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  • 1. Case Report 274 Removable Partial Denture on Osseointegrated Implants and Natural Teeth Li-Ching Chang, DDS, MS; Jen-Chyan Wang1, DDS, MS; Chi-Cheng Tasi2, DDS, PhD Implants have been designed to provide edentulous patients with fixed prostheses or overdentures. Recently, implant-supported fixed partial prostheses and single crowns have become successful treatment alternatives to removable and fixed partial dentures. However, few researchers have examined “removable partial dentures on implants and natural teeth”. In this article, we report two patients fitted with “removable partial dentures on implants and natural teeth”. The patients were satisfied with their dentures in terms of function and aes- thetics. Regular follow-up visits revealed that the periodontal and peri-implant conditions were stable. There was no evidence of excessive intrusion or mobility of the teeth, nor were any visible changes in the bone levels of the natural teeth or implants noted on radiographs. Since the average duration of observation was about 38 months, further follow-up examina- tions are necessary to determine whether these dentures remain stable long term. (Chang Gung Med J 2007;30:274-9) Key words: implant, removable partial denture more implants for support than removable prosthe-A fter the use of osseointegrated implants was first reported, numerous basic studies and clinicalreports related to implants were published. With ses. In addition, these patients may require several surgeries to increase bone mass, thus making theregard to partial edentulism, some dentists design entire treatment extraordinarily expensive and com-fixed prostheses with a combination of implants and plicated. However, if a traditional removable partialnatural teeth in addition to implant-supported fixed denture (RPD) is used, insufficient retention maybepartial dentures (FPD). However, because of the induce problems.osseointegration between implants and bone without In order to offer patients affordable prosthesesperiodontal ligaments (PDLs) which are present on with better retention, we have designed removablenatural teeth, the movements of implants and natural partial dentures supported by a combination ofteeth after loading may be different. Therefore, implants and natural teeth. Jennings et al. stated thatdespite the number of studies in the literature, no “the principles for the use of both retentive anchorsconclusions can be made regarding whether this and bar abutments in this situation (removable partialdesign is proper.(1-4) denture) are similar to those for complete overden- Implants are expensive and therefore many tures,”(5) and Brudivik suggested that implants werepatients cannot afford them, particularly those with the most appropriate for canine and/or molar posi-large edentulous areas. For reconstruction among tions.(6) Related clinical reports(7-11) are sparse in thethese patients, fixed-type prostheses usually require literature, however, the majority of presenting casesFrom the Department of Dentistry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan,Taiwan; 1Department of Prosthodontics, 2Graduate Institute of Dental Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University College of DentalMedicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.Received: Dec. 2, 2005; Accepted: Oct. 24, 2006Correspondence to: Dr. Li-Ching Chang, Dental Department of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. 6, W. Sec., Jiapu Rd., Puzih City,Chiayi County 613, Taiwan (R.O.C.) Tel.: 886-5-3621000 ext. 2277; Fax: 886-5-3621000 ext 2279; E-mail:
