO Digitally created implant surgical guides 31 YES 13 NO Digitally created implant prostheses 31 YES 13 NO At what level? 19 Exposure 15 Competence 5 Proficiency Other Technology (clinical) (please list) Digital X-rays Digital Charting Ceramic Post and Core Cadiax, CT Scans Tooth in an hour All on four Headquarters Office: 211 East Chicago Avenue, Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60611 Phone: 312.573.1260 Fax: 312.573.1257 2
  • 164. 11. What are the unique aspects of your Program’s Curriculum? Responses reflecting the unique aspects of their curriculum: • Large implant patient pool, outpatient hospital/clinic setting, good stipend. • Didactic and hands-on training in implant surgery in concert with perio residents. All of our specialty programs are large, and there is excellent interaction among t he residents and faculty of the various specialty programs. • Combination of Classic and Current Philosophy • Implant surgery with attending prosthodontic faculty coverage. Significant effort in developing competence in evidence-based decision-making through careful search and critical appraisal of applicable literature similar to the medical model. • Extensive instruction in implant dentistry and maxillofacial prosthetics and multi-discipline patient management. • The program has a semester long seminar focusing on biologic basis of the diseases we treat. Our programs take advantage of a bio- materials course offered over two semesters by the department of Operative Dentistry. • Maxillofacial, incentive program, total patient population and administrative support. • Stimulate students to ask why and when doing (EBO) a certain treatment vs. others. Also emphasizes clinical, academic, research and laboratory work as one package of education. • Extremely strong in dental materials instruction and research, vast exposure to almost all dental implant systems, hands-on fabrication of esthetic all-ceramic restorations. • Program emphasizes rehabilitation of the full mouth reconstruction patient, all areas of prosthodontics including esthetics, implants, fixed, removable, maxillofacial are studied. • Optimal multi-disciplinary focus and optional perio/pros 5 year program • New facility with up-to-date clinical and laboratory equipment, unique interdisciplinary core curriculum. • Student/staff ratio, master degree program, all dental specialties represented at the school, close integration with other specialties such as periodontal, oral surgery, and orthodontics. Headquarters Office: 211 East Chicago Avenue, Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60611 Phone: 312.573.1260 Fax: 312.573.1257 3
  • 165. 12. Has your program ever sought grants or scholarships for your residents from the ACP or the ACP Education Foundation (ACPEF)? 34 YES, how frequently? 9 NO, why? Reasons for the No answers: • Have no information on scholarships • Not familiar with application process • Perhaps good stipends • Each scholarship from ACPEF has been applied for and granted – excellent appreciation from residents! Thank you • Encountered problems trying to add information to the ACPEF forms • Military institute, cannot accept grants or scholarships If YES, how many of your current residents have received the following: 25 ACPEF scholarship 6 3M – ESPE Research Grant 5 P&G Research Grant13. Would you be interested in collaborating in an ACP-sponsored Program Director group? If yes, please tell us what would interest you the most about such a group? Number of yes responses 15 Responses to this question: • Always interested in discussions which will improve our program & prosthodontics in general • Research, program planning, treatments required by residents, streamlining and organizing prosthodontic and implant literature review lists, methods used for outcome assessments for ADA accreditation • Advancement/improvement of the residencies; attraction of Directors for programs; co-operation during selection process. • Compare curriculums • Sharing of ideas, curriculums, program designs, etc. • Curriculum and literature review collaboration Yes, future of prosthodontics programs, mentoring and how to promote the roll of grad prosthodontics within dental education • I think the solution to educational short-comings is team-work and resource sharing • Coordinated efforts to increase our applicant pool • Implementing implant surgery for prosthodontic residents Headquarters Office: 211 East Chicago Avenue, Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60611 Phone: 312.573.1260 Fax: 312.573.1257 4
  • 166. 14. What types of resources would be helpful to you and your residents from the ACP? Please check all resources that would be of interest. 35 Resources to increase the applicant pool 31 Resources to provide leading edge patient care technologies 28 Practice Management Course 30 Online References and Resources 30 Promotion of Prosthodontics at the Predoctoral Level 29 Research Resources 29 Curriculum Development 27 Topic Specific Articles Monthly Emails 26 Occlusions/Articulators Course 24 Job Hunting Articles, Resources, Templates, Access to Career Coach, Employment Opportunities Online, Job Placement Programs for Students and/or Faculty 25 Evidence-Based Dentistry Course for Students and/or Faculty 19 Resources to identify faculty 17 Faculty Mentoring Program 14 Surveys and Research 12 Listserv15. Do you administer the mock ABP Board exams to your residents? 40 YES 4 NO When do you administer the exam? Year 1 35 Year 2 34 Year 3 37 Headquarters Office: 211 East Chicago Avenue, Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60611 Phone: 312.573.1260 Fax: 312.573.1257 5
  • 167. 16. Do you find the mock exams helpful? 38 YES 1 NOIf NO, why not? • The exams need to come out earlier in the year prior to the ABP exam • It would be helpful to know when the exams will be ready, when answers will be received and when the grades will be mailed • Prior to this year, they were very helpful, but the new on-line exam has enabled the use of drawings and photographs which has changed the face of the exam completely. Putting the work back online through the ACP Web site would enable the committee to simulate the “new exam format” better • Would like annotated references for each answer • Have not received my boards for 2006 • Have applied to be included in next years exam process • I feel the exam this year was poorly writtenAny other comments and/or thoughts? • Many program directors have areas of excellence in their curriculum which we possibly could share with each other, ie. Goodacre tooth programs CD and implant CD, perhaps ACP could request CODA consultants to identify these areas during site visits and serve as a clearing house for distribution to interested programs. • If our applicant numbers continue to diminish, it is conceivable that these programs may come to exist in a different form or cease to exist at all. Either way, there is a potential for the loss of what has traditionally been a national resource. The nature of our programs, with no cost to the student, should make them attractive to qualified prospective applicants from the graduating dental school classes, who otherwise might be unable to train due to financial constraints. It would be helpful if this information could be disseminated to the civilian programs, not as direct competition for applicants, but as an alternative for qualified applicants that have financial limitations. Headquarters Office: 211 East Chicago Avenue, Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60611 Phone: 312.573.1260 Fax: 312.573.1257 6
  • 168. THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF PROSTHODONTISTS Implant, Esthetic and Reconstructive Dentistry Postdoctoral Prosthodontic Program Information Summary ASDA Guide to Postdoctoral Prosthodontic Programs 46 Institutions Surveyed 44 Responding InstitutionsApplication Information Statistics 1. What is your Institution’s deadline for application submission? Deadline May Aug Sep Oct Nov DecNumber of 1 3 20 15 4 1Institutions 2. What is your application fee? Price Free $1 - $31- $50- $60- $70- $80- $91- $101- $150+ Range $30 $49 $59 $69 $79 $90 $100 $150Number of 18 3 3 3 7 2 2 3 2 1Institutions 3. When does your post-graduate prosthodontic program begin?Month that theProgram starts June July SeptemberNumber ofInstitutions 35 7 2 4. Does your institution accept Students not trained in a US or Canadian Dental School? Yes: 34 No: 10 5. Are your applicants required to have a State License? Yes: 33 No: 11 6. GRE scores required? Yes: 9 No: 34 (One answered both)
  • 169. THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF PROSTHODONTISTS Implant, Esthetic and Reconstructive DentistryFaculty Information# of 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 14 yes n/aFull-timeInstructorsNumber ofInstitutions 8 9 5 2 4 5 1 1 3 1 1 1 2# of Part-time 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 14 15 17 24 n/aInstructorsNumber of 5 4 4 5 4 3 1 4 3 0 2 1 1 1 1 5Institutions 7. Prosthodontist Faculty: Total of all programs 354 8. Maxillofacial Prosthodontists Faculty: Total for all programs 66 9. Board Certified Prosthodontist Faculty: Total for all programs 187Program Specifics 10. Participate in Match? 1 Yes 42 No 1 N/A 11. Participate in PASS? 23 Yes 19 No 1 N/A 12. ADA Accreditation Status: • All programs are ADA accredited • one Institution with reporting requirements • one Institution with full initial approval. 13. Degrees/Certificate offered: (Summary) 29 MS 38 Certificate 4 Ph.D.
  • 170. THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF PROSTHODONTISTS Implant, Esthetic and Reconstructive Dentistry 14. Prerequisites: (summary of submitted comments) • Proof of dental degree • GPA • Letters of recommendation • National Board Results • TOUFL • Proof of US Citizenship • Personal Interview • Class ranking • Clinical experience • Dental and pre-professional academic transcripts • Personal and career activity • Statement of Purpose 15. Tuition/year: (Numbers have been rounded.)Amount of 0 4- 7K 9- 15K 18- 25K 32- 37K 38K 40- 47 60Tuition 5K 10K 20 34K 45KNumber ofInstitutions 15 6 1 2 3 3 1 4 3 1 2 1 1 16. Salary/stipend:Amount of 0 3K 7- 12- 20- 40- 45- 50- 60K IncentiveSalary 10K 15K 25K 43K 49K 55KNumber ofInstitutions 11 1 9 3 5 4 3 2 1 2 17. First year enrollment:First Year N/A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2 or 3 orEnrollment 3 4Number ofInstitutions 1 3 7 12 10 2 2 3 1 3 18. Ratio of acceptances to applicants:Ratio of 1:2 1:3 1:4 1:5 1:7 1:8 1:9 1:10ApplicantsNumber ofInstitutions 1 2 2 7 3 4 3 6Ratio of Applicants 1:12 1:14 1:15 1:20 3:4 N/ANumber of Institutions 2 1 7 3 1 1
  • 171. THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF PROSTHODONTISTS Implant, Esthetic and Reconstructive DentistryOverall Student Experience 19. Percentage of resident’s time: Clinical% Time 50 55 60 62 65 70 75 80ClinicalNumber ofInstitutions 2 3 20 2 7 4 4 1 Didactic% Time 3 20 24 25 30 35 40 N/AClinicalNumber ofInstitutions 1 6 1 5 15 14 2 1 Teaching% Time Clinical 0 1 2 5 10 OtherNumber of Institutions 2 2 4 30 4 2 20. Describe your clinical setting: (summary of submitted comments) • Modern clinic with electronic charting and patient education software • Operatories in a open-based setting with partitions and chairs • State-of-the-art surgical facilities • State-of-the-art clinical facility with chairs and clinical lab bench per unit • Modern audiovisual conference room for didactics • Operatories include digital x-ray head and over-the-patient delivery unit • Operatories include new surgical suite for implant placement • Treatment cubicles with laboratory adjacent • Digital Radiography, cone beam computed tomography • Larger facilities include support staff with laboratory technicians, secretary, assistants and residents 21. Percentage of lab work completed by residents:% of Work 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 50 60 70 75 85 90 Variesin LabNumber ofInstitutions 1 4 4 6 2 5 3 5 4 2 1 1 1 2 2
  • 172. THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF PROSTHODONTISTS Implant, Esthetic and Reconstructive Dentistry 22. Percentage of lab work completed in an in-house lab:% of In- 0 5-10 15-20 25-30 40-45 50-60 65-75 80 91 100 N/AHouse LabworkNumber ofInstitutions 7 8 4 6 3 6 5 1 1 1 2 23. Students required to rent/own equipment and materials? 18 Yes 22 No 1 N/A 3 Both Yes/No 24. Estimated cost per year for equipment:Cost per $400-1500 $2000-3500 $5000-7000 $10,000-12,000YearNumber ofInstitutions 6 10 4 3 25. Mock American Board of Prosthodontists exam required for certification? 37 Yes 7 No 26. Additional Comments (Sampling)Additional CommentsOur faculty is highly dedicated to the program. We encourage a collegial working environmentbetween residents, and we enjoy strong support from the department. We offer significantsurgical experiences for our residents if desired, and our patient pool supports a full range ofprosthodontic experiences, from implants to esthetics.All graduate students are required to undertake a research project (scholarly activity) even if theydo not intend to pursue an MS degreeClinical experiences include placement of dental implantsIt is recommended that residents take the American Board of Prosthodontics Exam Part 1 beforegraduation.