  • 2. 275 Li-Ching Chang, et al RPD on implants and natural teethof posterior implants for distal extension removable able partial dentures, I-bar clasps (Case 2), an embra-prostheses.(7,8,11) sure clasp (Case 1), and ball attachments (Cases 1 In this report, we present two cases in which and 2; O-ring attachment, 3 i Implant Innovationsremovable partial dentures are supported by both Inc. U.S.A.) were used. The implant system usedimplants and natural teeth. Clinical and radiographic was 3i Osseotite.changes for implants and natural teeth at least 36 The two cases were similar, with missing teethmonths after functional loading are reported. on the left quarter of the mandibular arch. However, different designs were used because of economic CASE REPORTS Table 2. Summary of the 2 Cases of Removable Partial Two patients who suffered from mobile teeth Dentures on Osseointegrated Implants and Natural teethand biting pain were referred from local dental clin- Case No. 1 2ics. Case 1 was a 41-year-old, systemically healthyfemale patient. Case 2 was a 47-year-old male Site Mandible Mandiblepatient with well-controlled Diabetes Mellitus. The Kennedyinitial clinical findings of two patients are listed in Classification Class II Class II IIITable 1. The oral examinations of the two cases Implants No 22 No19,23revealed severe periodontitis, multiple missing teeth 3i, Osseotite 3i, Osseotiteand ill-fitting bridges. After the periodontal treatment (including Retentionextraction of useless teeth, removal of ill-fitting Natural teeth Embrasure clasp I-barbridges, interium denture fabrication, and so on), Implants O-ring O-ringprosthodontic treatment options were presented and Support Mucosa, Teeth Mucosa, Teeth, Implantdiscussed with the patients. The final prosthodontic Occlusion RPD to RPD Natural Dentition to RPDtreatment modalities are shown in Tables 1 and 2. A Observationguided bone regeneration (GBR) procedure was per-formed using an autogenous bone graft and BioMend Period (months) 39 36extend membrane in Case 1. For retention of remov- Abbreviation: RPD: removable partial dentureTable 1. Characteristics of the 2 Cases of Removable Partial Dentures on Osseointegrated Implants and Natural Teeth Case Age/gender Initial clinical findings Treatment modality Follow-up 1 41/F Missing-Nos 1-5,16,17-27,32 Implant and GBR-No 22 every 3 months Ill-fitted bridge with advanced Ball attachment-No 22 periodontitis-Nos 11-16 Lower arch- RPOD Metal crown-No 14 Upper arch- Nos 11-16 extraction, Lower arch with ID ID then final RPD 2 47/M Missing-Nos 1-3,16,17,32 Extraction-Nos 14,20-23,26 every 6 months Ill-fitted bridge-Nos 18-31 Removal of bridge-Nos 27-31 Advanced periodontitis- Implant-Nos 19,23 Nos 14, 20-23, 26 Lower arch- ID then RPOD Angle’s Class I Ball attachment-Nos 19,23 Survey crown-Nos 27-29 Crown resection- No 31 Upper arch- No further prosthdontic treatmentAbbreviations: RPOD: Removable partial overdenture; ID: intermediate denture; RPD: removable partial denture.Chang Gung Med J Vol. 30 No. 3May-June 2007
  • 3. Li-Ching Chang, et al 276 RPD on implants and natural teethconsiderations. After implantation (one implant site: of implants used solely as a vertical stop is less thancanine position), Case 1 remained in Kennedy Class that of implants using resilient attachments.(11)II (Figs. 1A and 1B), whereas Case 2 (2 implant Brudvik noted that the appropriate position forsites: Lateral incisor and first molar) moved from the implants was on the molar (to prevent the distalKennedy Class II to Kennedy Class III (Figs. 1C and free end) and canine positions (to provide vertical1D). For these two cases, the opposing occlusion was support and retention when the lateral incisor is thenatural teeth, and the bone loss of the implants was only choice for terminal abutment).(6) When the den-negligible (Fig. 2 and Fig. 3). tal condition is classified as Kennedy Class III or IV, Both patients were satisfied with their dentures the implants can be used as overdenture abutments,in terms of function and aesthetics. Regular 3-month combined with some attachments to provide reten-follow-up visits revealed that the periodontal and tion.(6) When the implants are connected with otherperi-implant conditions were stable. There was no attachments (such as conventional clasping on otherexcessive intrusion or mobility of the teeth, nor were teeth or precision milled crowns), the lateral stabilityany visible changes in the bone levels of the natural and retention can be enhanced. When a singleteeth or implants noted on radiographs. DISCUSSION A B When combining implants and natural teeth inthe design of fixed partial dentures, the greatest con-cerns are implant overload and natural tooth intru-sion. Therefore, this design should be avoided. If thisdesign must be used, a natural tooth with little mobil-ity should be chosen for the combination. (1-4)However, to date, few cases of removable partialdenture with implants and natural teeth have beenreported. Moreover, Mitrani et al. (2003) reportedthat the mean bone loss of the posterior implants fordistal extension removable prostheses is less than 1mm after functional loading, but the mean bone loss A B C DFig. 1 The clinical results after prosthetic treatments: (A)without RPD insertion in case 1 patient; (B) with RPD inser- Fig. 2 The radiographic follow-up after prosthetic treatmenttion in case 1 patient; (C) without RPD insertion in case 2 in Case 1: (A) post-loading one month; (B) post-loading 24patient; (D) with RPD insertion in case 2 patient. months. Chang Gung Med J Vol. 30 No. 3 May-June 2007
  • 4. 277 Li-Ching Chang, et al RPD on implants and natural teeth A BFig. 3 The radiographic follow-up after prosthetic treatment in Case 2: (A) post-loading 6 months ; (B) post-loading 24 months.implant abutment is used on a removable partial den- both attachments had similar stability, but the formerture, the use of extracoronal attachments (such as an was easier to manipulate.(14,15) In addition, ball attach-O-ring) is indicated. On the other hand, stress relief ments can share loads across broader areas ofshould be considered in the application of intracoro- mucosa and decrease the stress on the peri-implantnal attachments (such as resilient wire).(6) bone.(16,17) Although, in some reports, no differences Cases 1 and 2 were similar in that both of them were found between these two types of attachment inhad missing teeth on the left quarter of the mandibu- surrounding bone loss and mucosal health, barlar arch. Different designs were used owing to eco- attachments may require more repairs.(18-20) When ver-nomic considerations. After implantation (one tical space is limited, the Locator can be used as aimplant in the left mandibular canine position), Case new alternative (3 i Implant Innovations Inc.1 remained in Kennedy Class II, whereas Case 2 (2 U.S.A.).implants in left mandibular lateral incisor and first The two patients were satisfied with their den-molar positions) changed from Kennedy Class II to tures in terms of function and aesthetics. Regular fol-Kennedy Class III. For these two cases, the opposing low-up visits revealed that the periodontal and peri-occlusion was natural teeth, but the bone loss around implant conditions were stable; there were no exces-the implants was negligible after 3 years of function- sive intrusions or mobility problems of the teeth; andal loading. The significant amounts of time and no visible changes in the bone levels of the naturalmoney needed to resolve selected cases with pros- teeth and implants were noted on radiographs. Sincethetic complications, as is done for implant-retained the duration of the observation was only about 38mandibular overdentures, are not required.(12,13) These months, further follow-up visits are necessary totwo cases required realignment and O-ring replace- determine whether these dentures remain stable overment only twice. the long term. These two implants (3i, Osseotite) on the left Because the structures of implants and naturalmandible were attached with ball attachments instead teeth are different, their mobility also differs. If it isof bar attachments, which were originally proposed possible, attempts to include both implants and nat-for Case 2. The main reason for this change was that ural teeth in prostheses should not be made. If theChang Gung Med J Vol. 30 No. 3May-June 2007