  • 173. THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF PROSTHODONTISTS Implant, Esthetic and Reconstructive DentistryThe purpose of this program is to train selected dental officers in all aspects of prosthodontics. The resident will learn the backgroundsciences and develop the clinical experience necessary to select those techniques which meet thebiological, physiological, and mechanical requirements for oral rehabilitation. The clinical aspect willrequire attention to detail, precision, and perfection of various techniques. The interrelation of otherclinical specialties with prosthodontics is also emphasized. The didactic phase will be presentedthrough formal courses, staff lectures, consultant visits, hospital conferences, library and independentresearch, literature reviews and seminars.The Program provides a well-rounded Advanced Prosthodontics experience that leaves one well-prepared for clinical practice and for the Board. Constant interdisciplinary interaction occurs in seminarand clinical settings that fosters the prosthodontist as the patient care team leader. All experiences aretotally within the College of Dentistry facility. A wide array of reference materials are available forAdvanced Prosthodontics students on the Programs website. Within the parameters of expectedexperiences, flexibility in the Program exists to allow students to pursue specific interests and careergoals. For example, when clinical progress suggest students will complete the expected experiences ina timely manner, students could focus to a greater degree on implant surgical experience, implantrestoration, fixed prosthodontic esthetics, maxillofacial prosthetics, or orofacial pain patientmanagement. Specific extramural experiences in the program include opportunity to attend a variety ofmeetings that broaden their learning experiences. The Department of Restorative Dentistry hassupported student travel to the American College of Prosthodontists meeting for each of the last 10years. Students have regularly attended the American Academy of Fixed Prosthodontics AnnualMeeting, and have had further opportunities to attend AAMOS and GNYAP meetings. Manyopportunities exist to support the broad scope of learning in prosthodontics.stipends and maxillofacial prosthetics program only available to graduates of an ADA accrediteddental schoolThe program is emphasized on clinical prosthodontics and has wide variety of patient’s pool. Most of theresidents assigned cases are full mouth or nearly full mouth reconstruction. Focus on Implant, Esthetic andTMD treatment. The resident must take Part 1 and one other part of ABP board examinations before thegraduationThe postdoctoral program in prosthodontics is a 36-month curriculum that provides in-depth clinical, didacticand laboratory instruction in fixed, removable, and implant prosthodontics with exposure to maxillofacialprosthetics.•• Those who have selected a clinical track (which leads to a certificate of advanced graduate study inprosthodontics) devote a majority of their time (approximately 37 hours per week for direct patient care plusfour hours of assigned patient-related laboratory time) to treating patients.• Those who have chosen the research track (which results in a certificate and the MSD degree)complete a research project, thesis, and thesis defense during the third year, along with three additionalresearch-oriented courses. Residents in the research track devote approximately 20 hours per week toresearch-related activities with the remainder of their time devoted to patient-care activities.• For all third-year residents, there is a rotation in student teaching as part of a formal course (PR920) along with an integrated literature review course (PE 880), a seminar in contemporary prosthodonticliterature, and seminars in patient presentation/treatment planning and grand rounds.Program includes a two year occlusion course, a 14 week maxillofacial prosthetics course, andan abundance of complex patients mentored by faculty second to none.The Mayo Clinic four-year Prosthodontic Residency Program will prepare you for a career inprivate practice of academic dentistry. Mayos program is unique because of its small size,flexible curriculum, dedicated staff and excellent rapport with other medical and surgicalspecialties. Although the emphasis is on clinical practice, the program also includes an extensivedidactic program and research training. With over 2/3 of its graduates having successfullycompleted the Board Certification process in the US or Canada, this program clearly preparestrainees for their careers in Prosthodontics.
  • 174. THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF PROSTHODONTISTS Implant, Esthetic and Reconstructive DentistryThis is a challenging program wherein residents are exposed to a vast and varied amount ofclinical material. Residents obtain experience in all aspects of prosthodontic practice and treatpatients in conjunction with various other dental specialities, each of which is represented here.We have the resources of a major medical school available for education, research and support.All faculty members maintain private practices in addition to their teaching responsibilities atMontefiore Medical Center, so residents receive a "real world" training experience as acompliment to basic academic and clinical principles. This is a hospital based program using theSocratic method of teaching. Residents are expected to perform, not merely regugitate. Surgicaland restorative experience with osseointegrated implants is extensive; graduates will have theexperience and expertise to practice both phases of treatment with implants. Each resident isexpected to ultimately become a Diplomate of American Board of Prosthodontics.Percentages do not equal 100%; not included are 13% of resident time devoted to lab and 12% ofresident time devoted to research. Construction will begin this summer on a new clinic forProsthodontics.Foreign students must meet the same criteria for admissions as U.S. citizens, they mustdemonstrate competency in written and spoken English, and they must demonstrate sufficientfinancial resources to complete their education, and they must successfully complete the NationalBoard Exam. Stipends may or may not be available for foreign students. Foreign applicants arerequired to provide all items requested in the normal application process.Residency costs are paid by the United States Air Force. In addition, residents earn active dutysalary while training. An additional, one-time stipend is awarded to all residents that can defraycosts of a clinical camera, books, etc. Required attendance at national dental meetings is fundedby the Air Force. American Board of Prosthodontics certification is emphasized andapproximately 80% of program graduates since the programs inception in 1957 have gone on tobecome board certified. Program graduates incur a 3-year obligation to serve in the Air Force asa Prosthodontist, following graduation.Additional clinical experiences will include endosseous dental implant placement and restoration,multidisciplinary treatment planning, state-of-the-art diagnostic and prosthodontic technologies,geriatric patients, pediatric prosthodontic patients, maxillofacial prosthodontic patientsOur program is a combined program with the University of Texas Health Science Center atHouston - Dental Branch. Residents participate with the Dental Branch Residents in all didacticassignments and enroll at the university to receive the required basic sciences. All clinical andlaboaratoy requirements are met at the VA Medical Center. We also have a strong relationshipwith MD Anderson Cancer Center including a rotation in Maxillofacial Prosthodontics.The program emphasizes comprehensive treatment planning and collaboration with other dentaldisciplines. The residents work closely with the Graduate Periodontics students and others. Thestudents restore a variety of full-mouth fixed comprehensive cases, as well as removable , implant ,and esthetic cases, while using new cutting edge technologies and materials. They participate inhands-on courses with Master Ceramicists from different labs. The program also supports theirattendance at multiple national meetings, and brings in speakers from outside the program to lecture tothe students.Clinically orientated program with excellent support by Commercial labs and our own dentalassistants.
  • 175. Survey to the Prosthodontic Resident Part I:Factors Influencing Applicants Selection of Prosthodontics Residency ProgramMeng-Chieh Lee DDS;1 Ryan Blissett DMD;1 Monik Jimenez SM;2 and Cortino SukotjoDDS, MMSc, Ph.D31 Resident and Research Fellow, Advanced Graduate Prosthodontics, Department ofRestorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine,Boston, MA.2 Doctoral student and Research Fellow, Harvard School of Dental Medicine and HarvardSchool of Public Health, Boston, MA.3 Instructor in the Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences,Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA.Running title: Factors Influencing Applicants Selection of ProsthodonticsIndex words: survey, prosthodontics program, factor influence, selection, residentCorrespondence to Dr. Cortino Sukotjo, Department of Restorative Dentistry andBiomaterial Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave, Boston,MA 02115; E-mail: cortino_sukotjo@hsdm.harvard.edu 1
  • 176. Purpose: The main objective of this study is to analyze factors that may influenceapplicants in selecting prosthodontics as a career.Materials and Methods: A 17-item survey was created and distributed to prosthodonticresidents according to mailing address obtained from the ACP central office (n=304). Therespondents were instructed to grade each of the selection factors based on the Likert typescale. The results were collected and analyzed using STATA 9.Results: A response rate of 63.48% was observed. Demographic data showed that 37%and 62% of the respondents were female and male, respectively. The mean age of therespondents is 30.3 years. The majority of the residents are married and were accepted totheir top choice school. The complexity and challenge of treatment planning/treatment,ability to lead multi-disciplinary cases, possession of skills/talents suited to the specialty,enjoyment of clinical work, intellectual content of the specialty, and the influence ofmentors/instructors were reported to be the six most influential factors.Conclusion: The most influential factors that lead dental students to chooseprosthodontics as a career have been described above. These findings can be utilized bythe ACP and/or program directors to know which factors are important to students,enabling them to assess the compatibility of their programs with applicants in the future. 2
  • 177. Introduction Prosthodontics is the dental specialty pertaining to the diagnosis, treatmentplanning, rehabilitation and maintenance of the oral function, comfort, appearance andhealth of patients with clinical conditions associated with missing or deficient teethand/or maxillofacial tissues using biocompatible substitutes.1 This specialty wasrecognized by American Dental Association in 1947.2 Prosthodontists constitute 2.0percent of all professionally-active dentists in the United States (US).2 Four hundredresidents were enrolled in 2004-2005 in 46 prosthodontics training programs in the US.3 Over the past 30 years, many studies have attempted to identify trends and newdevelopments in pre-doctoral prosthodontics education, with no emphasis on post-doctoral prosthodontics. Compared to other dental specialties, studies regarding post-doctoral prosthodontic education are scarce.4,5 In medicine, numerous articles exist describing factors affecting a medicalstudent’s choice of specialty. Some factors include role model, type of patients, lifestyle,amount of indebtedness, lifestyle and long-term career goals.6,7,8,9 Surprisingly, nopublished literature exists on factors influencing post-graduate program selection in thedental field. The purposes of this study are to (1) identify current prosthodontic residentdemographics, (2) identify which factors influence students in choosing prosthodontics asa specialty, and (3) to investigate if gender, age, marital status, and year in program(Different between classes) influence the selection factors. 3
  • 178. Materials and Methods A 17-item survey was created based on Sledge et al10 with some modificationsand was approved by the IRB office at Harvard Medical School. The survey wasdeveloped asking the resident to list and rate the degree of importance of each factor thatmay influence their decision to specialize in prosthodontics. Mailing address information(n= 304) was obtained from ACP Central Office. The surveys were distributed toprosthodontic residents in the United States on 9/25/06. A second mailing/reminder wasdistributed on 10/26/06. Of the mailed questionnaires, only responses returned within onemonth after the second mailing were accepted for analysis. The respondents were instructed to grade each of the selection factors based onthe following numerical priority scale (a Likert type scale): 1 = extremely important, 2 =very important, 3 = important, 4 = minimally important, 5 = not important, and 0 = non-applicable response. They were asked to indicate their gender, age, relationship status(single, married, in relationship), year in the program, institution and whether or not theprogram they entered was their first choice. The respondents allowed to give a comment. The data collected were entered into Microsoft Excel 2003 (Microsoft, Seattle,WA) and analyzed using STATA 9 (College Station, TX). The means and standarddeviations for each response were calculated and ranked. Descriptive statistics werecalculated to describe the study population. Sub-group analyses were conducted usingthe Wilcoxon rank sum test for binary variables and Kruskal-Wallis test for categoricalvariables. 4
  • 179. Results Completed surveys were obtained from 193 of 304 (63.48%) of all prosthodonticresidents that are registered at the ACP central office. Eight mailings were returned dueto incorrect address. Five surveys were received after the deadlines and not used foranalysis. The completed surveys represented approximately 48% of the total populationof prosthodontic residents in the US.Current Demographics of Prosthodontic Residents Table I gives demographic characteristics of the survey respondents. Thirty-sevenpercent are women and 62% are men. The mean age of the residents is 30.3 years, whichvaries slightly with gender (women are about twelve months older than men on average).Nearly 16.5% of women are married, 18.6% are single and 6.7% are in a relationship.The distribution of the survey was 47 (24.35%) first year residents, 53 (27.46%) secondyear residents, 67 (34.71%) third year residents, with 26 (13.46%) constituting others/nodata. The majority of the respondents were accepted at their first choice school 90.15%(174).Factors Influencing Students Choice A mean response score and standard deviation were calculated for each of the itemsincluded in the questionnaire. The responses were then ranked in descending order ofmean size (Table II). The most important factors to the respondents are: (1) thecomplexity and challenge of treatment planning/treatment, (2) the ability to lead multi-disciplinary cases, (3) possession of skills/talents suited to the specialty, (4) enjoyment of 5
  • 180. clinical work, (5) intellectual content of the specialty, and (6) the influence ofmentors/instructors. Length of residency, career plans before entering dental school, andinfluence of family members in the dental profession were some for the factors given theleast priority in ranking.Influence of Gender, Age, Marital Status, and Year in Program to the SelectionFactors Statistical analysis revealed that no significant difference was detected in relation togender and most of the selection factors, with only one exception. Female students aresignificantly more influenced by residents in the specialty when choosing to specialize inprosthodontics (p-value=0.03). Similarly, those 30 years of age or younger placed astatistically-significant higher importance on the influence of residents, compared tothose older than 30 years (p-value=0.04). Residents who are single or married aresignificantly more influenced by level of educational debt when compared to residentswho are in the relationship (p-value=0.01). No significant difference was detected inrelation to year in the program and other selection factors (p-value=>0.05) (Table III). 6
  • 181. Discussion In 1998, Waldman reported that based on ADA data in 1995. women represented8.6% of prosthodontists.11 A 2004-05 survey of Advanced of Dental Education reportedthat 33% of prosthodontics residents were women (127/396).3 In our study, the rationumber of women in prosthodontics training is 37% of the total responding population.As the proportion of female dentists increases, prosthodontics has attracted more femaledentists than ever before. Despite the fact that women bring many positive qualities tothe specialty, studies have shown that female dentists, in general, work fewer days andhours than men, which may contribute to a shortage of prosthodontic services in thefuture.4,13 The mean age of respondents is 30.3 years, ranging from 24-46 years of age. Ourresults also showed that only 6% of the first year residents were between 26-27 years ofage, 7% of the second years between 27-28 years of age, and 9% of the third years agedbetween 28-29 years. The typical US dentist is approximately 26 to 27 years of age atgraduation, compared to the non-US graduates who are between 24-26 years atgraduation. This information suggests that majority of the residents do not enter graduatetraining immediately after graduation. The resident might have been in private practiceas a general dentist or have pursued another advanced degree. Higher debt loads or thedesire to get more experience may delay application for matriculation immediately upongraduation. Almost half of the respondents are married, which could serve as anadditional factor that causes delayed entrance into post-graduate training. In this study,we stratified the respondents based upon age, with the first group being ≤30 years old andremainder being >30 years. As expected, the residents who are ≤30 years old are 7
  • 182. significantly influenced by the residents from their previous dental school, most likelydue to the fact that they were recently in contact with the residents. This study revealed that the complexity and challenge of treatmentplanning/treatment rated as the most important factor in choosing to specialize inprosthodontics, followed by the ability to lead multi-disciplinary cases. The role of theprosthodontist is to be uniquely positioned to address the complex restorative needs ofindividuals of all ages, including the elderly and patients with cancer and other specialneeds.12 A "team approach" that includes different specialties led by prosthodontists fromthe initial stages is important for achieving predictable and esthetically-pleasingoutcomes in complex dental rehabilitations. Prosthetically-driven treatment has beenwidely accepted as the ultimate goal of treatment among physicians. Prosthodontics,indeed, is the dental specialty that is chiefly responsible for orchestrating and deliveringsuch treatment. Possession of skills/talents suited to the specialty, enjoyment of clinical work, andthe intellectual content of the specialty ranked 3rd, 4th and 5th, respectively, in affectingprospective students in choosing prosthodontics as their career. The practice ofprosthodontics requires highly-developed dexterities to execute a complex treatment plan.Therefore, advanced graduate prosthodontics programs need to continually recruitcandidates that not only excel in academics, but that also possess highly-refined motorskills. The influence of mentors/instructors as role models has been known to have apositive impact on a student’s specialty choice.7-9 It has been demonstrated that the bestway to influence future applicants should not be to intentionally recruit students, but to 8
  • 183. demonstrate enthusiasm and sincere love for their profession.7 Prosthodontics curriculaconstitutes a major component in dental school education. Mentoring from the initialstages of training, as well as positive interaction between prosthodontic educators (full-time, part-time, and prosthodontics residents) and dental students may aid in attractinghigh quality applicants to be future prosthodontists. In this study, we observed thatfemale residents reported a greater influence of prosthodontic residents in the decision tospecialize in prosthodontics when compared to male residents, who indicated theimportance of role models in influencing career choice. Good income and level of educational debt, on the other hand, were among the leastimportant selection factors, which is in agreement with previous research.6 However,single and married residents felt that level of educational debt is significantly moreimportant compared to residents who are in the relationship. Residents who are marriedmay have more financial responsibilities, such as children and a non-working partner,whereas residents who are in relationships may have the opportunity to share theirfinancial obligations. With increasing debt burden placed upon dental students andgraduates, the tendency to subordinate financial considerations to educational ones maychange in the future. A recently published article shows that lifetime earnings after thecompletion of prosthodontic training are more than sufficient to cover the cost ofadvanced education and provide a positive return to the prosthodontist.14 In addition, toaddress this issue, the ACP created the American College of Prosthodontists EducationFoundation (ACPEF) in 1985. Since its inception, the ACPEF has been committed tosupporting students who pursue advanced prosthodontic training, as well as sustainingresearch in prosthodontics and related fields. More scholarships/ fellowships derived 9
  • 184. from endowment funds or private funds, such as the David H. Wands fellowship atUniversity of Washington or the ITI scholarship at the Harvard School of DentalMedicine should be established in the future. Our study has several limitations. First, the response from a limited numbers ofresidents may not reflect the true opinion of the whole prosthodontic resident population.Secondly, open-ended and validated questionnaires should be provided in the future. This is the first study investigating factors that may influence dental students inchoosing prosthodontics as a career. The findings of this study have importantimplications for dental students and prosthodontic graduate programs. The findings,hopefully, will provide useful data to guide future students in selecting a prosthodonticsprogram. Likewise, the ACP and/or program directors will be able to use thisinformation to attract more suitably-matched applicants in the future. 1
  • 185. ConclusionsWithin the limitations of the study, the data revealed:1. The majority of prosthodontic residents are married with a mean age of 30.3 years.2. The majority of prosthodontic residents do not enter the residency program immediately after graduation from dental school.3. The complexity and challenge of treatment planning/treatment rated as the most important factor that is taken into consideration by dental students as they choose prosthodontics as a career.4. The role of mentors/instructors/residents plays a significant role in influencing students to become prosthodontists.5. Female residents and residents ≤30 years are significantly more influenced by residents at their dental school when compared to their counterparts in making the decision to become prosthodontists. 1
  • 186. References1. The glossary of prosthodontic terms. J Prosthet Dent 2005; 94:10-922. Neumann LM, Nix JA.Trends in dental specialty education and practice, 1990-99. JDent Educ 2002; 66:1338-473. American Dental Association. 2004/2005 survey of advanced dental education.Chicago: American Dental Association, 20064. Bruner MK, Hilgers KK, Silveira AM, Butters JM. Graduate orthodontic education:the residents perspective. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2005; 128: 277-825. Laskin DM, Lesny RJ, Best AM.The residents viewpoint of the matching process,factors influencing their program selection, and satisfaction with the results. J OralMaxillofac Surg 2003; 61:228-336. Nuthalapaty FS, Jackson JR, Owen J. The influence of quality-of-life, academic, andworkplace factors on residency program selection. Acad Med 2004; 7:417-257. Ambrozy DM, Irby DM, Bowen JL, Burack JH, Carline JD, Stritter FT. Role modelsperceptions of themselves and their influence on students specialty choices. Acad Med1997; 72:1119-218. Basco WT Jr, Reigart JR. When do medical students identify career-influencingphysician role models? Acad Med 2001; 76:380-29. Jordan J, Brown JB, Russell G. Choosing family medicine. What influences medicalstudents? Can Fam Physician 2003; 49:1131-710. Sledge WH, Leaf PJ, Sacks MH. Applicants choice of a residency training program.Am J Psychiatry. 1987 Apr;144(4):501-3. 1
  • 187. 11. Waldman HB. Fluctuations in the number and distribution of prosthodontists: 1987-1995. J Prosthet Dent 1998; 79:585-9012. The Institute of Medicine study of dental education: issues affecting prosthodontics.Report of the Educational Policy Subcommittee of the American College ofProsthodontists. J Prosthodont 1996; 5:133-4113. Dolan TA. Gender trends in dental practice patterns. A review of current U.S.literature. J Am Coll Dent 1991; 58:12-814. Nash KD, Pfeifer DL. Private practice and the economic rate of return for residencytraining as a prosthodontist. J Am Dent Assoc 2005;136:1154-62Acknowledgement:The authors would like to acknowledge Drs. Bruce G. Valauri, Stephen D. Campbell,Patrick M. Lloyd, and Frank J. Tuminelli for giving suggestions regarding the survey.The authors wish to thank all of the residents who generously devoted their time andeffort to completing our survey.LegendsTable I. Demographic Data of the RespondentsTable II. Mean Ratings and Rankings of Factors influencing Specialty in ProsthodonticsTable III. Influence of Gender, Age, Marital Status and Year in Program to the selectionfactors. P-values for hypothesis tested is presented. 1
  • 188. Table I. Demographic data of the respondents____________________________________________________________________ Women Men Total____________________________________________________________________Number 36.7% (76) 61.6% (119) 193 (of 304)Mean Age 31.4 years 30.3 years 30.3 yearsAge range 24-46 years 25-44 years 24-46 yearsMarried: 16.5% (32) 29% (56) 45.5% (88)Single 13.9% (27) 18.6% (36) 32.78% (63)In relationship 3.6% (7) 6.7% (13) 10.36% (20)Table II. Mean Ratings and Rankings of Factors influencing Specialty inProsthodonticsSelection factors for specialty program Mean SD RankComplexity and challenge of treatment planning/treatment 1.36 0.63 1Ability to lead multidisciplinary cases 1.45 0.73 2Possession of skills/talents suited to the specialty 1.55 0.71 3Enjoyment of clinical work 1.59 0.75 4Intellectual content of specialty 1.61 0.83 5Influence of mentor/instructors 2.17 1.15 6Predictable work hours 2.40 1.03 7Prestige within dental profession 2.41 1.12 8Good income 2.53 1.03 9Enjoyment of lab work 2.67 1.11 10Specific interest in patient population seen 2.87 1.26 11Level of educational debt 2.91 1.39 12Lack of overcrowding in field 3.04 1.33 13Influence of residents in the specialty 3.13 1.33 14Length of residency 3.20 1.20 15Career plans before entering dental school 3.58 1.30 16Influence of family members in the dental profession 3.88 1.39 17 • Based upon a Likert rating scale where 1=Extremely Important, 2=Very Important. 3=Minimally Important, 4=Important, 5=Not Important 1
  • 189. Table III. Influence of Gender, Age, Marital Status and Year in Program to theselection factors. P-values for hypothesis tested is presentedVariables Gender Age Marital Status Yr in ProgramGood Income 0.34 0.67 0.71 0.52Prestige within dentalprofession 0.99 0.98 0.05 0.78Predictable work hours 0.97 0.40 0.20 0.97Intellectual content ofspecialty 0.31 0.67 0.51 0.95Complexity andchallenge of treatmentplanning/treatment 0.98 0.35 0.42 0.10Ability to leadmultidisciplinary cases 0.90 0.17 0.18 0.14Possession ofskills/talents 0.76 0.86 0.64 0.19Enjoyment of lab work 0.20 0.29 0.54 0.45Enjoyment of clinicalwork 0.73 0.54 0.55 0.94Length of residency 0.31 0.39 0.05 0.54Level of educational debt 0.62 0.85 0.01* 0.98Lack of overcrowding inthe field 0.08 0.99 0.05 0.95Career plans beforeentering dental school 0.74 0.81 0.25 0.66Influence of familymembers 0.85 0.41 0.87 0.08Specific interest 0.41 0.20 0.86 0.13Influence of mentor 0.59 0.34 0.18 0.39Influence of residents 0.03* 0.04* 0.19 0.70 1
  • 190. Survey to the Prosthodontic Resident, Part II: Factors Influencing the Ranking of Prosthodontic Programs Among Applicants Factors Influencing Ranking of Prosthodontics ProgramsIndex words: survey, prosthodontics program, factors influence, ranking, residentPurpose: To analyze many of the factors that dental students consider as they select aspecific program after already making the decision to specialize in prosthodontics.Materials and methods: A 36-item questionnaire was designed to assess the factors thatdental students consider as they choose a post-doctoral prosthodontics program. It wasmailed to all current prosthodontic residents that are registered with the ACP centraloffice (n=304). The respondents were instructed to grade each of the selection factorsbased on the Likert type scale. The results were collected and analyzed using STATA 9.Results: A response rate of 63.48% was observed. Statistical analysis demonstrates thatapplicants place a high emphasis on clinical education, their impression of the programdirector, opportunity to place dental implants, advice from pre-doctoral mentors, and theirimpression of resident satisfaction and happiness, among other factors. The factors ofleast importance are climate, opportunities to moonlight, teach, and conduct research,salary, benefits, and amount of free time and vacation. There were no statistically-significant differences in the responses between males and females.Conclusion: The most influential factors that influence students as they select aprosthodontics program have been described above. These findings can be utilized by theACP and/or program directors to understand which factors are important to students,enabling them to assess the compatibility of their programs with applicants in the future.
  • 191. Introduction: Perhaps one of the most important decisions that an individual makesduring life is career choice. Being that approximately one half of waking hours are spentat work, with many additional hours spent pondering work-related issues, the importanceof this decision cannot be underscored enough. Having the opportunity to choose aspecialty is a luxury that is granted to the top students in dentistry and medicine. Thereare many factors that play into the decision to specialize and, if one chooses to do so,which field to pursue. As stated in part I of this report, the medical field has doneextensive research related to choosing a specialty, but dentistry has neglected thisimportant topic.1,2,3,4 Our results outline many of the factors that individuals take intoconsideration when choosing prosthodontics as a career. The purpose of this report is toconsider part II of the survey, which we will use to analyze many of the factors thatdental students consider as they select a specific program after already making thedecision to specialize in prosthodontics. In addition, the responses will be stratified toanalyze the influence of age, gender, relationship status, and year in the program.Materials and Methods: A 36-item survey was created based on Sledge et al5 withsome modifications and approved by the IRB office at Harvard Medical School. Thesurvey was mailed to 304 prosthodontics residents using mailing address information thatwas obtained from ACP Central Office. The surveys were distributed to prosthodonticsresidents in the United States on 9/25/06. A second mailing / reminder was distributed on10/26/06. Of the mailed questionnaires, only responses received within one month of thesecond mailing were accepted for analysis. The respondents were instructed to rank eachof the selection factors based on the following numerical priority scale (a Likert typescale): 0 = non-applicable response, 1 = extremely important, 2 = very important, 3 =important, 4 = minimally important, 5 = not important. The data were entered into
  • 192. Microsoft Excel 2003 (Microsoft, Seattle, WA) and analyzed using STATA 9 (CollegeStation, TX). The means and standard deviations for each response were calculated andranked (Table 1). Sub-group analyses were conducted using the Wilcoxon rank sum testfor binary variables and Kruskal-Wallis test for categorical variables. The respondentswere allotted space to provide an additional comment.Results: ompleted surveys were obtained from 193 of 304 (63.48%) of all prosthodonticsresidents that were registered at the ACP central office. Eight surveys were returned dueto incorrect address. Five surveys were received after the deadline and not included inthe analysis. Of the 193 returned surveys, 20 were military respondents and wereexcluded from part II analysis. This is due to the fact that military residents indicated tous that they are assigned to a particular location or have no choice of specific locale. Asa result, they are not subject to such analysis. The data in this report reflects theadjustment for this exclusion. As shown in Table 1, the variables have been ranked in order of importance toapplicants, in descending order. As one might predict, the most important factor in theselection of a specific program is the diversity of training experience. Applicants alsoplace a very high emphasis on their overall impression of the program director and thephilosophy of the training at the institution. The amount of time dedicated to clinicalexperience, as well as the volume of patients, is also of major importance. An applicant’sgeneral impression of the program, perception of residents’ satisfaction and happiness,and influence of pre-doctoral instructors and mentors were also highly-ranked items onthe survey. The opportunity to place dental implants is another factor that proved to be ofhigh importance. Factors such as salary, benefits, funding to attend extramuralconferences, and cost of living, and amount of required lab work proved to be of
  • 193. moderate importance. The factors of least value to prosthodontics applicants includeclimate, proximity to family, geographic location, amount of free time, amount of timeallotted for vacation, social and recreational activities, and opportunities to moonlight,teach and perform research. There were no statistically-significant differences in theresults between males and females. Table 2 shows the results of the statistical analyses,with the significant p-values in bold.Discussion: Once the decision is made to specialize, one must decide where and underwhose direction to receive training. In medicine, surgery, and some dental specialties,applicants must participate in the National Residency Match Program6 or the PostdoctoralDental Matching Program7 which allow qualified students to rank programs in order ofpreference. These programs, in turn, rank the applicants in an ordinal manner and acomputer program ultimately selects where the student will be training. This system canpotentially select a program or location that is dissatisfactory to the resident. In addition,some programs may have unmatched positions due to ranking incompatibilities, whichleaves programs and unmatched applicants “scrambling” to fill the open positions.Students interested in prosthodontics participate in a less formal application process thatallows them to potentially be accepted to many programs with the opportunity to choosetheir destination. Those individuals with the greatest academic and clinical achievementsthroughout college and dental school often reap the benefits of their successes byselecting their “top choice”. It is apparent from our results that applicants for advanced prosthodontics trainingare most interested in obtaining a high-quality clinical education. Training diversity andphilosophy, amount of clinic time, high patient volume, and opportunity for experience indental implant placement are among the most important variables that are considered by
  • 194. applicants as they choose a program. This response is not surprising, being that clinicalprosthodontics has such a broad scope and the main reason for seeking advanced trainingis to attain as much clinical knowledge and experience as possible in three years. Similarresults have been reported in medical journals.8,9,10,11 Although it was detected asminimally statistically-significant (p=0.04), it is interesting to see the different trendsbetween first year residents and their senior regarding the importance of placing implants.First year residents seem to put more thought on the importance of placing implants incomparison to the seniors. Because dental implants have become such an integral part ofcontemporary dentistry, the importance of receiving adequate training is being stressed,even at the pre-doctoral level.12 Perhaps the next generation of prosthodontists will bemore involved in the placement and restoration of implants than their predecessors.13 Applicants also consider their overall impression of the program director andhis/her philosophy of training to be extremely important. The program director is largelyresponsible for determining the scope of clinical, didactic and research knowledge thatstudents receive during post-doctoral training. As such, these results are not surprisingand confirm those of previous studies.9,15 The first year residents placed a significantemphasis on the number of board-certified faculty members, when compared to theirseniors (p=0.03). This could reflect an increase in training expectations from applicants,perhaps due to the high cost of advanced training in recent years. Advice from pre-doctoral mentors and instructors also plays a strong role in an applicants choice ofprogram. This has a much greater influence than that of prosthodontics residents fromtheir dental school, which was ranked much lower. Current resident satisfaction andhappiness is another factor that is considered highly important to applicants10,11 as wouldbe expected.
  • 195. Relationship status also appears to play a role in program selection. Singleresidents consider the opportunity to teach to be more valuable than do those inrelationships (p=0.02). This may reflect the fact that residents in relationships have lessavailable time to dedicate to lesson planning and teaching. Married individuals considerproximity of the program to their families to be significantly more important than thosewho are single (p=0.01). Also, married applicants report a significant influence of theirspouse in their program choice, when compared to singles or those in a relationship(p<0.001). This confirms the results of a study by Arnold et al.14 Applicants under theage of 30 placed a higher emphasis on availability of social and recreational activities inthe vicinity of the program than those over age 30 (p=0.03). Lastly, climate andgeographic location were observed to be of little importance to applicants, which is incontrast to other reports.5,11,15,16 Being that prosthodontics residents spend the vastmajority of their waking hours within the clinics and laboratories of their respectiveinstitutions, this factor was expected to be of minimal importance. However, our medicaland surgical colleagues also spend a significant amount of time in the hospital, so itremains unclear why this discrepancy exists between prosthodontists and physicians. Insummary, our findings clearly demonstrate what the current prosthodontics residents andrecent graduates consider as they contemplate which program to select and the relativevalue they place on each variable. This information may be of benefit to programdirectors as they strive to make their programs as attractive as possible to top candidates.
  • 196. Conclusions:(1) Applicants consider clinical education to be the most important determinants inprogram selection.(2) Residents are strongly influenced by their impression of the program director andhis/her philosophy of training when choosing a program.(3) Residents are placing a higher emphasis on faculty board certification than inprevious years.(4) Teaching and research opportunities are of relatively low importance to applicants.(5) Applicants place a high value on the opportunity to place implants. The importanceof this factor has increased significantly in recent years.(6) Relationship status can have significant effects on an applicant’s choice of program.Ryan Blissett DMD;1 Meng-Chieh Lee DDS;1 Monik Jimenez SM;2 and Cortino SukotjoDDS, MMSc, Ph.D31 Resident and Research Fellow, Advanced Graduate Prosthodontics, Department ofRestorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine,Boston, MA.2 Doctoral student and Research Fellow, Harvard School of Dental Medicine and HarvardSchool of Public Health, Boston, MA.3 Instructor in the Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences,Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA.
  • 197. References1. Nuthalapaty FS, Jackson JR, Owen J. The influence of quality-of-life, academic, andworkplace factors on residency program selection. Acad Med 2004; 79:417-252. Ambrozy DM, Irby DM, Bowen JL, Burack JH, Carline JD, Stritter FT. Role modelsperceptions of themselves and their influence on students specialty choices. Acad Med1997; 72:1113. Basco WT Jr, Reigart JR. When do medical students identify career-influencingphysician role models? Acad Med 2001; 76:380-24. Jordan J, Brown JB, Russell G. Choosing family medicine. What influences medicalstudents? Can Fam Physician 2003; 49:1131-7.5. Sledge WH, Leaf PJ, Sacks MH. Applicants’ Choice of a Residency TrainingProgram. Am J Psychiatry 1987; 144:501-5036. http://www.nrmp.org7. http://www.natmatch.com/dentres8. Hitchcock MA, Kreis SR, Foster BM. Factors Influencing Students Selection ofFamily Practice Residency Programs in Texas. Fam Med 1989; 21:122-267.9. DeLisa JA, Jain S, Campagnolo D, McCutcheon PH. Selecting a Physical Medicineand Rehabilitation Residency. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1992; 71:72-7610. Simmonds AC, Robbins JM, Brinker MR, Rice JC, Kerstein MD. Factors Importantto Students in Selecting a Residency Program. Acad Med 1990; 65:640-64311. Lebovits A, Cottrell JE, Capuano C. The Selection of a Residency Program:Prospective Anesthesiologists Compared to Others. Anesth Analg 1993;77:313-712. Lim MVC, Afsharzand Z, Rashedi B, Petropoulos VC. Predoctoral ImplantEducation in U.S. Dental Schools. J Prosthodont 2005; 14:46-56
  • 198. 13. Eckert SE, Koka S, Wolfinger G, Choi YG. Survey of Implant Experience byProthodontists in the United States. J Prosthodont 2002; 11:194-20114. Arnold RM, Landau C, Nissen JC, Wartman S, Michelson S. The Role of Partners inSelecting a Residency. Acad. Med 1990; 65:211-21515. DiTomasso RA, DeLauro JP, Carter ST. Factors Influencing Program SelectionAmong Family Practice Residents. J Med Educ 1983; 58: 527-33.16. Flynn TC, Gerrity MS, Berkowitz LR. What Do Applicants Look for WhenSelecting Internal Medicine Residency Programs? A Comparison of Rating Scale andOpen-Ended Responses. J Gen Intern Med 1993; 8:249-254Acknowledgement:The authors would like to acknowledge Drs. Bruce G. Valauri, Stephen D. Campbell,Patrick M. Lloyd, and Frank J. Tuminelli for giving a suggestion regarding the survey.The authors wish to thank all residents who generously devoted their time and effort tocompleting our survey.LegendsTable I. Mean, Ratings and Rankings of Factors Influencing the Selection ofProsthodontics programTable II. Comparison of Influence of Variables between Gender, Age, Marital Status, andYear in Program (p-values)
  • 199. Table 1Mean Ratings and Rankings of Factors Influencing the Selection of Prosthodontic ProgramsFactors Mean SD RankDiversity of Training Experience 1.68 0.83 1Your Impression of Program Director 1.73 0.91 2Philosophy of Training 1.76 0.88 3Amount of Clinical Training Hours 1.85 0.87 4High Volume of Patients 1.86 0.90 5Your Impression of Residents’ Satisfaction and Happiness 1.89 0.98 6Advice from Mentor/Instructors 1.93 1.00 7Intuitive Feeling about Program 1.95 0.97 8General Impression at Interview 2.08 1.02 9Opportunity to Place Dental Implants 2.10 1.22 10Clinic/Lab Facilities 2.14 0.92 11Prestige of Program/Institution 2.24 1.06 12Prestige of Faculty 2.30 1.10 13Support from the Department to Attend Professional Meetings 2.36 1.15 14Number of Residents/Faculty 2.39 1.15 15Proximity of Program to Graduate Programs in Other Specialties 2.45 1.10 16Extent of Staff Supervision 2.42 1.02 17Salary 2.57 1.51 18Benefits 2.57 1.27 19Number of Board-Certified Faculty Members 2.61 1.20 20High Level of Management Responsibility 2.62 1.05 21Amount of Required Lab Work 2.64 1.14 22Influence of Residents in the Specialty at Your Dental School 2.64 1.43 23Influence of Marital Partner or Significant Other 2.92 1.55 24Geographical Location 2.96 1.28 25Opportunity for Post-Residency Training 3.04 1.38 26Cost of Living 3.08 1.22 27Proximity of Program to Family 3.08 1.50 28Opportunity to Conduct Research 3.13 1.35 29Amount of Free Time Available 3.13 1.23 30Availability of Electives 3.14 1.14 31Social and Recreational Activities in Area 3.24 1.17 32Opportunity to Teach Pre-doctoral Students 3.27 1.17 33Amount of Vacation Time Available 3.28 1.15 34Opportunity to Moonlight (i.e. Practice Dentistry Outside of Program) 3.44 1.62 35Climate 3.53 1.34 36 • Based upon a Likert rating scale where 1= Extremely Important, 2=Very Important. 3=Important, 4=Minimally Important, 5=Not Important
  • 200. Table 2 Comparison of Influence of Variables between Gender, Age, Marital Status, and Year in Program (p-values) MaritalVariable Gender Age Status Yr in ProgramClimate 0.36 0.52 0.42 0.52Cost of Living 0.57 0.95 0.73 0.39Geographical Location 0.74 0.78 0.97 0.64Philosophy of Training 0.39 0.21 0.81 0.73Diversity of Training Experience 0.86 0.40 0.25 0.04Proximity to Other Specialties 0.62 0.13 0.50 0.58Prestige of Program 0.68 0.41 0.67 0.20Prestige of Faculty 0.30 0.66 0.63 0.59Number of Residents 0.54 0.98 0.66 0.30Number of Board-Certified Faculty 0.35 0.59 0.19 0.03Extent of Staff Supervision 0.10 0.62 0.49 0.87High Level of Management Responsibility 0.08 0.67 0.04 0.79Availability of Electives 0.26 0.09 0.55 0.11Amount of Clinical Training Hours 0.72 0.36 0.95 0.07High Volume of Patients 0.36 0.88 0.85 0.87Clinic/Lab Facilities 0.18 0.39 0.07 0.07Amount of Lab Work 0.10 0.74 0.36 0.42Opportunity for Research 0.13 0.68 0.26 0.48Opportunity for Implant Placement 0.30 0.56 0.30 0.04Opportunity Post-Residency Training 0.44 0.07 0.20 0.30Opportunity to Teach 0.51 0.05 0.02 0.05Support for Meetings 0.23 0.32 0.16 0.33Impression at Interview 0.98 0.13 0.23 0.09Intuitive Feeling of Program 0.26 0.26 0.48 0.04Impression Program Director 0.65 0.86 0.86 0.38Impression of Resident Satisfaction 0.18 0.05 0.36 0.06Resident Influence 0.11 0.16 0.12 0.43Advice of Mentors 0.85 0.84 0.38 0.30Benefits 0.94 0.71 0.10 0.54Salary 0.27 0.67 0.21 0.23Free time 0.56 0.07 0.87 0.07Vacation 0.54 0.20 0.38 0.83Social Activities 0.34 0.03 0.06 0.08Proximity to Family 0.23 0.09 0.01 0.10Influence of Spouse 0.33 0.64 0.00 0.73Moonlighting Opportunities 0.82 0.14 0.76 0.74* Statistically-significant values indicated in bold
  • 201. Academic Alliance Membership American College of ProsthodontistsQualifications for Membership:Individuals who hold a DDS, DMD or PhD, and who currently hold an academicteaching position within an ADA accredited prosthodontic program, or undergraduateteaching position in the discipline of prosthodontics may apply as an Academic AllianceMember. Individuals must be instructors spending a minimum of 50% of their timeteaching as defined by the institution. Individuals with special circumstances, outsideof the qualifications outlined for membership, may request a special action of the Boardof Directors. A letter of endorsement from an Active College Member must be providedalong with a letter of verification of your teaching position from the Department Chair orDean. Individuals that have completed an accredited Advanced Education Program inProsthodontics are not eligible for membership in the Academic Alliance, but are eligibleto become ACP Active members.Privileges:The American College of Prosthodontists (ACP) is committed to providing bothtangible and intangible benefits that will enhance member’s personal andprofessional lives. o Annual subscription to The Journal of Prosthodontics o Annual subscription to The Messenger o Personalized Membership Certificate suitable for framing and display o Annual copy of the ACP Membership Directory o Access to the “Member’s Only” section of the ACP Web site. o Member discounts on all ACP Products o Discounted registration rates for the Annual Session o Discounted registration for all Continuing Education Programs o Discounted postings on the ACP Employment Site o National Representation is provided through regular ACP communication and interaction with the ADA o Marketing and Public Relations is provided by the College o Discounted insurance rates are provided by Treloar & Heisel o Access to Great Interest Rates & Member Rewards through Bank One o Discounted Office Products through ACP/Staples Business Account o Discounts on all products through Best Buy/ACP Business Account o Additional Affinity Programs coming soonDues:Application Fee: $125 (non-refundable one time only)Annual Dues: $450Application:For an Academic Alliance Member Application please email Carla Baker atcbaker@prosthodontics.org and request an Academic Alliance Application.
  • 202. ACP Academic Alliance Membership ApplicationPlease type or print clearly. An incomplete application will delay activation of membership.____________________________________________________________________________________First Name Middle Initial Last Name_________________________Date of Birth Gender (check one): Male FemalePrimary Office Information: Preferred Mailing/Billing Address (Choose only one)Company/InstitutionTitleAddress Line 1Address Line 2Address Line 3 _________________City State Postal Code + four Country_____________________________________ ___________________________________________Phone Fax______________________________________ __________________________________________E-mail (Required for communication purposes.) Web siteSecondary Office Information: Preferred Mailing/Billing Address (Choose only one)___________________________________________________________________________________Company Name___________________________________________________________________________________Address Line 1___________________________________________________________________________________Address Line 2___________________________________________________________________________________Address Line 3___________________________ __________ ________________ _________________________City State Postal Code + four Country_________________________________________ ______________________________________Phone Fax___________________________________________________________________________________E-mail
  • 203. Home Information: Preferred Mailing/Billing Address (Choose only one) _Address Line 3Address Line 2 ___________ __________________ ________________City State Postal Code + four Country____________________________________________ ____________________________________Phone Fax__________________________________________________________________________________E-mailSpouse Information: Print Spouse’s Name in the Membership DirectoryFirst Name Middle Initial Last NameEducation: Degrees Earned (check all that apply): DDS DMD Ph. D M. Ed MS MA MSD MPH BA BSAdditional Degrees not listed above: ___________________________________________________________________________________________ __________ ________________ ______________Dental School Attended State Country Graduation Date______________________________________ __________ ________________ _____________Additional Training Program State Country Graduation DateProfessional Information:Are you currently an ADA Member? Yes NoWhat other professional organizations are you a member of? ___________________________________Faculty Appointment:Undergraduate Faculty Position:Position Title: __________________________________ % Time Teaching Undergrad.School’s Name _____________________________________________________ State _____________Post-Graduate Faculty Position:Post-Graduate Position: ____________________________ % Time Teaching Post-Graduate: ________ACP Membership Directory Listing: Print my Name Only in the Membership Directory (excludes ALL contact information)Choose any combination from the following options: Print Primary Office Address (includes complete Primary Office contact information) Print Secondary Office Address (includes complete Secondary Office contact information) Print Home Address (includes complete Home contact information)Communications: Please review the communication options carefully. If you have additional
  • 204. questions, or concerns please contact Membership Services for clarification. The ACP occasionally makes available its members addresses (excluding telephone and email) to vendors who provide products and services to the association community. If you do not wish to be included in these lists, please check this box. No ACP e-mail promotions. (By checking this, you limit promotional emails for ACP products and services; however, you will continue to receive general communications from the ACP such as the ACP Journal of Prosthodontics.) No ACP mail communications or promotions. (By checking this box, you will not receive substantive membership benefits like the Journal of Prosthodontists or the Messenger or the Annual Session Registration Brochures.)Applicant’s VerificationI hereby certify that the information on this application is correct. Your signature will also confirm yourcommunication preferences listed above.Applicant’s Signature: Date:Qualifications for MembershipAcademic Alliance Membership in this College shall be limited to those individuals who have NOTcompleted an advanced dental education program in prosthodontics accredited by the Commission onDental Accreditation of the American Dental Association. These individuals whose credentials include aDDS, DMD or Ph. D. and who currently hold an academic teaching appointment within an ADAaccredited prosthodontic program or an undergraduate teaching position in the discipline ofProsthodontics may apply. Applicant must be instructors spending a minimum of 50% of their timeteaching as defined by the institution. (Applicants with special circumstances outside of the qualificationsoutlined for membership may request a special action of the Board of Directors.)For consideration the following must accompany your application:1) Application/Reinstatement fee: $125 non-refundable2) Dues: If joining before July 1: $450*. If joining after July 1: $2253) A letter of endorsement from an Active College Member must be provided.4) A letter of verification of the applicant’s teaching position from the Department Chair or Dean.Method of Payment American Express ____ VISA _____ MasterCard ____ Check Enclosed ____ Card Holder’s Name (Please Print) _____________________________________________________________________ Signature of Card Holder Card Number Expiration Date Mail or fax your payment, completed application and required documentation to: American College of Prosthodontists 211 E. Chicago Avenue, Suite 1000 Chicago, IL 60611 Phone: (800) 378-1260 Fax: (312) 573-1257 www.prosthodontics.org
  • 205. THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF PROSTHODONTISTS Implant, Esthetic and Reconstructive Dentistry 21 Very Practical Reasons to Join the ACP!1. Membership Services, Outreach, and Communications As a member, you will have access to the highly qualified staff in our central office that put members first and strive to meet member expectations and respond to member needs. Members can contact the ACP for service through e-mail and or utilize the online services available through our Web site at their convenience--day or night. The ACP’s quarterly newsletter, The Messenger, and broadcast e-mails keep members up-to-date with timely material communication on emerging news topics.2. Journal of Prosthodontics (JP) Subscription The JP is the official scholarly journal of the ACP and is provided to members free of charge. The JP serves both researchers and practicing clinicians by providing a forum for the presentation and discussion of evidence-based prosthodontic research, techniques, and procedures. The number of manuscript submissions has increased by 300% in the last two years. The journal has also increased its publication frequency to six issues per year. It is evident that the JP has established itself as a major voice in implant, esthetic, and reconstructive dentistry both domestically and internationally.3. Discounted Annual Meeting Registration Fees The College provides top notch education where members get the most up-to-date information and insights in the specialty of prosthodontics. Each year, the ACP’s Annual Session, THE premier educational and networking event for Prosthodontists, general dentists, dental technicians and others interested in the field provides attendees with invaluable information and access to new products.4. Member and Referral Directories Through our membership directory, events, and communications, the ACP provides a means of making and maintaining important professional connections. Printed and online Members Only directories make it easy for members to locate colleagues or Alliance Members. The printed ACP Membership Directory offers individual member data, governance, and committee structures and College Bylaws and Policies right at your fingertips.5. Continuing Education Opportunities As a trusted source of continuing education and an approved provider of ADA CERP, AGD PACE and NBC, the ACP Center for Prosthodontic Education provides state-of-the-art courses in the specialty of prosthodontics. Multiple course offerings each year provide members with the most timely, topical information in areas such as implant treatment planning and placement, complete dentures, esthetics, comprehensive update and more. Members receive discounts on course registration fees for added value. 1
  • 206. THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF PROSTHODONTISTS Implant, Esthetic and Reconstructive Dentistry6. Corporate Partner Discount Programs The ACP has negotiated special relationships with partners that give ACP members advantages and discounts, such as: • Staples Business Advantage provides deeply discounted office products to all ACP members. Staples provides our members with the privilege of using online ordering, delivery tracking, customer support representatives, and even customized personal products. • College Loan Corporation provides our members with access to trained loan consultants 24 hours a day. Tips and Tricks for how to handle your Student Loans is available along with debt-management plans. • Best Buy Business Account is available to save members hundreds of dollars on a range of products simply by proving you are an ACP Member. • Bank of America provides members with VISA, MasterCard, and American Express cards with generous reward benefits, 24 hour concierge service, and no annual fees. • DSL Advertising provides personal assistance to create and print Yellow Page Advertisements both in printed Yellow Pages and on the Internet. • Treloar and Heisel provide ACP members with discounted rates on all their personal and corporate insurance and retirement needs.7. Access to Awards, Scholarships and Grants The ACP supports the development of young investigators through the ACP Sharry Research Awards and the ACP Research Awards. Students pursuing prosthodontics as a specialty are eligible for financial support through the ACP Education Foundation. Membership in the only ADA-recognized organization representing prosthodontics increases the ability of the ACP and its Foundation to enhance the entire prosthodontic specialty.8. Strategic Focus in Governance ACP members have a significant voice in the direction of the College. A fresh approach in leadership has taken the ACP Board of Directors beyond committee work and gives them the tools to plan for the future and to get meaningful input from ACP members on strategic directions to pursue.9. ACP Education Foundation (ACPEF) The ACPEF has distributed more than two (2) million dollars in grants and awards since 2004. The ACPEF has funded post-graduate prosthodontic student scholarships; young investigator prosthodontic- related research; public relations; educational symposia gatherings; start up costs for a brand new post-graduate prosthodontic program; a dental technician training program; and many more programs and projects that give prosthodontic excellence momentum. 2
  • 207. THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF PROSTHODONTISTS Implant, Esthetic and Reconstructive Dentistry10. Diagnostic and Treatment Classification Systems The ACP Classification Systems are an essential resource throughout the dental profession. ACP members created formal systems for classifying patients guiding general dentists to know when they can appropriately treat a patient and when it is best for the patient to be referred to a prosthodontist. The Prosthodontic Diagnostic Index (PDI) has been distributed through the dental schools to develop an understanding between general dentists and prosthodontists about the scope of care each can offer.11. Discounted ACP Products and Publications From CDs and study guides to marketing materials and patient education brochures, members qualify for discounted prices on a variety of resources for the practice. Members have inside access to product premieres, special sales and more. The ACP has also developed a complete guide to private practice management. This CD contains templates and instructions regarding all aspects of private practice management. ACP members only receive a deep discount on purchasing this must-have resource.12. Unified Representation and Advocacy Voice The ACP advances the interests of the specialty within organized dentistry and disseminates important information about prosthodontics to professionals and the public. The ACP is the only organization recognized by the American Dental Association to represent the specialty of prosthodontics. We advocate for the specialty by working closely with other dental specialty groups on collaborative projects and initiatives that impact the specialty of prosthodontics.13. Proactive Professional Relations Through programs like the ACP Classification Systems and the Referral Brochure, ACP works to improve relations between prosthodontists and the dental community at large. Strong professional relations with general dentists can mean earlier referral and less corrective work.14. Prosthodontic Education and Workforce Growth Recognizing the need for continuing to increase the numbers of prosthodontists in the workforce in response to the aging population and emerging prosthodontic patient needs, the ACP is committed to increasing the presence of prosthodontists in under-graduate and post- graduate dental programs, and identifying students with the special skills necessary for successfully pursuing the prosthodontic specialty.15. Public Awareness and Education The ACP’s public awareness campaign is an ongoing, multi-pronged public awareness campaign designed to educate the public about the specialty of prosthodontics and when to seek the specialized care of a prosthodontist. ACP members have exclusive access to customized advertising and discounts on brochures to attract potential patients and spread the word about the prosthodontic specialty. 3
  • 208. THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF PROSTHODONTISTS Implant, Esthetic and Reconstructive Dentistry16. Robust Interactive Online Resources and Presence The ACP Web site’s search engine optimization provides in-depth information for patients searching the Internet for crowns, dentures, implants or other key words related to prosthodontic procedures.17. ACP FORUM The Forum is a unique entity of the College which consists of a group of participating organizations who share the same interest in the field of prosthodontics. Through a collective effort, the ACP Forum has the ability to make a difference and to enhance the growth and development of the specialty. The Forum is also a venue for sharing information, concerns and educational findings among experts in prosthodontics18. Leadership and Volunteer Opportunities There are many leadership and volunteer opportunities for member involvement in the College. ACP members have the opportunity to discuss current issues and to assist in the identification of best practices that lay the foundation for developing solutions for advancing the specialty. ACP committees and task forces provide a venue for members to voice their opinions and to assist the ACP with their efforts to not only support but to further the field of prosthodontics.19. ACP Alliances The ACP created the Dental Technician Alliance for certified dental laboratory technicians as a mechanism to foster a team-building between technicians and their prosthodontic partners. The skills of a technician are invaluable to a prosthodontist, and the Alliance provides the network and means to develop these relationships. In addition, the new Academic Alliance is designed to support those individuals who teach prosthodontics in prosthodontic post-graduate programs. The ACP is committed to furthering the field of prosthodontics.20. American Board of Prosthodontics The ACP is the sponsoring organization of the American Board of Prosthodontics (ABP) and provides a direct referral source to our organization for information on board certification. The ACP makes available to our members, the additional valuable resources necessary to prepare for the board exams.21. Job and Career Opportunities Members can advertise a new position, associate opening or practice for sale, or browse available listings in this ultimate ACP career guide. Future job board functionality will feature resume posting and instant connection between job seekers and employers. 4
  • 209. ACP Membership ApplicationPlease type or print clearly. An incomplete application will delay activation of membership.I am applying as a (check one): Member Fellow____________________________________________________________________________________First Name Middle Initial Last Name_______________________Date of Birth Gender (check one): Male FemalePrimary Office Information: Preferred Mailing/Billing Address (Choose only one)Company/InstitutionTitleAddress Line 1Address Line 2Address Line 3 _________________City State Postal Code + four Country_______________________________________ ___________________________________________Phone Fax_______________________________________ __________________________________________E-mail (Required for communication purposes.) Web siteSecondary Office Information: Preferred Mailing/Billing Address (Choose only one)___________________________________________________________________________________Company Name___________________________________________________________________________________Address Line 1___________________________________________________________________________________Address Line 2___________________________________________________________________________________Address Line 3___________________________ __________ _________________ _________________________City State Postal Code + four Country_________________________________________ ________________________________________Phone Fax___________________________________________________________________________________E-mail
  • 210. Home Information: Preferred Mailing/Billing Address (Choose only one)_________________________________________________________________________________Address Line 1_________________________________________________________________________________Address Line 2Address Line 3 ____________ __________________ ________________City State Postal Code + four Country ____________________ ____________________________________Phone Fax__________________________________________________________________________________E-mailSpouse Information: Print Spouse’s Name in the Membership DirectoryFirst Name Middle Initial Last NameEducation: Degrees Earned (check all that apply): DDS DMD DVM Ph.D. MS MA MSD MPH BA BSAdditional Degrees not listed above: _____________________________________________________________________________________________ __________ _________________ _____________Dental School Attended State Country Graduation Date________________________________________ _________ _________________ _____________Prosthodontic Training Program State Country Graduation DateMy Specialty Training Program was in (check one): Prosthodontics Maxillofacial Prosthetics Combined Maxillofacial & Prosthodontics_______________________________ ______________ _____________________ ______________Other Training Program State Country Graduation DateAre you Board Certified by the American Board of Prosthodontists? Yes NoBoard Certification Date:Primary Activity: Private Practice Military Education Veterans AdministrationSecondary Activity: Education Administration Consultant Hospital Dentist ResearchProcedures: (check all procedures that you perform in your office) Bridges Caps/Crowns Cleft Palate/Obturator Congenital/Developmental Mouth Defects Dental Implants Dentures Esthetic/Cosmetic Dentistry Removable/Partial Dentures Sleep Apnea Teeth Grinding/Night Guards Teeth Whitening TMJ Veneers
  • 211. Professional Information:Are you currently an ADA Member? Yes NoWhat other professional organizations are you a member of? ___________________________________Faculty Appointment (if applicable):Undergraduate Faculty PositionPosition: _____________________________________ % Time Teaching Undergrad. I am the Prosthodontic Department ChairInstitution _____________________________________________________ State _____________Post-Graduate Faculty PositionTitle: ___________________________________ % Time Teaching Post-Graduate: __________ I am the Prosthodontic Program Director I am the Maxillofacial Program DirectorInstitution ________________________________________________ State __________________Communications: Please review the communication options carefully. If you have additionalquestions, or concerns please contact Membership Services for clarification. The ACP occasionally makes available its members addresses (excluding telephone and e-mail) tovendors who provide products and services to the association community. If you do not wish to beincluded in these lists, please check this box. No ACP e-mail promotions. (By checking this, you limit promotional e-mails for ACP products andservices; however, you will continue to receive general communications from the ACP such as the ACPJournal of Prosthodontics.) No ACP mail communications or promotions. (By checking this box, you will not receivesubstantive membership benefits like the Journal of Prosthodontics or the Messenger or the AnnualSession registration brochure.)ACP Membership Directory Listing: Print my Name Only in the Membership Directory (excludes ALL contact information)Choose any combination from the following options: Print Primary Office Address (includes complete Primary Office contact information) Print Secondary Office Address (includes complete Secondary Office contact information) Print Home Address (includes complete Home contact information)Find a Prosthodontist: All members office contact information is included in the ACP patient referralWeb site "Find a Prosthodontist" for consumers, patients and professionals. I do not wish to be included in the ACP "Find a Prosthodontist" patient referral Web site.
  • 212. Applicant’s VerificationI hereby certify that the information on this application is correct. Your signature will also confirm yourcommunication preferences listed above.Applicant’s Signature: Date:Qualifications for MembershipActive Membership in this College shall be limited to those individuals who have completed an advanceddental education program in prosthodontics accredited by the Commission on Dental Accreditation of theAmerican Dental Association.Fellowship in this College shall be limited to those individuals who meet the qualifications for ActiveMembership, who are also Diplomates of the American Board of Prosthodontics holding a current annualcertificate.Students enrolled in accredited advanced dental education programs in prosthodontics should notcomplete this form. Contact the American College of Prosthodontists’ Central Office for a StudentMembership Application.For consideration the following must accompany your application:1) Application/Reinstatement fee: $125 non-refundable2) Dues: If joining before July 1: $602.00*. If joining after July 1: $301.003) International Members should contact the ACP’s Central Office for pricing, membership qualifications, member benefits and privileges.4) Copy of your certificate indicating that you have successfully completed an advanced dental education program in prosthodontics. The program must have been accredited by the ADA’s Commission on Dental Accreditation at the time you completed your program.5) If you are applying for status as a Fellow, you must include a copy of your current annual certificate of Board certification.Method of Payment American Express _____ VISA _____ MasterCard ____ Check Enclosed ____ ______________________________________________________________________ Card Holder’s Name (Please Print) _____________________________________________________________________ Signature of Card Holder ______________________________________________________________________ Card Number Expiration Date Mail or fax your payment and application to: American College of Prosthodontists 211 E. Chicago Avenue, Suite 1000 Chicago, IL 60611 Phone: (800) 378-1260 Fax: (312) 573-1257 www.prosthodontics.org
  • 213. THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF PROSTHODONTISTS Implant, Esthetic and Reconstructive Dentistry................................................................................................................................................................. May 3, 2007 Dear Post-Graduate Prosthodontic Residents: We are very pleased to announce that the ACP Education Foundation (ACPEF) has voted to support sponsoring the post-graduate prosthodontic students 2007 ACP membership dues and also your registration fees to the 2007 Annual Session in Scottsdale, Arizona. The ACPEF student support program is designed to provide the most benefit for all prosthodontic residents. Covering the membership costs provides all residents with a subscription to the Journal of Prosthodontics, the ACP Messenger, discounted continuing education opportunities, and access to the exclusive Prosthodontic Diagnostic Index among many other benefits of membership in the only organization recognized by the ADA to represent the specialty. ACP membership also gives all residents entrée to the community and possession of the information necessary to maximize your training and education. In addition to paying your registration fees for the 2007 Annual Session, the ACPEF will also provide a limited number of travel stipends. More information about the Annual Session financial support will be provided to you in the spring of 2007. Please assist the College in locating all prosthodontic residents that are not currently ACP members by spreading the word to your fellow residents. Student membership applications may be found online at www.prosthodontics.org or by contacting Carla Baker at cbaker@prosthodontics.org. She will be happy to assist each new student member through the application process. We are proud to support your prosthodontic education and wish you much success. Sincerely, Director of the Education Foundation American College of Prosthodontics Education Foundation Headquarters Office: 211 East Chicago Avenue Suite 1000 Chicago, Illinois 60611-2688 312.573.1260 Fax: 312.573.1257 www.prosthodontics.org
  • 214. Student ApplicationPlease type or print clearly. (An incomplete application will be returned and delay activation of membership.)First Name Middle Initial Last NameDate of Birth ______________________ Gender (check one): Male FemaleOffice Information: Preferred Mailing/Billing AddressCompany/InstitutionAddress Line 1Address Line 2_____________________________________________________________________________________________________Address Line 3City State Postal Code + four County Country_______________________________________________________ ____________________________________________Phone Fax_____________________________________________________________________________________________________E-mail (Required for communication purposes.)Home Information: Preferred Mailing/Billing AddressAddress Line 1Address Line 2City State Postal Code + four County CountryPhone Fax E-mailSpouse Information:First Name Middle Initial Last Name Print Spouse’s Name in the Membership Directory (If you want like your spouse’ name printed in the ACP Membership Directory, please check the box.)My Spouse is an ACP Member yes no
  • 215. ACP Communication Preferences: The ACP occasionally makes available its members addresses (excluding telephone and e-mail) to vendors who provide products and services to the association. If you do not wish to be included in these lists, please check this box. No ACP e-mail promotions. (By checking this box, you limit promotional e-mails for ACP products and services; however, you will continue to receive general communications from the ACP such as the Journal of Prosthodontics, Messenger, etc.) No ACP mail communications or promotions. (By checking this box, you will not receive substantive membership benefits like the Journal of Prosthodontics or the Messenger or the Annual Session registration brochure.)ACP Member Directory Preferences: Publish name only in the directory (No contact information will be included.) Or choose any combination or all of the following options; please check all contact data you wish to have included in the ACP Membership Directory. Publish Office 1 Publish HomeEducation:Degrees Earned (check all that apply): DDS DMD MSD PhD MS MA BS BA ______________________ AdditionalDental School Attended City State Country Year of GraduationProsthodontic Training Program City State Country Expected Year of GraduationSpecialty Training Program is (check one): Prosthodontics Maxillofacial Prosthetics Combined Maxillofacial & ProsthodonticsOther Training Program City State Country Yr. of GraduationABP Board Certified? Yes No Board Certification Date:Professional Information:ADA Member? Yes NoAre you a member of any of the following organizations: (Please check all that apply.)Forum Organizations AAED AAFP AAMP AES AP APS AO GNYAP IAG NADL NGS PCSP SEAP AAIDDental Specialty Groups: (Please check all that apply.) AAE AAO AAOMP AAOMR AAOMS AAP AAPD AAPHD
  • 216. Program Director Verification (to be completed and signed by the Graduate Program Director as verification of information) Institution Attending Institution’s City & State Program Attending Expected Completion DatePrint Program Director’s Name Program Director’s Signature DateApplicant’s VerificationI hereby certify that the information on this application is correct.Applicant’s Signature: ____________________________________________ Date: ______________Qualifications for Student MembershipStudents shall be enrolled in an advanced training program in prosthodontics, accredited by the Commission onDental Accreditation of the American Dental Association or be College members who return to school as full-timestudents in an accredited institution of higher learning and who elect to apply for this category of membership.An individual may retain Student Member status until termination of his/her formal training in prosthodontics oruntil their Student Membership status has reached six years.Student Members pay a discounted annual session and continuing education course registration fees, and enjoy allmember benefits, however, they may not hold voting membership on committees, nor may they hold elective orappointive office. Student Membership Dues is $75 annually if joining before July 1st. After July 1st Student Dues is $38Method of Payment American Express _________ VISA _______ MasterCard _______ _________________________________________________________________________ Card Holder’s Name (Please Print) _________________________________________________________________________ Signature of Card Holder _________________________________________________________________________ Card Number Expiration Date Mail or fax your payment, completed application and required documentation to: American College of Prosthodontists 211 E. Chicago Avenue, Suite 1000 Chicago, IL 60611 Phone: (800) 378-1260 Fax: (312) 573-1257 www.prosthodontics.org
  • 217. Schedule of Events Tuesday, October 30 10:15 a.m.– 10:45 a.m. Coffee Break with Exhibitors 7:00 a.m.– 5:00 p.m. ACP Board of Directors 11:30 a.m. – 2:00 p.m. ACP Education Foundation 2:00 – 5:00 p.m. AAMP Magnetic Retention Workshop Board Meeting 12:15 p.m.– 2:30 p.m. Table Clinics 3:30 – 7:00 p.m. Tour & Reception/ A.T. Still University, 4:30 p.m.– 5:30 p.m. Exhibitor/Attendee Reception Arizona School of Dentistry & Oral Health Friday, November 2 4:00 – 7:00 p.m. Registration Open 7:00 a.m.– 4:00 p.m. Registration Open 7:30 – 8:30 a.m. Continental Breakfast with Exhibitors Wednesday, October 31 7:30 a.m.– 4:30 p.m. Exhibits Open 6:30 a.m.– 6:00 p.m. Registration Open 8:15 a.m.– 4:20 p.m. General Session 7:00 a.m.– 4:00 p.m. Board Preparation Course 9:00 a.m.– 2:00 p.m. Council for the American Board 7:00 – 7:30 a.m. House of Delegates of Prosthodontics Sections Breakfast 10:30 – 11:00 a.m. Coffee Break with Exhibitors 7:30 – 7:45 a.m. House of Delegates Opening Session 12:15–2:00 p.m. Annual Luncheon 12:15–2:00 p.m. Lunch with Exhibitors 7:45 – 9:00 a.m. House of Delegates Sections Meeting 2:30–4:30 p.m. Journal of Prosthodontics Editorial Board 8:00 – 10:00 a.m. Journal of Prosthodontics 4:30–5:30 p.m. Student and New Prosthodontist Reception Editorial Board 7:00–10:00 p.m. President’s Dinner 9:00 a.m.– 5:00 p.m. Educators Mentoring & Predoctoral Educators Workshop Saturday, November 3 9:30 –11:00 a.m. Prosthodontic Diagnostic Index (PDI) Calibration Seminar 7:00 a.m.– 1:00 p.m. Registration Open 10:00 a.m. – 12:00 p.m. House of Delegates Reference 7:00– 8:00 a.m. Air Force Breakfast Committee Meetings Army Breakfast 12:00 – 3:00 p.m. Prosthodontic Forum Navy Breakfast 1:00 – 3:00 p.m. House of Delegates Closing Session VA Breakfast 1:00 – 5:00 p.m. Implant Surgical Training Workshops Alliance Technician Breakfast AstraTech, BioHorizons, Biomet 3i, 8:00 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Council for the American Board Nobel Biocare, Straumann of Prosthodontics 2:00 – 5:00 p.m. Writers’ Workshop 8:00– 9:00 a.m. Technology Forum Continental Breakfast 5:30 – 7:30 p.m. Welcome Reception 9:00 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Technology Forum: 3M ESPE, Ivoclar Vivadent, Nobel Biocare Thursday, November 1 1:00–3:00 p.m. ACP Board of Directors 6:30 a.m.–4:30 p.m. Council for the American Board 1:00–3:00 p.m. Todays Advanced Prosthodontic Practice of Prosthodontics 1:00–3:00 p.m. New Horizons in Dental Technology 7:00 a.m.– 5:00 p.m. Registration Open 1:00–4:00 p.m. AAMP Maxillofacial Prosthetic Seminar 7:30 a.m.– 8:30 a.m. Continental Breakfast with Exhibitors 7:30 a.m.–5:30 p.m. Exhibits Open Sunday, November 4–Wednesday, November 7 8:15 a.m.–4:20 p.m. General Session 7:00 a.m.–6:00 p.m. ABP Board Exams

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