  • 5. Li-Ching Chang, et al 278 RPD on implants and natural teethcombination of implants and natural teeth is neces- denture base movement dilemma: A clinical report. Jsary, overloading of implants and intrusion of natural Prosthet Dent 1996;76:347-9.teeth should be monitored carefully. In the cases pre- 9. Starr NL. The distal extension case: an alternative restora- tive design for implant prosthetics. Int J Periodonticssented above, most supportive forces were born by Restorative Dent 2001;21:61-7.the teeth and mucosa, whereas the implants provided 10. Chang LC, Tsai CC. Removable partial denture onmainly retention, so that overloading was less likely. osseointegrated implants and natural teeth: two casesIn addition, the natural teeth, which were used as the report. Chin J Periodontal 2002;7:127-38.supportive component, were quite stable (mobility 11. Mitrani R, Brudvik JS, Phillips KM. Posterior implantsgrade 0 or 1). Consequently, there was little chance for distal extension removable prostheses: A retrospectivefor intrusion to occur. This case report was presented study. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2003;23:353-9. 12. Goodacre CJ, Bernal G, Rungcharassaeng K, Kan JYK.because discussion of applying implants on remov- Clinical complications with implants and implant prosthe-able partial dentures is limited in the literature. ses. J Prosthet Dent 2003;90:121-32.However, our follow-up duration was short (36-39 13. Chaffee NR, Felton DA, Cooper LF, Palmqvist U, Smithmonths), so further follow-up observations are R. Prosthetic complications in an implant-retainedrequired to determine the long-term effects of this mandibular overdenture population: initial analysis of adesign. prosthective study. J Prosthet Dent 2002;87:40-4. 14. Setz JM, Wright PS, Ferman AM. Effects of attachment type on the mobility of implant-stabilized overdentures - REFERENCES an in vitro study. Int J Prosthodont 2000;13:494-9. 15. Palmer RM, Smith BJ, Howe LC, Palmer PJ. Implant1. Weingerg LA, Kruger B. Biomechanical considerations denture prosthodontics. In Palmer RM, Smith BJ, Howe when combining tooth-supported and implanted prosthe- LC, Palmer PJ, eds. Implants in clinical dentistry. 1st ed. ses. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1994;78:22-7. London: Martin Dunitz Ltd, 2002:215-34.2. Schlumberger TL, Bowley JF, Maze GI. Instruction phe- 16. Menicucci G, Lorenzetti M, Pera P, Preti G. Mandibular nomenon in combination tooth-implant restorations: a implant- retained overdenture: finite element analysis of review of the literature. J Prosthet Dent 1998;80:199-203. two anchorage systems. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants3. Ochiai KT, Ozawa S, Caputo AA, Nishimura RD. 1998;13:369-76. Photoelastic stress analysis of implant-tooth connected 17. Kenney R, Richards MW. Photoelastic stress patterns pro- prostheses with segmented and nonsegmented abutments. duced by implant-retained overdentures. J Prosthet Den J Prosthet Dent 2003;89:495-502. 1998;80:559-64.4. Lin CL, Wang JC. Nonlinear finite element analysis of a 18. Gotfredsen K, Holm B. Implant-supported mandibular splinted implant with various connectors and occlusal overdentures retained with ball or bar attachments: a ran- forces. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2003;18:331-40. domized prospective 5-year study. Int J Prosthodont5. Jennings KJ, Critchlow HA, Lilly P, Broad MT. The clini- 2000;3:125-30. cal use of ITI transmucosal implants. British Dent J 19. Oetterli M, Kiener P, Mericske-Stern R. A longitudinal 1992;25:67-71. study on mandibular implants supporting an overdenture:6. Brudivik JS. Advanced removable partial denture. 1st ed. the influence of retention mechanism and anatomic-pros- Illinois: Quintessence, 1999:153-9. thetic variables on periimplant parameters. Int J7. Keltjens H, Kayser A, Hertel R, Battistuzzi P. Distal Prosthodont 2001;14:536-42. extension removable partial dentures supported by 20. Payne AG, Solomons YF. The prosthodontic maintenance implants and residual teeth: Considerations and case requirements of mandibular mucosa- and implant-sup- reports. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1993;8:208-13. ported overdentures: a review of the literature. Int J8. Giffin KM. Solving the distal extension removable partial Prosthodont 2000;13:238-45. Chang Gung Med J Vol. 30 No. 3 May-June 2007
  • 6. 279 1 2 Branewark (implant) (natural tooth) (RPD) ( 2007;30:274-9) 1 2 94 12 2 95 10 24 613 6 Tel.: (05)3621000 2277; Fax:(05)3621000 2279; E-mail: