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  • 1. Otago UNIVERSITY OF FACULTY OF DENTISTRY RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006
  • 2. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYTable of ConTenTsIntroduction from the Dean 2Research in the Faculty of Dentistry 3An influential paper by Professor HP Pickerill 4Sir John Patrick Walsh KBE 5Establishment of the Sir John Walsh Research Institute 7Research Groups 8Biomaterials and Biomechanics 8Dental Epidemiology and Public Health 10Endodontic Microbiology 12Molecular Microbiology Laboratory 13Oral Implantology 15Oral Microbiology and Dental Health Research Theme 17Contact Email Addresses 19Faculty Research Profiles 20Graduate Student Research 51A Graduate Student Research Success Story 51Postgraduate Students Graduating in 2005-2006 52Enrolled Postgraduate Students 53Summer Studentships 57Visiting Research Fellows 59Research Funding 60Faculty Publications 63Invited Presentations 68Awards 71Sponsors 72A pdf of this document can be found at: www.otago.ac.nz/dentistry 
  • 3. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006InTroduCTIon from The dean It is with great pleasure that I present to you the Research report for the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, in this, our centenary year. Although this report covers the period 2005–2006, the University of Otago has a proud history of Dental Research over the past 100 years. As can be seen from this report, this history of excellence in research is continuing today. The recent Performance- Based Research Funding exercise placed the University of Otago as the premier research University in New Zealand, with the Dental School having an exceptionally strong performance. This excellence in research is reflected in the development of the Sir John Walsh Research Institute. This Institute will provide a focus for dental research in New Zealand and will further enhance the international reputation of the School.I would like to thank Dr Brian Monk, the Faculty’s Research Committee and Mrs Margaret Guthrie, for theirefforts in putting together this report, as well as Professors Jules Kieser and Richard Cannon, who, as AssociateDeans for Research, have played a central role in establishing the research portfolio of the Faculty over the pasttwo years.Finally, I would like to acknowledge all the staff, both academic and general, who have contributed to theFaculty’s research effort. Well done, all of you.Gregory J. seymourDeanFaculty of DentistryPO Box 647University of OtagoDunedin 9054New ZealandEmail dentistry@otago.ac.nzWeb www.otago.ac.nz/dentistry
  • 4. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYresearCh In The faCulTy of denTIsTryResearch underpins the teaching of dentistry, its clinical practice, and the identification of oral health-relatedproblems. The School of Dentistry produces graduates for the nation’s dental work force who understand thatreal-world dentistry depends on research. They naturally expect that their teachers will have practical experiencewith the evolving scientific basis of dentistry and oral health. Since its inception a century ago, research hasbeen a cornerstone of the activities of the Faculty of Dentistry, and the Faculty continues to provide a thrivingresearch nexus. The prescient insights in 1914 of the first Dean, Henry Pickerill, into caries and the protectiverole of saliva (page 4 of this report), and the contribution of the third Dean, Sir John Walsh, to the developmentof the modern high-speed dental handpiece in the 1950s and the fluoridation of New Zealand municipal watersupplies (see page 5) have their modern counterparts in research outputs from the Faculty that are highlightedin this report. Today’s Faculty researchers are engaged in the systematic development of new knowledge oforal health and how to best improve the oral health of the general public. A major strength of the Faculty hasbeen the establishment of substantive research groupings that include the Molecular Microbiology Laboratory,Biomaterials and Biomechanics, Epidemiology and Public Health, and Oral Implantology (pages 8-16). Thesegroups have sufficient critical mass to produce internationally recognised research in diverse areas that include:~ Understanding of drug resistance and antimicrobial discovery;~ Testing and modelling biomaterials used to construct oral prostheses;~ Obtaining new insights in forensic dentistry;~ Developing new approaches to the placement of implants; ~ Evaluating the role of periodontal disease in chronic human disease;~ Gauging the effectiveness of current policies on the oral health of New Zealanders. Many of the researchers in the Faculty also belong to the University of Otago research theme Oral Microbiologyand Dental Health (OMDH). The theme is a vehicle that connects our oral microbiology researchers and studentswith colleagues in other departments of the University and across New Zealand (see page 17).This report highlights the broad range of interesting and useful research that came from the Faculty of Dentistryduring 2005 and 2006. In this period, the Faculty has increased its research-active staff from the 29 listed in the2003-2004 report to the 43 listed here (pages 20 to 50 detail their research activities and accomplishments). In therecently reported 2006 Performance-Based Research Fund (PBRF) round, the Faculty of Dentistry dramaticallyincreased its quality rating from 2.0 to 3.9, the second largest increase recorded at the University of Otago. Thisincluded an increase from 3 to 6.25 FTE in the numbers of A-rated staff (the top research ranking) that wasbacked by impressive improvements in the rankings of other research-active staff.Obtaining the substantial research funding required to maintain and develop our portfolio of research continuesto be a daunting exercise that requires dedicated time and effort by Faculty members in a funding environmentwhere oral health has yet to be perceived as crucial to the national well-being. This contrasts with the abilityof the Faculty to attract very significant funding from international sources, including three grants from theprestigious National Institutes of Health in the United States. Lists of grants awarded during 2005 and 2006 andmajor outside sponsors of research in the Faculty are presented on pages 60-62 and page 72.In 2006, seed funding provided by the University led to the establishment of the Sir John Walsh ResearchInstitute (SJWRI, see page 7). In 2007, an internationally recruited professorial appointee is expected to headthis new department of the Faculty of Dentistry. By actively reaching out to all interested groups (includingFaculty, students, the dental profession and the wider community), the SJWRI will serve as a focus and advocatefor oral health research that will instil a research ethos throughout New Zealand. Many benefits are expectedto flow from the SJWRI, including a profile that will allow a more strategic and better-resourced approach toresearch excellence. Furthermore, the Faculty has instituted (from 2007) the Doctor of Clinical Dentistry Degreeto replace the MDS degree. This will introduce a substantial research component into the primary graduatequalification for dentists and better prepare them for the challenge of rapid change in dental practice that isinevitable in the first half of the 21st century.While many significant challenges are still to be met in its centennial year, the Faculty of Dentistry is particularlyencouraged by the increasing numbers of graduate students attracted to the School to undertake post-graduatestudy, including PhDs (page 52), and the oversubscription of summer studentships by the next generation ofundergraduate students wishing to undertake research in the School (pages 57-58). 
  • 5. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006an InfluenTIal paper by professor h. p. pICkerIll Professor Henry Percy Pickerill was the inaugural Dean of the Dental Faculty at the University of Otago. Although Pickerill was best known for his innovative work in plastic surgery, both on wartime injuries and cleft lip/palate, his major research contribution was in the study of dental caries. At the Sixth International Dental Congress in London in August 1914, he presented an authoritative and ultimately influential paper on dental caries. That paper was subsequently reported in a series of articles in the British Dental Journal (and thereafter in the New Zealand Dental Journal in 1915). His biographer1 has observed that Pickerill has not received due recognition for his insights into the importance of saliva in caries prevention.The first part of Pickerill’s seminal paper introduced the history and geographical distribution of caries, anddiscussed the socio-economic associations of the condition, together with the influence of heredity. He thencovered the bacteriology of the disease before dismantling the belief – commonly held at that time – that salivain some caries-susceptible people somehow contains carbohydrates which could be fermented into acid. Healso presented evidence that saliva was necessary for the enamel to reach maturity after the tooth had eruptedinto the mouth. Pickerill then made what is considered to be his most important contribution to cariology byemphasising saliva’s role in protecting against dental caries. Given what is known today about the disease ofdental caries, Pickerill’s insights were far-reaching and ahead of their time.He concluded his presentation with a call for ongoing research into the condition in order to better informpreventive efforts at the national level.It is unfortunate that the Congress itself was curtailed by the declaration of the First World War, and thatPickerill’s paper did not receive the immediate attention and discussion that it merited. Looking back more than90 years later, it is clear that this was a work of exceptional prescience, and that the University of Otago Facultyof Dentistry had well and truly made its first big impact in the world of oral health research.1 The writer of this brief overview is very grateful to Dr R. Harvey Brown for generously sharing his notes and insights. Dr Brown is, of course, well-known to us as a former Deputy Dean and Chairman of what was the Department of Community Dental Health, and the Editor of the New Zealand Dental Journal for almost three decades. Dr Brown’s biography of HP Pickerill was launched during the Queen’s Birthday Weekend celebration of the School of Dentistry’s centenary.
  • 6. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYsIr John paTrICk Walsh kbemuCh GaIn and mInImIsed paIn Sir John Walsh made such a remarkable contribution to dentistry in New Zealand that Chapter 8 of Tom Brooking’s “A History of Dentistry in New Zealand” is entitled the “Walsh Era 1947-1972.” After graduating with a first class honours degree in dentistry (followed by a medical degree), and then serving as a medical officer in the Royal Australian Air Force, this self-described “brash Australian” was appointed as the 3rd Dean of the School of Dentistry at the University of Otago in 1946. Walsh’s appointment advanced dentistry at many levels. He served as a spokesperson for dentistry at the World Health Organisation, led a campaign that overcame vociferous opposition to fluoridate water supplies in New Zealand cities, and succeeded after 10 years of struggle with reluctant university authorities (and even more reluctant government) tobuild the iconic glass curtain building that now houses the Faculty of Dentistry and bears his name. Under hisleadership, the Faculty of Dentistry obtained the highest international standards by broadening its clinical andscientific base and reaching out to the Dental profession and the community. Walsh edited the New ZealandDental Journal for several years and had a reputation for being extremely scathing about dental practices thatequipped too many New Zealand adults with “false teeth faces” in the mid-20th century. Walsh was a powerfuladvocate of research. Staff members in the Faculty of Dentistry were encouraged to undertake PhD study,and the School of Dentistry set out to “grow” its own researchers by introducing the highly successful MDSgraduate programme. This focus on research was achieved with support of Walsh’s ally, Sir Charles Hercus in theMedical School (also a dental graduate). After more than 50 years, the MDS degree is now being replaced by theDoctorate in Clinical Dentistry. Most importantly, the change will increase the research experience and clinicalexpertise of graduates in a world where biological knowledge and its impact on clinical practice are changing atan unprecedented rate. This initiative to improve and more fully inform dental practice through research wouldundoubtedly have been endorsed by Walsh.Sir John Walsh’s contribution to the development of the modern high-speed dental handpiece was one ofhis most significant but least well-known achievements. Electric drills introduced near the beginning of theFirst World War were inefficient and, by operating at only about 3000 rpm, caused considerable discomfort topatients. While testing the hearing of Australian airmen discharged from service at the end of World War II,Walsh not only identified frequencies that caused pain but also those that did not. This led to the hypothesisthat the vibrational frequencies imparted by dental drills rotating at sufficiently high speeds would minimisepatient discomfort. With the assistance of H.F. Simmons from the University of Otago Department of Physics,an existing air-powered low-speed drill was modified to operate initially above the 42,000 rpm vibrationalthreshold and then at 60,000 rpm. In 1947, Walsh persuaded the Ministry of Science and Industry to underwritethe development of the air turbine handpiece at the Dominion Physics Laboratory in Lower Hutt. By 1949, aprototype was made available to Walsh, who then obtained the results that contributed to his DDSc from theUniversity of Melbourne and to the issue of a New Zealand patent. Although the prototype overcame the painproblem and required minimal operator force to work efficiently, its high-pitched noise, excessive exhaust ofair into the patient’s mouth, and the too-frequent seizure of its primitive bearings (due to overheating) made itdifficult to obtain further support from government or commercial sources. In 1952, Walsh’s research on the airturbine handpiece ceased due to lack of funding. American and Swedish research had overcome the technicalproblems by about 1955 and, in 1957, the Borden Airotor was marketed by the Dentists’ Supply Company. R.J.Nelson, who had produced a water-powered and cooled contra-angle handpiece, was then promoted (withthe editorial support of the Journal of one of his sponsors, the American Dental Association) as being solelyresponsible for the development of the high-speed drill. The precedence of Walsh’s development of a high-speedair turbine handpiece that closely resembles the modern-day device can be gleaned from the pages of the NewZealand Dental Journal and a summary in the British Dental Journal (136, 469-472, 1974). The parallel drawn byTom Brooking on the Walsh and Nelson contributions to dentistry with those of Richard Pearse and the Wrightbrothers to powered flight seems quite apt.Walsh’s attitude to research was very modern in its inclusiveness, while many of the barriers he faced in bringingits products into the clinic remain difficult to overcome. Walsh took a multidisciplinary approach to problems;he recruited the best people and obtained the best from them; he understood the risk inherent in cutting- 
  • 7. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006edge research and didn’t expect research or commercialisation to be easy; and he came to understand that theperspectives of companies and politicians are often myopic. Not fazed by the disappointment of being unableto advance the high-speed handpiece further, Walsh worked hard to expand research activity within the Facultyof Dentistry by attracting research funding, establishing the Biochemical Research Unit of the Dental Schoolin 1960, and supporting an electron microscopy suite. It is therefore fitting that the University of Otago isacknowledging his contribution to research in dentistry by supporting the establishment of the Sir John WalshResearch Institute in the Faculty of Dentistry. It will be the first Research Institute at the University of Otago. Itsroles in research and communication with the profession and wider community will seek to improve the oralhealth of New Zealanders, a modernisation of Walsh’s aspiration of giving people “teeth for life”. A patent drawing of the air turbine handpiece design Prototype Handpieces
  • 8. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYesTablIshmenT of The sIr John Walsh researCh InsTITuTeIn 2006, the University of Otago provided seed funding to support the creation of the Sir John Walsh ResearchInstitute (SJWRI). The members of an international Advisory Panel led by Professor John Greenspan travelledto New Zealand and, with the assistance of Otago faculty members (Professor Gregory Seymour, AssociateProfessor Richard Cannon, Professor David Green and Professor Murray Thomson), met with the UniversityVice-Chancellor and other key members of the University administration, then with the Faculty of Dentistryand a range of stakeholders during workshop held on November 14th and 15th. These meetings informedthe Panel members of the strong support of the University for the concept of the SJWRI, and the role that theInstitute could play in achieving better health for New Zealanders by acting as a research and communicationsfocus. The Faculty of Dentistry received the Report of the Advisory Panel in January 2007.The Report outlined the Advisory Panel’s perception of the state of oral health in New Zealand. Its analysisincluded the demographic implications of current oral health policy, the identification of significant gaps indental health surveillance, and the emerging importance of links between oral and systemic health. The Reportsuggested a mission and vision for the SJWRI, and it discussed how dental research conducted in an innovativeand collaborative research environment can contribute to overall health in line with government directives,social needs, and the requirements of key stakeholders.Consistent with University policy, it was recommended that the SJWRI be established within the Faculty ofDentistry, and that academic staff from other Departments or units of the University be invited to participate asprogramme members where appropriate. The issues of governance, Institute structure and activity review wereaddressed in detail. The Panel’s suggestions included an outline of the responsibilities of the Institute Directorand the make-up of a Management Committee, an Internal Advisory Committee, a Scientific and CommunityAdvisory Committee, and an International Review Committee. The panel recommended that the SJWRI developsa Research Strategic Plan, and that the issues of research space and core facilities should be addressed.Funding of the SJWRI was regarded as a key problem, and it is considered that the research areas selected shouldbe capable of attracting substantial long-term funding. It was recommended that the SJWRI aim for an annualbudget of NZ$4-5 million by the 5th-6th year of its operation. It was suggested that the impending nationaloral health survey would provide a rich platform for future projects for an institute that seeks a sustainablebalance between basic, translational, practice-based and public health research. The establishment of the SJWRIwas recognised as an opportunity to develop and sustain a high-calibre research capacity consistent with theUniversity’s Strategic Plan for Research.The inception of the SJWRI signals a new opportunity for New Zealand oral health research. It will enhance thereputation and productivity of an already vigorous research setting which features energetic and internationallyrecognized researchers working across a broad range of oral health research projects.The Faculty of Dentistry is in the process of advertising for a professorial Director of the SJWRI based on theAdvisory Panel recommendations. An innovative and forward-thinking research leader will be sought to shapethe new research institute by building upon and refocusing a core of established research excellence within theUniversity of Otago, and by developing new research directions relevant to New Zealand and the wider Asia-Pacific region. It is anticipated that the appointee may be a senior scientist who will be a leading advocate fororal health research, or a mid-career scientist whose programme of research will complement and enhance theFaculty’s current research portfolio. The challenge for the Director will be to make the Sir John Walsh ResearchInstitute the national and Pacific focus for oral health research that meets the needs of the Faculty, the dentalprofession and the wider community. 
  • 9. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006researCh GroupsbIomaTerIals and bIomeChanICsGroup leadersProfessor M. Swain, Professor J. Kieserkey personnelDr R. Cook and I. Ichimpost-graduate students SupervisorsI. Ichim M. Swain J. Kieser and A. PayneN. Waddell M. Swain, J. Kieser and A. PayneR. Farrah M. Swain and B. DrummondD. Kuzmanovic M. Swain and R. LoveA. Quick J. Kieser, M. Swain, G. Johnson and P. HerbisonD. Kennedy J. Kieser and M. SwainThe Biomaterials and Biomechanics group is investigating a range of mechanically mediated responses of dentalmaterials and biological tissues. These topics range from the influence of mechanical forces on the stressesdeveloped in the mandible to the stresses and failure mechanics of restorations. This research has significantbearing on the design longevity and anticipated failure of implant-supported structures. In addition a rangeof forensic and accident-related skin impact mechanical problems are being investigated, as well as the effect ofcarious processes and developmental defects on enamel structure.primary research fociCritical property assessment of dental materialsMechanical properties of teeth and influence of diseaseMechanical properties of boneMechanisms and mechanics of dental restorative failuresNumerical modeling of craniofacial structuresNano-mechanics of materialsForensic sciencesresearch highlightsThe research of Ichim and colleagues has made major contributions to our understanding of the stressesdeveloped in craniofacial structures as a consequence of biting forces. The use of accurate CT- based images hasallowed computer modelling based on finite element analysis. This approach has been extended to predict themechanics of failure of complex dental restorative systems. It is anticipated that this will lead to more rationaldesign and selection of materials for tooth restorations.The main focus of Dr Richard Cook’s research has been the investigation of the biomechanics of cancellousbone tissue, with a specific focus on the bone condition osteoporosis. The research seeks to understand thefracture mechanics of the cancellous bone tissue with respect to tissue-specific independent variables such ascollagen cross-linking and density. Specific features of fracture propagation in cancellous tissue and the effectsof structural integrity on the fracture toughness of cancellous bone tissue are also being investigated.The forensic science research team led by Professor Jules Kieser are developing an understanding the response ofskin and the underlying structure to blunt trauma impact events. Over the past year, various models have beendeveloped which reliably replicate trauma.selected publicationsIchim, I., Swain, M.V., Kieser, J., (2006). Mandibular biomechanics and development of the human chin. Journal of Dental Research 85, 638-642. Ichim, I., Kieser, J., and Swain, M., (2006). Mandibular stiffness in humans: numerical predictions. Journal of Biomechanics 39:1903-13.
  • 10. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYGrantsNZ Dental Research Foundation, Treatment of developmentally defective enamel. (M. Swain) $8,000 (2006)NZ Dental Research Foundation, Tongue pressure dynamics during eating and swallowing. (J. Kieser) $5,153Otago University Contestable Symposium Funding, Craniofacial Biomechanics Future Strategies (J. Kieser andM. Swain) $10,000New Zealand Lottery Grants Board, High resolution X-ray micro tomography (J. Kieser, M. Swain andH. Nicholson) $172,000outreachA number of significant collaborations have developed over the past 3 to 4 years. These include the advancesin numerical analysis, especially prediction of failure. This originates from collaboration with Professor JeffLoughran at James Cook University in Queensland and Dr Qing Li at Sydney University. This led to theinvitation to present a state of the art paper to the leading journal in this field, Biomaterials. We also collaboratewith the ETH University in Zurich and our work has attracted considerable interest from many dental materialsmanufacturers in Europe. In the Forensic Science area we have developed strong linkages and share PhD studentswith ESR. The other major collaboration has been with the Biomedical Engineering (Professor A. Pullan) groupat the University of Auckland and Professor John Bronlund of Massey University on the Biomouth project. Theforensic biomechanics collaboration is with Dr Michael Taylor of ESR. We were also involved in the organizationof the First Biomouth Workshop (Auckland, December 2006). Finite element modeling of the stresses developed in the mandible incorporating physiologically oriented muscle forces. Model developed from CT scanning of the mandible with localised loading of the premolar on one side of the mouth. The model was developed to quantify the role of the chin in imparting functional rigidity to the mandible. From Ichim, I., Swain, M., and Kieser J. (2006). Journal of Biomechanics 39, 1903-1913 
  • 11. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006denTal epIdemIoloGy and publIC healThGroup leaderProfessor W.M. Thomsonkey personnelJ.M. Broadbent, K. Ayers (to 2006)K. Morgaine (from mid-2006)The Dental Epidemiology and Public Health group investigates the oral health of populations (and what affectsit), with particular attention to the natural history of dental disease and health through childhood, adolescenceand adulthood. We also investigate the way in which dental health services work, how people use them, and whatcan be done to improve the delivery of oral health care.research fociDental epidemiologyWe study the occurrence, determinants and natural history of the common oral conditions. To do this, weemploy a number of standard dental epidemiological approaches (most notably the prospective cohort studyand the cross-sectional survey) and techniques. Multidisciplinary collaboration has proven to be a very fruitfulway of doing our work, as it combines the different strengths and knowledge bases of a number of researchers.Dental health services research (HSR)HSR is concerned with how the health system works, and the extent to which users are benefiting from it. Keyactivities are measuring oral health outcomes and increasing understanding of how (and why) people use (ordo not use) dental services. Our group has played an important role in the development and epidemiologicalvalidation of new measures for child oral-health-related quality of life, working in collaboration with a numberof overseas researchers. We are also rapidly developing our expertise and output in the field of dental workforceresearch.research highlightsThere has been satisfying progress with the group’s research endeavours in 2005-06, with 23 papers publishedin the international scientific literature, 19 peer-reviewed presentations to scientific conferences, and 7 keynoteaddresses. The successful completion of the age-32 assessment phase of the Dunedin Study in mid-2005 heraldeda period of intense data analysis and manuscript preparation which has already led to a number of publishedpapers, along with conference presentations in Baltimore, Orlando, Brisbane and Dublin. Jonathan Broadbent’sPhD work on dental caries trajectories was particularly well received internationally. PhD student Lyndie-FosterPage and Murray Thomson were awarded the biennial NZDA research award (given for research published inthe New Zealand Dental Journal). In 2005, Murray Thomson received a Fulbright Travel Award to enable him toattend and make presentations at Columbia University and the Baltimore IADR meeting.Katie Ayers left for the Waikato at the end of 2005, but continues to work with us as a PhD student. KateMorgaine joined the team in mid-2006. Her background and skills in health services research and healthpromotion complement those of the other team members very well, and some useful collaborations are alreadyin train.A number of postgraduate research projects were successfully supervised to completion during 2005-2006.These included one PhD completion, two MComDent completions, two MHealSc completions, and four MDScompletions. We are currently supervising a number of PhD and Masters students. Undergraduate researchsupervised by the group during 2005-06 included 17 final-year dental student elective projects, one summerstudentship project, and two final-year therapy/hygiene research projects.selected publicationsBroadbent J.M., Thomson W.M., Poulton R. (2006) Oral health beliefs from adolescence: determinants of oral health in young adulthood? Journal of Dental Research 85:339-343. Thomson W.M., Broadbent, J.M., Poulton, R., Beck, J.D. (2006). Changes in periodontal disease experience from age 26 to 32 in a birth cohort. Journal of Periodontology 77:947-954. 0
  • 12. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYBroadbent, J.M., Thomson, W.M., Poulton, R., (2006). Progression of dental caries and tooth loss between the third and fourth decades of life: a birth cohort study. Caries Research 40:459-465.Thomson, W.M., Lawrence, H.P., Broadbent, J.M., Poulton, R. (2006). The impact of xerostomia on oral- health-related quality of life among younger adults. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 4:86-92. GrantsWe continue to suffer from oral health’s perceived lack of relevance among funding bodies in New Zealand, buthave had some grant application successes. A major funding application for a study of the oral health of olderpeople (a steadily increasing group, and more and more New Zealanders are retaining their teeth into old age)was turned down by the Health Research Council in 2006, but, on the bright side, a related feasibility study grantwas awarded HRC funding of $112,516. In 2005, the Maurice and Phyllis Paykel Trust awarded Lyndie Foster-Page and Murray Thomson a grant-in-aid ($22,500) for the former’s PhD research.outreachCollaboration is very important to the work and impact of the group. Current collaborations include institutionsin New Zealand (Waikato, Taranaki, Capital Coast, and Nelson-Marlborough District Health Boards andthe Ministry of Health), Australia (the Universities of Adelaide and Melbourne), Canada (the University ofToronto), the USA (the University of North Carolina), and Britain (GKT Dental Institute, the University ofLondon). Presentations, including invited keynote addresses on our work, have been made in Australia, Japanand in the USA.While our impact on policy development is difficult to quantify, there have been outcomes affecting farm safety,the dental work force and the next national oral health survey. Kate Morgaine’s work on evaluating the nationalFarmSafe project has identified successful elements of a safety promotion programme supported by AccidentCompensation Corporation. Future expansion of this programme to other primary production sectors willincorporate this information. Murray Thomson has produced the annual workforce analysis reports for theDental Council of New Zealand, and has also continued to advocate for a third national oral health survey. Thisvitally important survey has now been allocated funding from the Ministry of Health and is to proceed underthe aegis of the Ministry’s Public Health Intelligence group. 
  • 13. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006endodonTIC mICrobIoloGyGroup leaderProfessor R. M. LoveThe study and practice of endodontics is aimed at preventingand treating pulp and periapical disease. An understandingof the mechanisms of bacterial invasion of dentinal tubules iscentral to these aims. Bacterial infection of dentine has beenrecognised for over a century, but only recently has this researchgroup identified the mechanisms involved in colonising. Anunderstanding of these mechanisms should lead to novel Transmission electron micrograph demonstrating aprophylactic and control treatments. colony of bacterial cells invading a dentinal tubule.research focusBacterial attachment, colonisation and dentinal tubule invasionBacteria initially adhere to the host tissue via a loose physical association to the surface of a tissue, then morepermanently through the binding of microbial cell surface adhesions to complementary host surface receptors.We have shown that invading bacterial cells physically attach to the wall of a dentinal tubule and show alteredmorphology at the zone of attachment. Tubule invasion requires specific bacterial-collagen adhesion reactionsinvolving streptococcal cell-surface antigen I/II polypeptides. Interaction between streptococcal cells andcollagen upregulates production of antigen I/II polypeptide and induces long-chaining of streptococcal cells.Abrogation of polypeptide expression or blocking with collagen inhibits bacterial invasion.The bound microbe needs to utilize available nutrients, compete or co-operate with other species in theimmediate environment, and contend with host defence mechanisms before it can colonize the host by formingcolonies at multiple sites. Nutrient limitation within a dentinal tubule may influence the depth of bacterialpenetration. For example, the presence of hemin within coronal or radicular dentine favours the growth andsurvival of organisms such as P. intermedia and P. micros (Love, 2007). Bacteria may compete for invasionof dentinal tubules, and they may co-operate via specific co-aggregation. For example, we have shown thatdentinal tubule invasion by P. gingivalis was promoted when co-cultivated with S. gordonii but not S. mutans.Tissue molecules and endogenous substances (such as albumin, fibrinogen, and IgG) inhibit bacterial invasionof radicular dentinal tubules by interacting with bacterial cells or physically occluding tubules and reducingdentine permeability. Certain species, such as Enterococcus faecalis, can overcome these molecules and infectdentinal tubules.Thus, our research shows that tubule invasion and development of the intertubular bacterial flora followspatterns seen in the formation of plaque biofilms. Initial attachment and colonization by primary streptococcalcolonizers then allows colonization by late colonizers such as P. intermedia and P. gingivalis. It is highly likelythat other interactions between host proteins and other bacteria influence tubule invasion.selected publicationLove, R.M. (2007). Hemin nutritional stress inhibits bacterial invasion of radicular dentine by two endodontic anaerobes. International Endodontic Journal 40:94-99.GrantsResearch during 2005-2006 was generously supported by the University of Otago, and the New Zealand DentalResearch Foundation.outreachThe Group collaborates with staff across the Faculty of Dentistry and the Department of Oral and DentalScience, University of Bristol, UK. Research is conducted within the Molecular Microbiology Laboratory.
  • 14. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYmoleCular mICrobIoloGy laboraTorylaboratory academic leaderProfessor R. D. Cannonkey personnelDr A. Holmes, Dr E. Lamping, T. Milne, Dr B. Monk,Dr K. Niimi, Dr G. Tompkins, J. Upritchard (LaboratoryManager)associated researchers using the facilityProfessor M. Meikle, Professor G. Seymour and Dr M.Cullinan, Professor W.M. Thomson, Associate Professor A.Rich, Professor R. Love, Professor B. Monteith and K. LyonsThe Molecular Microbiology Laboratory (MML) is a core facility for the Faculty of Dentistry that providesthe expertise, equipment and laboratory environment (a PC2 containment laboratory) needed to study themolecular mechanisms underlying dental disease caused by microorganisms. In the last two years, it has alsosupported molecular research on craniofacial development and the relationship between dental disease andchronic human diseases, including atherosclerosis and diabetes.research foci and research highlightsMicroorganisms contribute to, or are responsible for many oral diseases, including dental caries, gingivitis,periodontitis and oral candidosis. Research in the Molecular Microbiology Laboratory uses molecular genetic,microbiological, and biochemical techniques to investigate microbial physiology, adhesion, colonisation,pathogenicity and drug resistance, with the aim of discovering how oral microorganisms cause disease andbecome resistant to current drugs. This information allows us to devise new ways of preventing oral (and manyother) microbial diseases. Researchers in the laboratory have developed novel genetic and biochemical systemsto study drug resistance and to screen for new drugs. These systems have wide applications across the dental,medical, and biological sciences.The main research programmes in the MML can conveniently be divided into three broad topics that offeropportunities for both elective undergraduate research projects and postgraduate study.microbial Colonisation and pathogenicityThe attachment of pathogenic microorganisms to host tissues is a crucial step in the initiation of infectionand involves specific molecules on microbial and host surfaces. We are investigating the adhesion of oralmicroorganisms, including Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans, to oral surfaces. We are particularlyinterested in the roles of saliva components in both promoting and preventing adhesion to devices such as voiceprostheses, and we are working with industry to devise novel ways of interfering with adhesion interactions.Microbes secrete enzymes in order modify their environment and acquire nutrients. Such enzymes oftencontribute to pathogenesis. We are investigating the role of proteinases in the pathogenicity of Porphyromonasgingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and C. albicans. We are also using genetic approaches to identify factors affectingC. albicans pathogenicity mechanisms determining biofilm formation in the nasopharyngeal pathogen Moraxellacatarrhalis, and a possible link between C. albicans colonisation and pre-cancerous oral lesions.drug resistance and new drug Targets in fungi and bacteriaWith an ageing population and increasing numbers of immunocompromised individuals, infections causedby fungal species that are opportunistic human pathogens constitute a major clinical problem that is growingin significance. The concomitant increasing use of antifungal agents has led to the emergence of drug-resistantfungal strains, including species that are intrinsically resistant to widely used classes of antifungal drugs. Ourunderstanding of the mechanisms of drug resistance in fungi led us devise a novel hyper-expression system toexamine the function of drug resistance determinants in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have usedthis system to help a pharmaceutical company evaluate a new antifungal drug, and we have screened our ownlibrary of ~2 million D-octapeptides to identify a specific inhibitor of the major efflux pump from C. albicans,have determined its mode of action and are now able to find more drug-like molecules that act in a similarway. The hyper-expression system has wide application for the study of membrane proteins of relevance tohuman health, including the purification and structural resolution of drug targets. The humanisation of the 
  • 15. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006system is expected to bring new opportunities for funding and commercial development in 2007. We now aimto use structure-directed drug design to identify inhibitors of fungal drug efflux pumps and broad-spectruminhibitors of the fungal proton pumping ATPase, an essential antifungal drug target that also circumventsmultiple mechanisms of drug resistance. Other projects exploiting our drug discovery expertise include researchto develop anti-infectives that target the MRSA superbug, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and DNA gyrase, a drugtarget found in bacteria but not humans.Craniofacial developmentThe environmental effects of tooth movement on craniofacial tissues are being investigated by measuringcellular responses to physical forces in rat and tissue culture models using the techniques of molecular biology.Information on gene expression is expected to provide insights into the molecules and structures affected byorthodontic manipulation.Within these broad research themes, MML staff have developed specific research programmes in areas in whichthey are particularly experienced. These programmes are described in more detail in their individual researchprofiles. MML staff actively support the research of other Faculty members and welcome opportunities suchas the establishment in 2007 of the Sir John Walsh Research Institute and Immunopathology Group headed byProfessor Seymour.selected publicationsHolmes, A.R., Tsao, S., Ong, S., Lamping, E., Niimi, K., Monk, B.C., Niimi, M., Kaneko, A., Holland, B.R., Schmid, J. and Cannon, R.D. (2006). Heterozygosity and functional allelic variation in the Candida albicans efflux pump genes CDR1 and CDR2. Molecular Microbiology 62:170–186.Niimi, K., Maki, K., Ikeda, F., Holmes, A.R., Lamping, E., Niimi, M., Monk, B.C. and Cannon, R.D. (2006). Overexpression of Candida albicans CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1 does not produce significant changes in echinocandin susceptibility. Antimicrobial. Agents and Chemotherapy. 50:1148-1155.Monk, B.C., Niimi, K., Lin, S., Knight, A., Kardos, T.B., Cannon, R.D., Parshot, R., King, A., Lun, D. and Harding, D.R.K. (2005). Surface-active fungicidal D-peptide inhibitors of the plasma membrane proton pump that block azole resistance. Antimicrobial. Agents and Chemotherapy. 49:57-70.Wada, S., Tanabe, K., Yamazaki, A., Niimi, M., Uehara, Y., Niimi, K., Lamping, E., Cannon, R.D. and Monk, B.C. (2005). Phosphorylation of Candida glabrata ATP-binding cassette transporter Cdr1p regulates drug efflux activity and ATPase stability. Journal of Biological Chemistry 280:94-103.GrantsResearch in the MML during 2005-2006 has been generously supported by the University of Otago, the NewZealand Dental Research Foundation, the Marsden Fund, the New Zealand Lottery Grants Board, Astellas PharmaInc, and the Japan Health Science Foundation. Highlights have included awards of a pilot grant and then a fullgrant from the National Institutes of Health (USA) to Professor Richard Cannon’s group for a study designed tounderstand drug resistance in C. albicans and discover new drugs against this important oral pathogen.outreachThe laboratory maintains strong collaborations with staff across the Faculty of Dentistry and with theUniversity Departments of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Pharmacy, Surgery, and Pathology(at the Wellington School of Medicine). The MML is a major component of the University of Otago OralMicrobiology and Dental Health Research Theme (http://www.otago.ac.nz/oralmicro). A significant strengthof MML is its close national collaboration with researchers at Massey University, and productive internationalcollaborations with the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, the Nippon Dental University, Niigata,Japan, the Membrane Protein Expression Center, University of California San Francisco and several Australianuniversities.In 2006, MML members hosted workshops on saliva and membrane proteins, and presented seminars on theirwork at conferences, University Departments and research institutes in Australia, Japan Europe and NorthAmerica. Members also took an active part in the establishment of the Sir John Walsh Research Institute.
  • 16. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYoral ImplanToloGyGroup leaderAssociate Professor A. G. T. Paynekey personnelOral RehabilitationProfessor M. Swain, D. Purton, C. Hauman, N. Waddell,J. Aarts, J. Egan, I. van Staden and B. TorrOral SciencesProfessor W.M. Thomson, Professor J. Kieser, Dr W. Duncanand J. LeichterOral, Surgical and Diagnostic SciencesR. De Silva, D. Kuzmanovic and D. CampbellstudentsPhD SupervisorsN. Waddell M. Swain, A. Payne and J. KieserMDS (Prosthodontics) J. Hall A. Payne, D. Purton and W.M. ThomsonM. Al-Zubeadiai A. Payne and W.M. ThomsonA. Mackie A. Payne, W.M. Thomson and K. LyonsMHealSc J. Egan A. Payne and W.M. ThomsonJ. Aarts A. Payne and W.M. ThomsonWe conduct clinical and laboratory-based research relating to implant dentures and single-tooth implants thataims to improve the oral health-related quality of life of the ageing population. Our evidence-based treatmentapproach of reducing the delay between oral implant placement and loading with the prosthesis is internationallyrecognised.research focusResearch is focused on controlled prospective clinical research on implant-supported overdentures used to treatedentulous patients. Comparative evaluation between different dental implant systems has been completed formandibular (lower jaw) implant-supported overdenture patients. Controlled evaluation of different loadingstrategies for early functional loading of oral implants with overdentures in the mandible has provided thebackground for further prospective clinical research to rehabilitate the edentulous maxilla (upper jaw) usingthe same treatment approach. Current projects include a multicentre project on mandibular implant partialdentures, a randomized controlled clinical trial on conventional and immediate loading of single implantcrowns, evaluation of different occlusal schemes of implant overdentures, photo-elastic studies on oral implantssupporting partial dentures, and investigations into different ceramic systems for single-implant crowns.The Oral Implantology team at Otago has maintained an international reputation in research through acontinued, focused publication record in the field, as well as presenting at international conferences. We havecontributed to the establishment of the Sir John Walsh Research Institute, and have an established track record ofattracting postgraduate students (including international students for full-time PhD study) to conduct researchin our field. We have established international research collaboration with eight academic institutions in sevencountries together with significant national collaboration. Members of our research team continue to reviewfor, and be members of Editorial Boards of, prestigious international journals in oral implantology. They havealso contributed to the Cochrane Collaboration Oral Health Review Group on Randomized Controlled ClinicalTrials, based in Manchester, United Kingdom.selected publicationsWaddell, J.N., Payne, A.G.T., and Swain M.V. (2006). Physical and metallurgical considerations of failures of bar attachment systems for implant overdentures: A review of the literature. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 96:283-8.Hall, J.A.G., Payne, A.G.T., Purton, D., and Torr, B. (2006). A randomized controlled clinical trial of conventional and immediately loaded tapered implants with screw-retained crowns. International Journal of Prosthodontics 19:17-19. 
  • 17. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006key CollaborationsProfessor H. Nicholson, Anatomy and Structural Biology, University of OtagoProfessor M. MacEntee, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, CanadaProfessor J. Feine, McGill University, Montreal, CanadaProfessor R. Mericske-Stern, University of Berne, SwitzerlandProfessor P. Owen, Dr Y. Solomons, University of Witwatersrand, South AfricaProfessor J. Wennström, University of Göteborg, SwedenAssociate Professor T. Walton, University of Sydney, AustraliaDr A. Tawse-Smith, University of ColombiaDr D. Wismeijer, University of Amsterdam, NetherlandsDr M. Esposito, Cochrane Collaboration, University of Manchester, United KingdomProfessor L. Sennerby, Branemark Clinic, Göteborg, Sweden Implant at surgery with buccal exposure of threads. Resonance frequency analysis of implant stability at surgery. Immediate restoration implant provisional crown. Immediate restoration definitive implant crown at 1 year.
  • 18. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYoral mICrobIoloGy and denTal healTh researCh ThemeTheme CoordinatorDr G. R. TompkinsThe mission of the University of Otago Oral Microbiologyand Dental Health (OMDH) Research Theme isto foster, support, and develop research into oral microbiologyas it relates to dental health. The research theme provides afocus of scholarship and research in oral microbiology for theUniversity of Otago, and for New Zealand.The Theme comprises approximately 60 members (see http://www.otago.ac.nz/oralmicro) at the University of Otago,including faculty, staff and students associated with the Schoolof Dentistry, the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, and the Department of Pathology, Universityof Otago Wellington. We also maintain links with an additional twenty scientists from around New Zealand withinterests in oral microbiology with whom Theme members have collaborative projects and who often attendTheme workshops. In the years 2005 and 2006, Theme members published 92 articles in peer-reviewed journalsand secured NZ$2.86 million in research funding. Major funding sources include: Health Research Councilof New Zealand, National Institutes of Health (USA), Lotteries Health and the New Zealand Dental ResearchFoundation Board. The theme also updates its members on recent developments in the field by sponsoring visitsto New Zealand of prestigious overseas scientists, including contributors to our specialist workshops.Visiting scientistsOverseas scientists sponsored by the Theme to visit New Zealand were:Professor L.P. Samaranayake (Professor and Chair of Oral Microbiology, University of Hong Kong), an authorityon the oral pathogenic fungus Candida. He was a keynote speaker at the Australia/New Zealand Divisional meetingof the International Association of Dental Research annual meeting in Queenstown (September 25-28, 2005).Professor P. Gilbert (University of Manchester), a pioneer in the study of microbial biofilm formation and dynamics.Professor Gilbert attended and participated in the Theme workshop (November 22) and was a guest speaker at theNew Zealand Microbiological Society’s annual scientific meeting in Dunedin (November 23-25, 2005).Dr M. Upton (University of Manchester) visited Otago from March 13 to May 15, 2006 undertaking a researchproject in the laboratory of Professor John Tagg (Dept. Microbiology and Immunology). Dr Upton participatedin the Theme workshop (April 10, 2006) giving a talk entitled: “Signalling in oral biofilms”.Dr V. Machiulskiene (Clinic of Dental and Oral Diseases, Kaunas Medical University, Lithuania) contributedto the Theme workshop (April 10, 2006) giving a talk entitled: “Clinical measurement of caries activity and itsimportance”.WorkshopsWorkshops organised by and involving Theme members:Oral Microbiology and Dental Health Research Theme Workshop (full day, November 22, 2005)Guest speaker: Professor P. Gilbert (University of Manchester).Issues in Dental Caries (full day, April 10, 2006)Guest speakers: Dr V. Machiulskiene (Kaunas Medical University) and Dr Matt Upton (University ofManchester).Saliva Components with Health Potential (full day, November 27, 2006)Funded by the University of Otago Research Committee Contestable Funds.Guest speaker: Professor C. Bingle (University of Sheffield Medical School, UK). 
  • 19. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006Frontiers of Biology: Expression, structure and function of membrane proteins (Two-day workshop November 28-29, 2006). This workshop was organised and funded jointly by the OMDH Research Theme and the FunctionalGenomics, Gene Expression and Proteomics Research Theme. Guest speakers: Professor K.M. Pos (University ofZurich, Switzerland) and Professor E. Padan (Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel).Conference supportThe Theme provided 24 grants-in-aid that allowed students and post-doctoral researchers to present their workand national and international meetings during 2005-6, and awarded seven bursaries to enable undergraduatestudents to undertake summer research projects.external CollaborationTheme members are involved in collaborative research with the following departments, companies andinstitutes:AgResearch Ltd., Ruakura, New ZealandDepartment of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandDepartment of Microbiology, Massey University, New ZealandPublic Health Research Institute, Newark, NY, USAUniversity of Queensland, AustraliaNippon Dental University, Niigata, JapanNational Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, JapanBlis Technologies, Dunedin, New ZealandEnvironmental Science and Research Ltd., Kenepuru, New ZealandMembrane Protein Expression Center, University of California San Francisco, USAAstellas Pharma, JapanPfizer Inc, USA
  • 20. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYConTaCT emaIl addressesdepartment personnel email address pageOral Diagnostic John Broughton john.broughton@stonebow.otago.ac.nz 21and Surgical Sciences Norman Firth norman.firth@stonebow.otago.ac.nz 27 Dusan Kuzmanovic dusan.kuzmanovic@dent.otago.ac.nz 33 Robert Love robert.love@dent.otago.ac.nz 35 Karl Lyons karl.lyons@stonebow.otago.ac.nz 36 Eithne MacFadyen eithne.macfadyen@stonebow.otago.ac.nz 37 Alison Rich alison.rich@stonebow.otago.ac.nz 45 Rohana Kumara De Silva rohana.kumara@stonebow.otago.ac.nz 25 Darryl Tong darryl.tong@stonebow.otago.ac.nz 50Oral Rehabilitation Vincent Bennani vincent.bennani@stonebow.otago.ac.nz 20 Nick Chandler nick.chandler@dent.otago.ac.nz 23 Richard Cook richard.cook@stonebow.otago.ac.nz 24 Catharina Hauman tina.hauman@dent.otago.ac.nz 27 Ionut Ichim ionut.ichim@stonebow.otago.ac.nz 30 Brian Monteith brian.monteith@stonebow.otago.ac.nz 40 Alan Payne alan.payne@stonebow.otago.ac.nz 43 David Purton david.purton@stonebow.otago.ac.nz 44 Michael Swain michael.swain@stonebow.otago.ac.nz 47 Neil Waddell neil.waddell@stonebow.otago.ac.nz 50Oral Sciences Anuj Batra anuj.batra@otago.ac.nz 20 Jonathan Broadbent jonathan.broadbent@stonebow.otago.ac.nz 20 Richard Cannon richard.cannon@otago.ac.nz 22 Mary Cullinan mary.cullinan@stonebow.otago.ac.nz 24 Bernadette Drummond bernadette.drummond@dent.otago.ac.nz 26 Warwick Duncan warwick.duncan@dent.otago.ac.nz 26 David Healey david.healey@stonebow.otago.ac.nz 28 Doug Holborow doug.holborow@dent.otago.ac.nz 28 Ann Holmes ann.holmes@stonebow.otago.ac.nz 29 Tom Kardos tom.kardos@dent.otago.ac.nz 31 Mikhail Keniya mikhail.keniya@otago.ac.nz 32 Jules Kieser jules.kieser@stonebow.otago.ac.nz 32 Erwin Lamping erwin.lamping@stonebow.otago.ac.nz 34 Jonathan Leichter jonathan.leichter@otago.ac.nz 35 Murray Meikle murray.meikle@otago.ac.nz 37 Alison Meldrum alison.meldrum@otago.ac.nz 38 Trudy Milne trudy.milne@otago.ac.nz 39 Brian Monk brian.monk@stonebow.otago.ac.nz 39 Kate Morgaine kate.morgaine@otago.ac.nz 41 Kyoko Niimi kyoko.niimi@stonebow.otago.ac.nz 42 Andrew Quick andrew.quick@stonebow.otago.ac.nz 44 Gregory Seymour gregory.seymour@dent.otago.ac.nz 46 Murray Thomson murray.thomson@stonebow.otago.ac.nz 48 Geoffrey Tompkins geoffrey.tompkins@otago.ac.nz 49 
  • 21. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006faCulTy researCh profIlesanuJ baTraBDSOral SciencesLecturerResearch on gross anatomy of the head and neck is conducted in collaboration with theDepartment of Anatomy and Structural Biology. Anuj Batra supervises human dissectionsand is an expert on head and neck anatomy.VInCenT bennanIDDSOral RehabilitationSenior LecturerResearch involves company-supported implant development and experimentation. A patenthas been granted entitled “Fabrication of an implanted-supported titanium framework usedas a surgical guide, and as the final framework”.Research CollaboratorEcole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris, Paris, FranceJonaThan m. broadbenTBDSOral SciencesResearch FellowDental Public Health and Epidemiology (Dental Epidemiology Laboratory)Jonathan Broadbent investigates the natural history of dental disease and health throughchildhood, adolescence and through adulthood. His particular focus is upon socialdisparities in oral health.Research and CollaborationJonathan is employed to collect, analyse, and report on data from the DunedinMultidisciplinary Health and Development Study (a prospective observational study of acohort of New Zealanders born in 1972-73). His research includes projects involving theepidemiology of dental caries, tooth loss, and periodontal disease (with emphasis uponlongitudinal research), and particularly upon social inequalities that exist in oral health. Heis currently engaged in PhD study on oral health inequalities. He also carries out researchpertaining to the New Zealand dental workforce.Selected Publications Broadbent, J.M., Williams, K.B., Thomson, W.M., and Williams, S.M. (2006). Dental restorations: a risk factor for periodontal attachment loss? Journal of Clinical Periodontology 33:803-810. Broadbent, J.M., Thomson, W.M., and Poulton, R. (2006). Oral health beliefs in adolescence and oral health in young adulthood. Journal of Dental Research 85:339-43.Broadbent, J.M., Thomson, W.M., and Poulton, R. (2006). Progression of dental caries and tooth loss between the third and fourth decades of life: a birth cohort study. Caries Research 40:459-465.0
  • 22. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYBroadbent, J.M., Thomson, W.M., and Williams, S.M. (2005). Does caries in primary teeth predict enamel defects in permanent teeth? A longitudinal study. Journal of Dental Research 84: 260-264.Broadbent, J.M., and Thomson, W.M. (2005). For debate: problems with the DMF index pertinent to dental caries data analysis. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 33: 400-409. Research CollaboratorsProfessor W.M. Thomson, Oral Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandProfessor R. Poulton, School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandJohn brouGhTonED BSc BDS PhD PGDipComDentOral Diagnostic and Surgical SciencesHauora Mäori (Mäori health). This is a broad area of research and Professor Broughton is responsible for a varied portfolio including oranga niho (Mäori oral health) and injury prevention. Research and CollaborationAssociate Professor Broughton completed a PhD thesis on Mäori oral health service provision. This thesis included Mäori concepts of oral health from pre-European times to the present day and reviewed the contemporary development of Mäori oral health services by Mäori.He has also entered into a working relationship with Raukura Hauora O Tainui, a large North Island-based Mäori health provider in a research project looking at the oral health of rangatahi (Mäori teenagers).PublicationPhD thesis (2006) Oranga Niho: A review of Mäori oral health service provision utilising a kaupapa Mäori methodology. (Supervisors: Professor W.M. Thomson, Associate Professor R.O. McGee).Research CollaboratorsDr D. Begg, R. Brookland, Professor J. Langley, Injury Prevention Research Unit Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandProfessors J. Kieser, G. Seymour and W.M. Thomson, Dr G. Tompkins, M. Cullinan, Oral Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandResearch Associate Professor C. Sissons, School of Medicine, University of Otago, Wellington New ZealandJ. Maipi and M. Person, Raukura Hauora O Tainui, Hamilton, New ZealandAssociate Professor S. Ameratunga, School of Population Health’s Injury Prevention Research Centre, University of Auckland, Auckland, New ZealandDr M. Williams, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand 
  • 23. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006rIChard d. CannonMA PhDOral SciencesDirector, Molecular Microbiology LaboratoryProfessor Cannon’s main interest is in oral yeast: how they colonise the oral cavity; howthey cause disease; and ways of preventing them causing disease. His particular researchinterests focus on the human pathogen Candida albicans, which causes both oral candidosisand life-threatening disseminated disease. He uses molecular approaches to determine howC. albicans adheres in the mouth, what makes it pathogenic, how it becomes resistant toantifungal drugs, and how its drug resistance can be overcome.Research and Collaboration Candida albicans is a yeast that adheres to (and colonises) the mouths of many people.When these people’s normal defences are impaired, C. albicans can cause infections. Theinfections range from oral thrush to invasive, life-threatening disease. Often, people withoral Candida infections have to undergo prolonged treatment with antifungal drugs. Ifwe can stop the yeast from adhering to surfaces in the mouth, we may be able to preventthese people from developing Candida infections. In order to prevent adherence, we have tounderstand the mechanisms of oral colonisation. Professor Cannon aims to discover howC. albicans adheres in the mouth, and whether adhesion can be prevented. Understandingthese mechanisms of adherence could lead to new treatments to reduce the risk of peopledeveloping potentially lethal Candida infections.There are few drugs effective in treating people with Candida infections. A serious clinicalproblem is the prevalence of C. albicans strains which are resistant to the commonly usedantifungal drug fluconazole. Genes from C. albicans that encode potential drug pumps havebeen cloned and there is a correlation between fluconazole resistance and over-expressionof these genes. In collaboration with members of the Molecular Microbiology Laboratoryand Professors Robert Stroud and David Perlin, these genes are now being expressed in theyeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to understand how the pumps work and to search fornovel pump inhibitors. Professor Cannon is also interested in discovering novel factors thatcontribute to the virulence of C. albicans, as these factors could prove to be new drug targets.In collaboration with Dr Jan Schmid at Massey University, he is comparing the genomesof virulent C. albicans strains with the genomes of less virulent strains in order to identifygenetic factors unique to the virulent strains. Also in collaboration with Dr Schmid andProfessor Pete Magee, he is investigating whether sexual reproduction in C. albicans stillprovides an advantage to this diploid eukaryote.Selected PublicationsCannon, R.D., and Firth, N.A. (2006). Fungi and fungal infections of the oral cavity. In Oral microbiology and immunology. R.J. Lamont, R.A. Burne, M.S. Lantz and D.J. LeBlanc (eds), ASM Press, Washington, pp 333-348.Holmes, A.R., Tsao, S., Ong, S., Lamping, E., Niimi, K., Monk, B.C., Niimi, M., Kaneko, A. Holland, B.R., Schmid, J., and Cannon, R.D. (2006). Heterozygosity and functional allelic variation in the Candida albicans efflux pump genes CDR1 and CDR2. Molecular Microbiology 62:170-186.Niimi, K., Maki, K., Ikeda, F., Holmes A.R., Lamping, E., Niimi, M., Monk, B.C., and Cannon, R.D. (2006). Over-expression of Candida albicans CDR1, CDR2 or MDR1 does not produce significant changes in echinocandin susceptibility. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 50:1148-1155.Lamping, E., Tanabe K., Niimi, M., Uehara, Y., Monk, B.C., and Cannon, R.D. (2005). Characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae sec6-4 mutation and tools to create S. cerevisiae strains containing the sec6-4 allele. Gene 361:57-66.Wada, S., Tanabe, K., Yamazaki, A., Niimi, M., Uehara, Y., Niimi, K., Lamping, E., Cannon, R.D., and Monk, B.C. (2005). Phosphorylation of Candida glabrata ATP-binding cassette transporter Cdr1p regulates drug efflux activity and ATPase stability. Journal of Biological Chemistry 280:94-103.
  • 24. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYResearch CollaboratorsProfessor R. Stroud, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, USAProfessor P. Magee, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USAProfessor D. Perlin, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, USAProfessor T. White, Seattle Biomedical Research Institute, Seattle, USAAssociate Professor S. Kajiwara, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, JapanDr M. Niimi, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, JapanDr K. Nakamura, General Research Institute, Nippon Dental University, Niigata, JapanDr B. Holland, Dr J. Schmid, Massey University, Palmerston North, New ZealandResearch Associate Professor C. Sissons, School of Medicine, University of Otago, Wellington, New ZealandP. Dawes and D. Ruske, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandAssociate Professor A. Rich, Oral Diagnostic and Surgical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandDr A. Holmes, Dr B. Monk, Dr K. Niimi, Dr E. Lamping and Dr M. Keniya, Oral Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandnICholas p. ChandlerBDS MSc PhD LDSRCS FDSRCPS FDSRCS FFDRCSIOral RehabilitationAssociate Professor Chandler’s research interests are related directly to patient care andtreatment outcomes. These include: the assessment of the health of the dental pulp; pulpdimensions and their clinical implications; radiography as applied to endodontics; andmanagement of the resected root end during periapical surgery.Research and CollaborationStudies with Dr Robert O’Shea (Dept of Psychology, University of Otago) are investigatingpulp exposure size and the dimensions of cavities within the crowns of teeth and at theroot-end. It is hoped to establish whether common visual illusions influence judgment ofsize during dental treatment. With Professor Pitt Ford in London, studies of laser Dopplerflowmetry of molar teeth as a pulp vitality test are being concluded. Dentine measurementusing an electronic device is being investigated with Dr A. Qualtrough (University ofManchester), and a variety of radiographic studies are under way with Dr A. Oginni(Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria).Publications Healey, D.L., Plunkett, D.J. and Chandler, N.P. (2006). Orthodontic movement of two root fractured teeth. Case report. International Endodontic Journal 39:324-329.Gordon, M.P.J., Love, R.M. and Chandler, N.P. (2005). An evaluation of .06 tapered gutta-percha cones for filling of .06 taper prepared curved root canals. International Endodontic Journal 38:87-96.Chandler, N.P., Ng B.P. and Monteith, B.D. (2005). Radiographic recognition and distribution of approximal carious lesions in New Zealand undergraduate dental students. New Zealand Dental Journal 101:106-109.Research CollaboratorsProfessor T. Pitt Ford, GKT Dental Institute, King’s College London, University of London, London, EnglandDr A. Qualtrough, Turner Dental School, University of Manchester, Manchester, EnglandDr A. Oginni, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, NigeriaDr R. O’Shea, Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand 
  • 25. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006rIChard b. CookBMedSc PhDOral RehabilitationLecturerThe focus of Dr Cook’s research is into the biomechanics of human bone, in order to providea better understanding of the fracture mechanics of cancellous bone tissue, with particularinterest in the bone condition osteoporosis.Research and Collaboration The main focus of the research has been the investigation of the biomechanics of cancellousbone tissue, particularly on osteoporosis. An understanding is sought of the fracturemechanics of the cancellous bone tissue with respect to tissue-specific independentvariables. Some of this work was undertaken in collaboration with the collagen researchgroup at the University of Bristol (UK), looking at the collagen cross-linking within thefracture toughness samples. Dr Cook is now investigating specific features of the fracturepropagation in cancellous tissue and the effects of structural integrity on the fracturetoughness of cancellous bone tissue.Other work has included the mechanics of bone tissue from a mature elephant femur. Theproject was in collaboration with the Royal Veterinary College in the UK. The aim was toproduce a Finite Element Numerical Analysis model of the femur, in order to model theloading of the femur during walking.Research CollaboratorsDr S. Shefelbine, Bioengineering Department, Imperial College, London, EnglandDr J. Hutchinson, Structure and Motion Laboratory, The Royal Veterinary College, North Mymms, Herts, EnglandDr P. Zioupos, Biomechanics Laboratories, Cranfield University, DCMT Shrivenham, EnglandDr C. Curwen, Gloucestershire Royal Hospital, Gloucester, EnglandDr D. Collins, Department of Rheumatology, Great Western Hospital, Swindon, Englandmary p. CullInanBDS MSc FADIOral Sciences DepartmentSenior Research FellowMary Cullinan’s research is predominantly clinical in the field of periodontal disease and sheis currently working on several large multidisciplinary clinical studies. Her interests includemicrobiological, environmental and genetic risk factors for periodontal disease as well as therelationship between periodontal disease and systemic diseases such as cardiovascular diseaseand diabetes. She is also interested in the effect of interventions on health behaviour.Research and CollaborationCurrent projects are focused on the interface between oral health and general health,including periodontal infection and atherosclerosis and diabetes. Multidisciplinary clinicalstudies currently in progress include: CAPS (Cardiovascular and Periodontal Study), O-HELP (Oral Health Education, Logan Programme, ADAPT (Assessment of Diabetes AfterPeriodontal Treatment), Adult Oral Health Project in the Republic of Marshall Islands,ENIGMA- The effect of periodontal treatment on endothelial dysfunction and the Peri-implantitis Treatment Study.Selected Publications Ford, P.J., Gemmell, E., Chan, A., Carter, C.L., Walker, P.J., Bird, P.S., West, M.J., Cullinan, M.P. and Seymour, G.J. (2006). Inflammation, heat shock proteins and periodontal pathogens in atherosclerosis: an immunohistological study. Oral Microbiology and Immunology 21:206-211.
  • 26. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYFord, P.J., Gemmell, E., Hamlet, S.M., Hasan, A., Walker, P.J., West, M.J., Cullinan, M.P. and Seymour, G.J. (2005). Cross-reactivity of GroEL antibodies with human heat shock protein 60 and quantification of pathogens in atherosclerosis. Oral Microbiology and Immunology 20:296-302. Ford, P., Gemmell, E., Walker, P., West, M., Cullinan, M. and Seymour, G.J. (2005). Characterization of heat shock protein-specific T cells in atherosclerosis Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, 12:259-267. Narayanan, D., Hamlet, S., Cullinan, M., Davies, R., Ellwood, R., Bird, P. and Seymour, G.J. (2005). The distribution of Tannerella forsythia in an adolescent and adult population. Journal of Periodontal Research 40:482–488. Research CollaboratorsProfessors G. Seymour, W.M. Thomson, Drs W Duncan and N. Heng, J. Leichter and D. Holborow, Oral Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandProfessor M. West, Associate Professors D. Kavanagh and P. Walker, Drs B. Westerman, P. Ford and P. Bird, S. Hamlet and J. Palmer, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia Professor M. Faddy, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia Drs T. Holcombe and D. Roberts, Oral Health Clinic, Logan Hospital, Brisbane, Australia Associate Professor L. Heitz-Mayfield, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia Dr J. Taylor, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, United KingdomProfessor N. Lang and Dr M. Schatzle, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland Drs K. Tut and O. Tut, Ministry of Health, Republic of Marshall Islands rohana k. de sIlVaBDS FDSRCPS FFDRCS FDSRCSOral Diagnostic and Surgical SciencesSenior LecturerRohana De Silva’s two main research areas are: management of post-operative pain afterremoval of wisdom teeth and evaluation of the metabolism of commonly used painkillersin the body; and the use of dental implants as a cost effective way to replace missing teeth ina shorter period of time in order to improve quality of life.Research and CollaborationA double-blind cross-over clinical trial was carried out in 2005 to evaluate thepharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic effects of a high dose of paracetamol. This trialinvolved a collaboration with the researchers from the Department of Anaesthesia andIntensive Care at Dunedin Hospital, Pharmacology and Toxicology and the School ofPharmacy. The main intention of this trial was to identify the safe and effective dose ofparacetamol in healthy individuals after surgical removal of wisdom teeth.In 2005, two clinical trials were conducted with the dental implant team in the DentalSchool. One trial was as a multi-centre study to evaluate the use of dental implants in theretention of partial dentures in the lower jaw. This was done in collaboration with theresearchers in Amphia Teaching Hospital, Bredan, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands,and the Colombian Dental School, Bogota, South America.The other trial, conducted with the dental implant research team, evaluated the use of dentalimplants to replace missing upper front teeth as a one-day procedure. The results of this trialwere published in March 2007.Publication Lou, S.M-Y., Rich, A.M., De Silva, R.K., and Ferguson, M.M. (2006). Pleomorphic adenoma of a minor salivary gland. Oral Oncology Extra 42:170-172. 
  • 27. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006bernadeTTe k. drummondBDS MS PhD FRACDSOral SciencesCurrent research includes diagnosis and treatment of dental caries in primary and youngpermanent teeth, dental health related to diet and nutrition, dental caries prevention, andgenetic and general health influences on orofacial growth and development.Research Associate Professor Drummond’s main research interests are in the evaluation of the short-and long-term outcomes of dental care in young children. This involves evaluating thesuccess of different treatment procedures and the effects of the delivery of care, includingcare under general anaesthesia, using material that has been collected for almost 19 years. Sheis investigating the relationships of dental caries with general health, including overweightand obesity in young children, and continues to evaluate the effects of new preventivematerials on the progression (or prevention) of dental caries – especially in very youngchildren. Criteria are being developed to assess the caries risk of children by their firstbirthday, and the introduction of an early prevention programme for infants. The outcomeswill be monitored until the children are 5 years old. Another interest is assessing successfultreatment of hypomineralised and hypoplastic teeth. This involves identification of bothmaterials that improve the structure and hardness of the defective enamel, and restorativeprocedures for severely affected teeth that allow their long-term (lifetime) survival.PublicationCho, S.Y., and Drummond, B.K. (2006). Solitary median maxillary central incisor and normal stature: a report of three cases. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 16:128–134.WarWICk J. dunCanED BDS MDS PhD FRACDS(Perio)Oral SciencesSenior LecturerDr Duncan conducts dental implant research in humans and animals, investigatingtreatments that improve the bonding of titanium implants to jaw bone. He also researchesthe genetic basis for periodontal (gum) diseases and their relationship to other non-dentaldiseases and conditions.Research and Collaboration The use of the lower jaws of sheep for dental implant testing, an animal model unique toNew Zealand, was finalised with the completion of a PhD thesis in 2005. During 2006, acollaborative project commenced with Chonbuk University (South Korea), comparingvarious titanium dental implants treated using a novel process called spark discharge anodicoxidation. Delayed- and immediately-loaded implants are being tested in different sites inthe sheep (lower jaw, maxillary sinus, femur), replicating different qualities of bone foundin human patients. Additional projects are under way studying the use of bone-substitutesgrafted into the sinus, and the use of a novel growth factor around dental implants.Student projects under supervision include: (i) micro-computerised tomographic andhistological analysis of immediately-loaded dental implants in the sheep animal model;(ii) analysis of the long-term success of dental implants placed in the Dental School; (iii)clinical audit of implant and periodontal treatment at the Dental School; and (iv) gene-arrayanalysis of lymphocytes and fibroblasts in patients who smoke, patients with atherosclerosisand comparing patients who have gingivitis or periodontitis.Research CollaboratorsDr M. Lee, Chonbuk University, South Korea
  • 28. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYProfessor G. Seymour, M. Cullinan, D. Holborow, J. Leichter, Oral Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandD. Kuzmanovic, Oral Diagnostic and Surgical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandProfessor M. Swain, Oral Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealandnorman a. fIrThBDS MDSc FRACDS FFOP (RCPA)Oral Diagnostic and Surgical SciencesSenior LecturerNorman Firth investigates various diseases of the oral mucosa, including potentiallymalignant and malignant oral mucosal lesions and inflammatory lesions.Research and CollaborationStudies of components of basement membrane in these lesions are in progress. Other areasof interest include: histological changes in oral lichen planus, follow-up of patients withoral leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma, genetic profiles and cell proliferation inodontogenic cysts and aspects of forensic dentistry.PublicationCannon, R.D., and Firth, N.A. (2006). Fungi and fungal infections of the oral cavity. In Oral microbiology and immunology. R.J. Lamont, R.A. Burne, M.S. Lantz and D.J. LeBlanc (eds), ASM Press, Washington, pp 333-348.CaTharIna h.J. haumanBMedSci MMedSci BChD MDSOral RehabilitationSenior LecturerCatharina Hauman is interested in patient care and treatment outcomes. She investigatesbacterial viability in dentine by fluorescence, the use of polymer rotary instruments inselective caries removal, and the management of the resected root end.Research and CollaborationStudies with Dr Geoffrey Tompkins, Jonathan Leichter, Ionut Ichim, together with theOtago Electron and Confocal Microscope Unit, are investigating the efficacy of dentinedisinfection, including laser application, by determining the viability of bacteria in dentineusing fluorescence methods. Studies with Dusan Kuzmanovic are looking at the ability ofan existing polymer rotary instrument (“Smartprep”) to cut healthy dentine. This researchaims to develop improved instruments for selective caries removal.Publication Kieser, J., Kieser, D.C., and Hauman, C.H.J. (2005). Course and distribution of the inferior alveolar nerve. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery 16:6-9. Research CollaboratorsDr G. Tompkins, Oral Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandJ. Leichter, Oral Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandI. Ichim, Oral Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandD. Kuzmanovic, Oral Diagnostic Surgical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand 
  • 29. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006daVId l. healeyBDS MDS MOrthRCSEdOral Sciences DepartmentSenior LecturerDavid Healey is currently enrolled for a PhD investigating Quality of Life issues surroundingorthodontic treatment and its outcomes; specifically, how well patient expectations arebeing met and how closely these are aligned with professionally set goals.Research A prospective study is assessing the orthodontic pre-treatment expectations of patient,parent and clinician, in comparison with post-treatment satisfaction and change in indicesof malocclusion. Other interests include orthodontics, third molars, computed tomography,craniometrics and reconstruction, forensic identification, obstructive sleep apnoea, andcleft lip and palate.Publications Healey, D.L., Plunkett, D.J., and Chandler, N.P. (2006). Orthodontic movement of two root fractured teeth. Review and Case report. International Endodontic Journal 39:324-329. Healey, D.L., and Kieser J. (2005). Unusual fatal dog attack in Dunedin, New Zealand. Journal of Forensic Odonto-Stomatology 23:51-4. Research CollaboratorsProfessor J. Kieser, Oral Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandAssociate Professor N. Chandler, Oral Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandAssociate Professor R. Gauld, Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin New ZealanddouGlas W. holboroWBDS FDSRCSOral SciencesSenior LecturerDouglas Holborow investigates the local delivery of antibacterial agents in the treatment ofperiodontal diseases. The aim is to identify effective, locally applied agents for treating gumdiseases. He also seeks to understand how students perceive that they learn clinical skills.CollaboratorDr C. Bond, Higher Education Development Centre, University of Otago
  • 30. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYann holmesPhDOral SciencesSenior Research FellowDr Holmes investigates how the commensal microbial populations of the human mouth (inparticular, the fungus Candida albicans) interact with the host, and how diseases that canresult from these normally harmless organisms might be prevented.Research and Collaboration Candida albicans is a pathogenic yeast that causes superficial and systemic infections inimmunocompromised individuals, and adhesion of Candida cells to host epithelial surfacesis an initial event in the development of disease. C. albicans has been shown to bind to variousoral surfaces (such as dental materials and oral bacteria as well as saliva-coated epithelial cells),and a major theme of Dr Holmes’ research has been to study the mechanisms involved inthese interactions. This includes an analysis of interactions between saliva and Candida cellsin collaboration with Professor Richard Cannon and Mr Patrick Dawes, Mr Jamie Ryan andMr Dean Ruske, (Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences). She also collaborates withDr Cannon and Molecular Microbiology Laboratory members on a project entitled “Fungaltransporters: from resistance to new antifungals” under a research grant from the NationalInstitutes of Health, USA. Research achievements include construction of recombinant yeaststrains, and development of assay systems necessary for studying the function of fungalmembrane efflux pumps. These pumps determine drug resistance of opportunistic fungalpathogens such as C. albicans. A major achievement has been the discovery of significant allelicvariation affecting function in the efflux pump genes of C. albicans.Selected PublicationsHolmes, A.R., Tsao, S., Ong, S-W. Lamping, E., Niimi, K., Monk, B.C., Niimi, M., Kaneko, A., Holland, B.R., Schmid, J., and Cannon, R.D. (2006). Heterozygosity and functional allelic variation in the Candida albicans efflux pump genes CDR1 and CDR2. Molecular Microbiology 62:170-86.Holmes, A.R., Tsao, S., Lamping, E., Niimi, K., Monk, B.C., Tanabe, K., Niimi , M., and Cannon. R.D. (2006). Amino acid residues affecting drug pump function in Candida albicans. Japanese Journal of Medical Mycology 47:275-281.Holmes, A.R., van der Wielen, P., Cannon, R.D., Ruske, D., and Dawes, P.J.D. (2006). Candida albicans binds to saliva proteins selectively adsorbed to silicone. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology 102:488-493.Niimi, K., Maki, K., Ikeda, F., Holmes, A.R., Lamping, E., Niimi, M., Monk, B.C., and Cannon, R.D. (2006). Overexpression of Candida albicans CDR1, CDR2, or MDR1 does not produce significant changes in echinocandin susceptibility. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 50:1148-55.Jeng, H-W., Holmes, A.R., and Cannon, R.D. (2005). Characterisation of two Candida albicans surface mannoprotein adhesions that bind immobilized saliva components. Medical Mycology 43:209-17.Research CollaborationsProfessor R. Cannon, Drs M. Keniya, E. Lamping, B. Monk and K. Niimi, Oral Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandAssociate Professor A. Rich, Oral Diagnostic and Surgical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandP. Dawes and D. Ruske, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandResearch Associate Professor C. Sissons, School of Medicine, University of Otago, Wellington, New ZealandDr A. Hodgkinson, AgResearch Ruakura, Hamilton, New ZealandDr M. Niimi, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan Dr B. Haigh, AgResearch Ruakura, Hamilton, New ZealandDr T. Wheeler, AgResearch Ruakura, Hamilton, New ZealandDr C. Bingle, Division Genomic Medicine, The University of Sheffield Medical School, Sheffield, UK 
  • 31. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006IonuT p. IChImBDS MDSOral RehabilitationLecturerIonut Ichim researches masticatory biomechanics, including the shape-function relationshipof the teeth and jaws, and masticatory muscle recruitment. He studies biomechanicalintegration of dental restorations in the complex biomechanical environment of theoral cavity. He employs Finite Element Numerical Analysis in dental research, includingorthodontic tooth movement. Forensics and biomechanics of blunt trauma are alsostudied.Research and CollaborationThe problem of the human chin provided a model to study shape-function relationshipsof the jaws. Reverse-engineering and morphing techniques created “what if ” scenarios toselectively investigate the biomechanical role of the human chin. An analysis of the mandibulardynamics during mastication and muscle recruitment has been carried out in collaborationwith Auckland Institute of Bioengineering. The novel technique of predicting restorativematerial fracture using discrete element analysis was used to investigate the biomechanicalintegration of restorative materials. The problem of the failure of cervical restorations andthe optimal mechanical properties of the restorative materials were studied in collaborationwith the School of Mechanical Engineering, James Cook University, Australia and Schoolof Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Sydney and Facultyof Dentistry, Zurich, Switzerland. Finite Element Analysis is being used to investigateorthodontic tooth movement with the School of Aerospace, Mechanical and MechatronicEngineering, University of Sydney. A chewing robot is being built in collaboration withFood Sciences at Massey University and Auckland Institute of Bioengineering BiomouthResearch Group.Recent PublicationsIchim, I., Kieser, J., and Swain, M. (2006). Mandibular stiffness in humans: numerical predictions. Journal of Biomechanics 39:1903-13.Ichim I., Kieser, J., and Swain, M. (2006). Mandibular Biomechanics and Development of the Human Chin. Journal of Dental Research 85:638-42.Ichim I., Kieser, J., and Swain, M. (2006). Functional significance of strain distribution in the human mandible under masticatory load: numerical predictions. Archives of Oral Biology. 39:1903-13.Ichim I., Love, R., and Kuzmanovic, D. (2006). A finite element analysis of ferrule design on restoration resistance and distribution of stress within a root. International Endodontic Journal 39:443–452.Li, Q., Ichim, I., Loughran, J., Li, W., Swain, M., and Kieser, J. (2006). Numerical simulation of crack formation in all ceramic dental bridge. Key Engineering Materials 312:293-298.Research CollaboratorsDr Q. Li, School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Sydney, AustraliaDr P. Schmidlin, Clinic for Preventive Dentistry, Periodontology and Cariology, Centre for Dental and Oral Medicine and Maxillo-Facial Surgery, University of Zurich, Switzerland Associate Professor J. Bronlund, Institute of Technology and Engineering, Massey University, Palmerston North, New ZealandDr O. Roehrle, Bioengineering Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New ZealandAssociate Professor A. Pullan, Bioengineering Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Professor J. Loughran, School of Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia0
  • 32. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYThomas b. kardosMDS PhD FFOP (RCPA)Oral SciencesDeputy DeanProfessor Kardos seeks to understand the mechanisms that lead to the development andemergence of teeth in the formation of a functional dentition.ResearchTeeth develop from cells derived from the neural crest that migrate into the jaws and theoverlying ectoderm. Several paradigms have been established for the cellular events thatoccur during the differentiation of post-mitotic cells prior to the production of hard tissuessuch as bone, dentine, cementum and enamel. The paradigm of a dynamic functionalphenotype is attractive, but has been largely derived from studies on molecules secretedinto the extracellular matrix, thought to be responsible for cell signalling. These moleculesare thought to activate cells through interactions with specific receptors, but, while thereis specificity in receptor/ligand interactions many intracellular pathways are common.Difficulties also arise in the accurate identification of the various cellular phenotypes(particularly in those cells that have undergone subtle, sometimes pathological changes),even with the use of immunocytochemical techniques, since specific markers may beexpressed within a wide range of cells. Furthermore, many extracellular proteins are sharedamong cells with diverse phenotypes and, with pathological change, it is not always possibleto accurately identify them or their precursor (stem) cell. Proteins expressed within a cellare, however, unique at any point in time. An ability to identify several protein families (inparticular, calcium-binding proteins with characteristic expression patterns) could providea mechanism by which the phenotype of any groups of cells (or even individual cells in thefuture) could be accurately identified. We have previously suggested that maintenance ofintracellular calcium homeostasis is a mechanism common to activation, from mitosis to thecommitment of a cell to apoptosis. Recent work has enabled separation (and identification)of membrane proteins from those within the cytosol using microanalytical techniques.An understanding of the mechanisms of development during odontogenesis and theapplication of those principles to clinical practice are critical for graduates of dentistry.In the future, greater use will be made of molecular approaches to enhance clinical tissueregeneration, including that of the dental hard tissues. Further molecular approaches willalso lead to a greater understanding the nature of pathological changes that occur in thecraniofacial complexPublicationsMonk, B.C., Niimi, K., Lin, S., Knight, A., Kardos, T.B., Cannon, R.D., Parshot, R., King, A., Lun, D., and Harding, D.R. (2005). Surface-active fungicidal D-peptide inhibitors of the plasma membrane proton pump that block azole resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:57-70.Kieser, J.A., Herbison, G.P., Waddell, J.N., Kardos, T.B., and Innes, P.B. (2006). Learning in oral biology; a comparison between deep and surface approaches. New Zealand Dental Journal 102:64-68.Research CollaboratorsProfessor M. Hubbard, Department of Dental Sciences, University of Melbourne, AustraliaAssociate Professor K. Heikinheimo, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Turku, Finland 
  • 33. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006mIkhaIl V. kenIyaPhDOral SciencesAssistant Research FellowDr Keniya studies the mechanisms of resistance of pathogenic fungal species to antifungaldrugs. He seeks better targets (weak spots) in the infectious species, and approaches that willyield more effective development of medications.Research and Collaboration Development of the effective treatment against life-threatening pathogenic yeast diseases(such as candidosis and aspergillosis) requires knowledge of molecular mechanisms ofdrug-target interaction and the mechanisms responsible for drug resistance. Dr Keniya’sresearch in the group directed by Professor Cannon, and under the guidance of SeniorResearch Fellows Dr Brian Monk and Dr Ann Holmes, focuses on research goals thatinclude: the validation drug targets and the identification of intra-molecular sites affectingfungal membrane pump function; optimisation of inhibitors of drug efflux pumps; andthe development of non-peptidic inhibitors of CaCdr1p (major plasma membrane ABCtype transporter involved in pumping xenobiotics out of the cell) and CaPma1p (plasmamembrane proton pump). These goals are being reached by expressing histidine-taggedCaPma1p in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae host, to enable purification for future crystallographytrials. A broad-spectrum ABC pump inhibitor is being identified by screening a D-octapeptide library for fluconazole chemosensitisers.Research CollaboratorsProfessor R. Cannon, Drs B. Monk, A. Holmes, K. Niimi and E. Lamping, Oral Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandJules a. kIeserBSc BDS PhD DSc FLS FDSRCSEd FFSSocOral SciencesChair and Head of DepartmentProfessor Kieser’s research is focused on the three major areas of craniofacial biomechanics,forensic science, and education.Research and Collaboration Craniofacial biomechanics research is an area of strength within the Faculty. Majorcollaborators are Michael Swain, Ionut Ichim, Neil Waddell and Andrew Quick. We form partof the BIOMOUTH Project, which includes tight collaborative links with John Brondlundand Kylie Foster of Massey University and Andrew Pullan and Oliver Rhoerle of AucklandUniversity. The focus of our research is on mastication, intra-oral pressure changes, dentalmaterials, and the development of novel anti-obesity food products. Internationally, wecollaborate with the Universities of Sydney, Charite Berlin, LaPlata, UCL and Queensland.In the field of forensics, Michael Swain, Ionut Ichim, Neil Waddell and Professor Kieser,have an active Masters programme involving the biomechanics of wounding, marinedecomposition, bitemarks and personal identification. The group collaborates with BebbieCarr (Food and Textiles), Russell Poulter (Biochemistry), Keith Probert (Marine Science),Helen Nicholson (Anatomy and Structural Biology), Peter Herbison and Vicki Livingstone(Social and Preventive Medicine) and Geoffrey Tompkins (Oral Sciences). Externalcollaborators are Wendy Birch (UCL), Vale Bernal (LaPlata), and Michael Taylor (ESR).Finally, Professor Kieser’s education research focuses on narrative in teaching and theinfluence of context on learning. My collaborators are Alison Meldrum and Tony Harland(HEDC), and Gloria Dall’Alba (Queensland).
  • 34. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYSelected Publications Kieser, J.A., Bernal, V., Waddell, N., and Raju, S. (2006). The uniqueness of the human anterior dentition: a geometric morphometric analysis. Journal of Forensic Sciences 52:31-37.Ichim, I., Swain, M., and Kieser, J.A. (2006). Mandibular biomechanics and development of the human chin. Journal of Dental Research 85:638-642.Harland, T., Kieser, J.A., Meldrum, A. (2006). Cultural fragmentation of knowledge in clinical teaching. Teaching in Higher Education 11:149-160.Ichim, I., Swain, M.V., and Kieser, J.A. (2005). Mandibular stiffness in humans: Biomechanical analyses. Journal of Biomechanics 39:1903-1913.Ichim, I.P., Qing, L., Wei, L., Swain, M., and Kieser, J.A. (2006). Modelling of fracture behaviour in biomaterials. Biomaterials 28:1317-1326. Leading Opinion Paper.Research CollaboratorsAssociate Professor A. Pullan, Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Auckland University, New ZealandDr J. Bronlund, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Human Health, Massey University, Auckland, New ZealandK. Foster, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Human Health, Massey University, Auckland, New ZealandDr M. Taylor, Institute for Environmental Science and Research, Christchurch, New ZealandProfessor R. Radlanski, Charite, Campus Benjamin Franklin Berlin-Wilmersdorf, GermanyDr V. Bernal, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina Ms W. Birch, Department of Anatomy, University College, Gower Street, Londondusan V. kuzmanoVICDDS DipClinDent MDSOral Diagnostic and Surgical SciencesSenior LecturerDusan Kuzmanovic’s research involves clinical trials and laboratory-based research relatingto dentate, partially dentate and edentulous patients.Research and Collaboration Dusan is a member of a group of researchers dedicated to individual, national andinternational collaborative projects in Oral Implantology including the Clinical OverdentureResearch Project (CORP) and the “All-on-Four” concept. These research projects involvea prospective evaluation of bilateral, single ITI implants in the posterior mandible tosupport mandibular distal-extension, removable partial dentures, and the rehabilitation ofedentulous patients.He also has an interest in fracture toughness of new all-ceramic restorations. A study on theeffects of endodontic access cavities on the structural integrity of all-ceramic crowns hasbecome a part of his PhD thesis, and the findings of this project will be the basis for furtherstudy.Publications Ichim, I., Kuzmanovic, D.V., and Love, R.M. (2006). A finite element analysis of ferrule design on restoration, resistance and distribution of stress within a root. International Endodontic Journal 39:443–452.Poljak-Guberina, R., Culig, B., Zivkovic, O., Catovic, A., Kuzmanovic, D., and Muljacic, A. (2005). Patients’ satisfaction with prosthetic devices. Coll. Antropol. 29:615-21.Kuzmanovic, D.V., and Waddell, N.J. (2005). Fabrication of a self-retaining surgical template for surgical placement of dental implants. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. 93:95-6. (This paper has been selected for inclusion in the 2005 Year Book Of Dentistry published by Mosby, Elsevier). 
  • 35. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006Research CollaboratorsThe Breda Implant Overdenture Group, Amphia Teaching Hospital, Breda, Netherlands Colombian School of Dentistry, Bogotá, ColombiaDepartment of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Hiroshima University Hospital, JapanEnztec Ltd and Canesis Network Ltd, Christchurch, New ZealandAnatomy Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Otago, New ZealanderWIn lampInGDipl Ing PhDOral SciencesResearch FellowMolecular Microbiology LaboratoryDr Lamping uses baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the best-studied eukaryoticmodel organisms) to express and study the structure and function of eukaryotic membraneproteins that are associated with the multi-drug resistance (MDR) phenotype of pathogenicfungi and human cancer cells. The ultimate goal of his studies is to understand the mechanismscausing the MDR phenotype and to find new treatment options.Research and CollaborationThe membrane proteins that Dr Lamping studies include a range of ABC and MFStype multi-drug efflux pumps and azole antifungal drug targets (Erg11p) from a widevariety of pathogenic fungi such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei,Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus. To undertake these investigations, DrLamping developed a heterologous yeast membrane protein expression system that allowsthe functional over-expression of a wide variety of different classes of fungal membraneproteins. The system was also used successfully to express and study human p-glycoprotein(HsAbcb1p), an ABC type multi-drug efflux pump. HsAbcb1p is expressed in many tissuespumping cytotoxic drugs and xenotoxins out of cells. The over-expression of HsAbcb1pis also known to cause the MDR phenotype of cancer cells, often leading to failure ofchemotherapy for cancer patients.An understanding of the pumping mechanism of multi-drug efflux pumps is essentialfor the development of new and specific pump inhibitors that will overcome the MDRphenotype of pathogenic fungi and human cancer cells.Dr Lamping is a member of the yeast expression group in the Molecular MicrobiologyLaboratory and collaborates with the laboratories of Dr Masakazu Niimi at the NationalInstitute of Infectious Diseases (NIID) in Tokyo, Japan, and Professor Robert Stroud at theDepartment of Biochemistry and Biophysics, UCSF, CA, USA. He has spent six months inthe past two years exchanging knowledge and expertise with these laboratories.Selected PublicationsLamping, E., Tanabe, K., Niimi, M., Yoshimasa, U., Monk, B.C., and Cannon, R.D. (2005). Characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae sec6-4 mutation and tools to create S. cerevisiae strains containing the sec6-4 allele. Gene 361:57-66.Holmes, A.R., Tsao, S., Ong, S., Lamping, E., Niimi, K., Monk, B.C., Niimi, M., Kaneko, A., Holland, B.R., Schmid, J., and Cannon, R.D. (2006). Heterozygosity and functional allelic variation in the Candida albicans efflux pump genes CDR1 and CDR2. Molecular Microbiology 62:170-186.Niimi, K., Maki, K., Ikeda, F., Holmes, A.R., Lamping, E., Niimi, M., Monk, B.C., and Cannon, R.D. (2006). Over-expression of Candida albicans CDR1, CDR2 or MDR1 does not produce significant changes in echinocandin susceptibility. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 50:1148-1155.Wada, S., Tanabe, K., Yamazaki, A., Niimi, M., Uehara, Y., Niimi, K., Lamping, E., Cannon, R.D., and Monk, B.C. (2005). Phosphorylation of Candida glabrata ATP-binding cassette transporter Cdr1p regulates drug efflux activity and ATPase stability. Journal of Biological Chemistry 280:94-103.
  • 36. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYNiimi, M., Wada, S., Tanabe, K., Takano, Y., Umeyama, T., Hanaoka, H., Uehara, Y., Lamping, E., Niimi, K., Holmes, A.H., Cannon, R.D., and Monk, B.C. (2005). Functional analysis of fungal drug efflux transporters by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Japanese Journal of Infectious Disease 58:1-7.Research CollaboratorsDrs M. Niimi and K. Tanabe, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, JapanDr K. Nakamura, Nippon Dental University, Niigata, JapanAssociate Professor S. Kajiwara, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, JapanProfessor R. Stroud, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, USAProfessor R. Cannon, and Drs A. Holmes, M. Keniya, B. Monk, and K. Niimi, Oral Sciences,Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandJonaThan W. leIChTerBA DMD Cert PeriodontologyOral ScienceSenior LecturerResearchJonathan Leichter’s clinical research in periodontology includes dental implants, the effectsof smoking, and the risks associated with elective facial piercing. He also carries out clinicalresearch on laser application in dentistry, including its efficacy in periodontal therapy, rootcanal therapy and restorative dentistry.PublicationsEggerath, J.W., Gabmann, G., English, H., Grimm, W.D., and Leichter, J.W. (2006). Medikamentös induzierte gingivale Hyperplasie – Fallbericht und Literaturübersicht über Ätiologie, Therapie und evidenzbasierte Therapieergebnisse. Parodontologie 17:25-42.Leichter, J.W., and Monteith, B.D. (2006). Prevalence and risk of traumatic gingival recession following elective lip piercing. Dental Traumatology 22:7-13. Eggerath, J.W., English, H., and Leichter, J.W. (2006). Drug associated gingival enlargement: Case report and review of aetiology, management and evidence-based outcomes of treatment. Journal of the New Zealand Society of Periodontists 88:7-14.Reid, D., Leichter, J.W., and Thomson, W.M. (2005). Dental implant use in New Zealand 2004. New Zealand Dental Journal 101:12-16. Research CollaboratorsProfessor B. Monteith, Oral Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandProfessor W.M. Thomson, Oral Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandroberT m. loVeBDS MDS PhD FRACDSOral Diagnostic and Surgical SciencesHead of DepartmentProfessor Love’s main area of interest is endodontic microbiology, with an emphasis on themolecular mechanisms of bacterial invasion of dentine and the root canal system. Otherareas of interest are clinical endodontics (such as root canal preparation and obturationtechniques), endodontic imaging, endodontic pathology, restoration of endodonticallytreated teeth, and dental trauma. 
  • 37. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006Research and CollaborationEndodontic microbiological research during 2005-2006 focused on the effect of nutritionalstress on bacterial invasion of dentine, and identified that colonization of dentinal tubulesis dependent on an ideal nutritional environment, with nutritionally stressed bacterialcells losing their ability to invade. PhD student research involved: the analysis of microbialattachment to dental materials involved in reconstruction of maxillary defects; and thebiomechanics of restoring endodontic access cavities in ceramic restorations. Clinical dentalimplantology and dental implant bone healing projects were begun during the period, aswere epidemiological studies of the prevalence of soft and hard tissue pathology of the oralcavity and jaws, dental and maxillofacial trauma, and practitioner prescribing patterns forantibiotic prophylaxis. Development of a unique imaging system was begun in collaborationwith Industrial Research Limited.Publications Ponnambalam, Y., and Love, R.M. (2006). Dens evaginatus: case reports and review of the literature. New Zealand Dental Journal 102:30-34.Ichim I., Kuzmanovic, D.V., and Love, R.M. (2006). A finite element analysis of ferrule design on restoration resistance and distribution of stress within a root. International Endodontic Journal 39:443-452.Gordon, M.P.J., Love, R.M., and Chandler, N.P. (2006). An evaluation of .06 tapered gutta-percha cones for filling of .06 taper prepared curved root canals. International Endodontic Journal 38: 87-96.Love, R.M. (2005). Criteria for the evaluation of endodontic treatment outcome. Future and advancements in conservative dentistry and endodontics (pp. 146-151). India: Vishnu Dental College.Research CollaboratorsProfessor H. Jenkinson, University of Bristol, EnglandP. Harris, Industrial Research Limited, WellingtonProfessors R. Cannon, G. Seymour and W.M. Thomson, Oral Sciences, Professor M. Swain and K. Lyons, Oral Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandD. Kuzmanovic, Y. Ponnambalam, R. Kumara De Silva and D. Tong, Oral Diagnostic and Surgical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealandkarl m. lyonsBDS MDS Cert Maxillofacial Pros FRACDSOral RehabilitationSenior LecturerKarl Lyons’ PhD project is an investigation of the formation of biofilms on the surface ofdenture prosthetic materials (especially those used to obturate maxillary resection defects).The study aims to prevent oral microbial infections and prolonging the lifespan of theobturators.Research and CollaborationProsthetic-material-associated infections caused by microbial biofilms are common. In thehead and neck region, biofilms on voice prostheses, nasogastric and endotracheal tubes, anddentures have been shown to be associated with early prosthesis failure and/or infections. Anumber of studies show an association between yeasts (in particular Candida albicans) anddenture stomatitis. Prosthesis-related infections are an even greater problem for patientswho have had a surgical resection of their maxilla as a result of cancer of the palate andparanasal sinuses. This is because the oronasal communication that occurs following cancerresection surgery exposes the obturator prosthesis to a microflora that is different to that ofthe conventional complete and partial denture wearer. This altered microflora, in individualswho may already be immunocompromised from cancer therapy, predisposes these patientsto prosthesis-influenced local or systemic infections.
  • 38. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYKarl’s PhD is supervised by Professor Richard Cannon and Professor Robert Love. Theresearch investigates the type of bacteria and yeasts that form the oronasal biofilm onobturators, identifies some of the conditions necessary for biofilm formation, examines theinfluence of radiation where the fields include the salivary glands, and tests how differentprosthesis materials can reduce biofilm formation. He also maintains collaboration ondental materials with Professor John Beumer and Professor Angelo Caputo, followingresearch and study leave in 1999-2000. Karl showed, by investigating load transfer by partialdenture obturator frameworks on different maxillary resection defects, that splinting thetwo teeth adjacent to a resection defect improves stress distribution around their rootsduring loading. This strategy could prolong the clinical life of the important abutment teethadjacent to a maxillary resection.Research CollaboratorsProfessor R. Cannon, Oral Sciences, Professor R. Love, Oral Diagnostic and Surgical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandProfessors J. Beumer and A. Caputo, Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials, and Hospital Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los AngeleseIThne maCfadyenBDS FDSRCPSOral Diagnostic and Surgical SciencesSenior LecturerEithne MacFadyen’s main interest is in caries, diet and the provision of health care to specialneeds patients.murray C. meIkleDDSc MSD PhD FDSRCS FRCSOral SciencesProfessor Meikle is interested in molecular events involved in orthodontic tooth movement.Orthodontic tooth movement is dependent upon the ease with which the periodontalligament (PDL) can be remodelled by mechanical means, and the forces applied to theteeth being transmitted through the PDL to the supporting alveolar bone. Changes in themetabolic and proliferative activity of the cellular constituents of the PDL lead eventually tothe deposition or resorption of bone, depending upon whether the tissues are exposed to atensile or compressive mechanical strain.Research and CollaborationFour orthodontic postgraduate students (with the assistance of Trudy Milne) have beenstudying molecular-level events using both in vivo and in vitro model systems.Bhavik Patel has successfully field-tested a rat model of tooth movement. Most histologicalstudies have focused on changes occurring within the PDL. However, even over a relativelyshort time-scale, the inter-radicular area of the molar teeth undergoes widespread resorptiveremodelling. According to orthopaedic mechanostat theory, such osteopenia indicatesa reduction in functional loading. We first thought this improbable, but finite elementanalysis based on microCT scans of the teeth and bone undertaken by Ionut Ichim suggeststhat is precisely what has happened. We are currently using RT-PCR to first quantify geneexpression in tissue sections, followed by immunocytochemistry to localize the expressedproteins of interest to specific tissues. 
  • 39. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006Mark Pinkerton, Benjamin Gaffey and David Wescott have established several human PDLcell lines from premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons, and have mechanically deformedthe cells intermittently in vitro using a Flexercell machine. cDNA microarray technologyhas been used to measure the differential expression of 78 genes implicated in osteoblastdifferentiation and bone metabolism. A total of 16 genes showed a statistically significantchange in expression in response to changes in their mechanical environment, including anumber of cell adhesion molecules and collagen fibre types. Genes linked to the osteoblastphenotype that were up-regulated included BMP2, BMP6, ALP, SOX9, MSX1 and VEGFA;those down-regulated included BMP4 and EGF. We have also shown that human PDL cellsconstitutively express numerous osteotropic cytokines and growth factors, many of whichrespond to mechanical deformation. This work has significantly expanded our knowledge ofthe transcriptional profile of PDL cells and identified several new mechanoresponsive genes.PublicationsMeikle, M.C. (2007). Remodeling the dentofacial skeleton: the biological basis of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics. Journal of Dental Research. 86:12-24.Meikle, M.C. (2006). The tissue, cellular and molecular regulation of orthodontic tooth movement: 100 years after Carl Sandstedt. European Journal of Orthodontics. 28:221- 240.Garcia-López S., Meikle, M.C., Villanueva, R.E., Montaño, L., Massó, F., Ramirez-Amador, V., Bojalil, R. (2005). Mechanical deformation inhibits IL-10 and stimulates IL-12 production by mouse calvarial osteoblasts in vitro. Archive of Oral Biology 50:449-452.Research CollaboratorT. Milne, Oral Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandalIson meldrumBDS DipClinDent MDSOral SciencesSenior LecturerResearch and CollaborationAlison investigates of the working patterns of dental hygienists and dental therapists in NewZealand. She also studies student experiences of learning in the clinical teaching setting.Publications Ayers, K.M.S., Meldrum, A., Thomson, W.M., and Newton, J.T. (2006). The working practices and job satisfaction of dental hygienists in New Zealand. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 66:186-91. Harland, T., Kieser, J., Meldrum, A. (2006). Cultural fragmentation of knowledge in clinical teaching, Teaching in Higher Education 11:149-160.Research Collaborators K. Ayers, Oral Sciences, Professor J. Kieser and Dr G. Tompkins, Oral Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand Associate Professor T. Harland, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
  • 40. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYTrudy mIlneNZCSOral SciencesAssistant Research FellowMolecular Microbiology LaboratoryTrudy Milne investigates tooth movement at the cellular level.Research and CollaborationIn collaboration with Professor Murray Meikle and his students, Trudy uses moleculartechniques to identify proteases and their role in tooth movement. She is also interested inthe expression of recombinant CAP superfamily members for structure-function analysis.Research CollaboratorsProfessor M. Meikle, Oral Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandDr J. Tyndall, School of Pharmacy, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandbrIan C. monkBSc Hons PhDOral SciencesSenior Research FellowDr Monk’s research focuses on understanding the structure and function of membraneproteins and on drug discovery that will overcome drug resistance. Molecular biological andbiochemical information about drug targets, including membrane proteins, is translatedinto prototypic anti-infective drugs by using heterologous expression systems, combinatorialpeptide chemistry, and the application of advanced screening systems. This approach hasobtained surface-active lead antifungals and antimicrobials directed against prominentmicrobial pathogens, including Candida albicans which is the causative agent of oral thrush.Research and Collaboration In order to overcome the increasingly significant problem of antibacterial and antifungalresistance in the clinic, Dr Monk’s research seeks to understand and validate a range ofmolecular targets that are primarily located at the microbial cell surface, and to obtain novelanti-infective drugs directed against these molecules by implementing effective screeningregimes and structure-directed drug discovery. Heterologous functional expression,biochemical characterisation and the isolation of proteins targets contribute to the goalof drug discovery via crystallographic resolution of target structures. Screening of drugtargets against an in-house combinatorial peptide resource of about 2 million peptides isused to identify and improve peptide leads, validate targets and obtain mutants that assistin defining the mode of action of lead compounds. Molecular targets of interest includeessential membrane proteins in microbial pathogens (e.g. P-type ATPases, cytochrome P450proteins), multidrug efflux systems that confer antimicrobial resistance (e.g. ATP bindingcassette transporters, multidrug transporters controlled by electrochemical gradients),fungal and microbial virulence factors, and surrogate antimicrobial targets such as DNAgyrase from the archaebacterium Thermus thermophilus. Other studies aim to heterologouslyexpress and understand the function of drug targets and poorly characterised protein classesfound in higher eukaryotes.Collaborative research on protein expression and isolation has been carried out with theyeast expression group in the Molecular Microbiology Laboratory of the Faculty of Dentistry,the National Institute of Infectious Diseases (Tokyo), the Membrane Protein ExpressionCenter at the University of California San Francisco and the Departments of Biochemistry,and the School of Pharmacy at the University of Otago. Combinatorial peptide chemistryresearch is conducted with the Centre for Separation Science at Massey University, and theDepartments of Biochemistry and Microbiology at the University of Otago. Animal studies 
  • 41. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006and screening of inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were carried out in collaborationwith researchers at the Public Health Research Institute, Newark, New Jersey, USA.Selected Publications Monk, B.C., Niimi, K., Lin, S., Knight, A., Kardos, T.B., Cannon, R.D., Parshot, R., King, A., Lun, D., and Harding, D.R.K. (2005). Surface-active fungicidal D-peptide inhibitors of the plasma membrane proton pump that block azole resistance. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 49:57-70.Wada, S., Tanabe, K., Yamazaki, A., Niimi, M., Uehara, Y., Niimi, K., Lamping, E., Cannon, R.D., and Monk, B.C. (2005). Phosphorylation of Candida glabrata ATP-binding cassette transporter Cdr1p regulates drug efflux activity and ATPase stability. Journal of Biological Chemistry 280:94-103.Niimi, K., Maki, K., Ikeda, F., Holmes A.R., Lamping, E., Niimi, M., Monk, B.C., and Cannon, R.D. (2006). Over-expression of Candida albicans CDR1, CDR2 or MDR1 Candida albicans does not produce significant changes in echinocandin susceptibility. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 50:1148-1155.Monk, B.C., and Harding, D.R.K., (2005). Peptide Motifs for cell-surface intervention: Application to anti-infective and biopharmaceutical development. Biodrugs 19:261-278.Holmes, A.R., Tsao, A., Ong, S-W., Lamping, E., Niimi, K., Monk, B.C., Niimi, M., Kaneko, A., Holland, B.R., Schmid, J., and Cannon, R.D. (2006). Heterozygosity and functional allelic variation in the Candida albicans efflux pump genes CDR1 and CDR2. Molecular Microbiology 62:170-86.Research CollaboratorsProfessor R. Cannon, Drs A. Holmes, M. Keniya, K. Niimi, and E. Lamping, Molecular Microbiology Laboratory, Oral Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand Dr K. Beggs, Department of Zoology, University of Otago, New ZealandDr J. Tyndall, School of Pharmacy, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandAssociate Professor J. Cutfield, Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, New ZealandAssociate Professor G. Cook, Department of Microbiology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandDr M. Niimi, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, JapanDr D. Harding, Centre for Separation Science, Massey University, Palmerston North, New ZealandDr C. Hunte and Professor H. Michelle, Max Planck Institute for Biophysics, Frankfurt, GermanyProfessor A. Goffeau, FYSA, Universite catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, BelgiumProfessor R. Stroud, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, USAProfessor D. Perlin, Drs M. Rodriguez and I. Smith, Public Health Research Institute, Newark, New Jersey, USAbrIan d. monTeIThMChDOral RehabilitationChair of Restorative DentistryProfessor Monteith applies his expertise in computer programming to create computer-based tools to assist student learning at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Healso works on prediction for clinical decision-making by finding ways to cephalometricallyanalyse head X-rays in order to answer various prosthodontic questions.0
  • 42. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYResearch and Collaboration Current initiatives concern questions of risk determination as a means of predicting whetherindividual patients are at risk of developing gum damage (as a result of lip piercing and studwearing), or permanent jaw reposturing from wearing mandibular advancement devices tomanage snoring or sleep apnoea. Professor Monteith collaborates with Dr Graham Mount(Adelaide) and Professor Rory Hume (University of California) to develop further a websitedevoted to initiatives in cariology and minimal intervention dentistry.Publications Leichter, J.W., and Monteith, B.D. (2006). Prevalence and risk of traumatic gingival recession following elective lip piercing. Dental Traumatology 22:7-13.Chandler, N.P., Ng, B.P., and Monteith, B.D. (2005). Radiographic recognition and distribution of approximal carious lesions in New Zealand undergraduate dental students. New Zealand Dental Journal 101:106-109.Research CollaboratorsDr G. Mount, Colgate Australian Clinical Dental Research Centre, University of Adelaide, AustraliaProfessor R. Hume, Academic and Health Affairs, University of California, USAkaTe C. morGaIneMPH DPH BA DipTchgOral SciencesLecturerKate Morgaine’s research seeks to determine whether health promotion and healtheducation programmes and projects work, and, if they are successful, what makes themwork, or if they were not successful, what stopped them from working. Her expertise is inprogramme evaluation and in health promotion programme planning. Future research willfocus programme evaluation on oral health strategies.Research and Collaboration Kate’s research is focused primarily on evaluating the effectiveness of a national farm safetyprogramme in changing farmers’ attitudes to and practice of safety on the farm. Kate alsoadvised the Injury Prevention Research Unit on other farm safety research.A new research project is assessing the role of dental therapists and hygienists in oral healthpromotion and education.Publications Morgaine, K.C., Langley, J.D., and McGee, R.O. (2006). The FarmSafe Programme in New Zealand: Process Evaluation of Year One (2003). Safety Science 44:359-371. Morgaine, K.C., Firth, H.M., Herbison, G.P, Feyer, A-M., and McBride, D.I. (2005). Obtaining health information from farmers: interviews versus postal questionnaires in a New Zealand case study. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 12:223- 228. Morgaine, K.C., Langley, J.D., and McGee, R.O. (2005). ‘Farmers and Farm Safety: Baseline Report to Accident Compensation Corporation’ Injury Prevention Research Unit.Research CollaboratorsAssociate Professor C. Cryer and team, Injury Prevention Research Unit, School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandProfessor W.M. Thomson, Oral Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandL. Foster Page, Taranaki District Health Board, New Plymouth, New Zealand 
  • 43. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006kyoko nIImIBSc DVM PhDOral SciencesSenior Research FellowDr Kyoko Niimi investigates the molecular basis of resistance mechanisms against candins,a novel class of antifungals, in pathogenic Candida species. She is also involved in drugdiscovery projects, particularly for fungal drug efflux pump inhibitors, and studies fungaldrug efflux pumps responsible for azole resistance. The ultimate goal is to deliver bettertreatment options for patients with life-threatening fungal infections.Research and CollaborationThe incidence of serious systemic fungal infections has been increasing for the last two decadesdue to advanced medical treatment including anticancer chemotherapy, transplantationtechnology, and an growing population of immunocompromised individuals includingthose with AIDS. In addition, the acquisition of resistance to antifungals is a serious clinicalproblem that makes treatment more difficult. Dr Niimi is investigating candin resistancemechanisms in clinical isolates of Candida species, and azole resistance mechanisms inbaker’s yeast hyper-expressing drug efflux pumps.There is an urgent need for the discovery of new antifungal agents because limited classesof antifungals are available for the treatment of patients with systemic fungal infections.Discovery of antifungal adjuvants is another way to supplement the limited number of drugs.After extensive screening and deconvolution of an in-house D-octapeptide combinatoriallibrary for multidrug efflux pump inhibitors, Dr Niimi has discovered (with Dr Monk) aspecific inhibitor (RC21) of Candida albicans Cdr1p, a major drug efflux pump for thisorganism. The peptide RC21 chemosensitised azole-resistant cells to fluconazole. Geneticand physiological analyses of RC21-suppressor mutants gave clues to the mode of action ofthe peptide inhibitor against the pump.Dr Niimi collaborates closely with members of the yeast molecular biology group in theMolecular Microbiology Laboratory, the laboratories of Dr Masakazu Niimi at the NationalInstitute of Infectious Diseases (Japan) and Associate Professor David Harding at the Centrefor Separation Sciences, Massey University (Palmerston North). She also has close contactwith researchers at the pharmaceutical company Astellas Pharma Inc. (Japan). She hasrecently established research collaboration with Dr Hironobu Nakayama at Suzuka NationalCollege of Technology (Japan) on genetic technologies for Candida glabrata.Selected Publications Niimi, K., Maki, K., Ikeda, F., Holmes A.R., Lamping, E., Niimi, M., Monk, B.C., and Cannon, R.D. (2006). Over-expression of Candida albicans CDR1, CDR2 or MDR1 Candida albicans does not produce significant changes in echinocandin susceptibility. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 50:1148-1155.Monk, B.C., Niimi, K., Lin, S., Knight, A., Kardos, T.B., Cannon, R.D., Parshot, R., King, A., Lun, D., and Harding, D.R.K. (2005). Discovery of surface-active fungicidal D- peptide inhibitors of the plasma membrane proton pump that block azole resistance. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 49:57-70.Holmes, A.R., Tsao, S., Ong, S., Lamping, E., Niimi, K., Monk, B.C., Niimi, M., Kaneko, A., Holland, B.R., Schmid, J., and Cannon, R.D. (2006). Heterozygosity and functional allelic variation in the Candida albicans efflux pump genes CDR1 and CDR2. Molecular Microbiology 62:170-186.Wada, S., Tanabe, K., Yamazaki, A., Niimi, M., Uehara, Y., Niimi, K., Lamping, E., Cannon, R.D., and Monk, B.C. (2005). Phosphorylation of Candida glabrata ATP-binding cassette transporter Cdr1p regulates drug efflux activity and ATPase stability. Journal of Biological Chemistry 280: 94-103.Niimi, M., Tanabe, K., Wada, S., Uehara, Y., Niimi, K., Lamping, E., Holmes, A.R., Monk, B.C., and Cannon R.D. (2005). ABC transporters of pathogenic fungi: recent advances in functional analysis. Japanese Journal of Medical Mycology 46:249-260.
  • 44. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYResearch CollaboratorsProfessor R. Cannon, Drs A. Holmes, M. Keniya, E. Lamping, and B. Monk, Oral Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandDrs M. Niimi and K. Tanabe, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, JapanAssociate Professor D. Harding, Massey University, Palmerston North, New ZealandAssociate Professor S. Kajiwara, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, JapanDrs K. Maki and F. Ikeda, Astellas Pharma Inc., Osaka, JapanDr H. Nakayama, Suzuka National College of Technology, Mie, Japanalan G.T. payneBDS MDent DDSc FCDOral RehabilitationAssociate Professor Payne conducts a number of ongoing randomized controlled clinical trialson implant overdentures and single-implant crowns using different loading strategies.Research and Collaboration Associate Professor Alan Payne’s research team conducts clinical and laboratory-basedresearch relating to implant dentures and single-tooth implants in improving the oral-health-related quality of life of both old and young adults. His evidence-based treatmentapproach of reducing the delay between oral implant placement and loading with theprosthesis is internationally recognized in dentistry.Publications Waddell, J.N., Payne A.G.T., and Swain, M.V. (2006). Physical and metallurgical considerations of failures of bar attachment systems for implant overdentures: A review of the literature. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 96:283-8.Hall, J.A.G., Payne, A.G.T., Purton, D., and Torr, B. (2006). A randomized controlled clinical trial of conventional and immediately loaded tapered implants with screw- retained crowns. International Journal of Prosthodontics 19:17-19.Research CollaboratorsProfessor M. MacEntee, Associate Professor Joanne Walton, University of British Columbia, CanadaProfessor J. Feine, McGill University, Montreal, CanadaProfessor R. Mericske-Stern, University of Berne, SwitzerlandProfessor P. Owen, Dr Y. Solomons, University of Witwatersrand, South AfricaProfessor L-J. Ling, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, TaiwanProfessor J. Wennström, University of Göteborg, Sweden Associate Professor T. Walton, University of Sydney, Australia Dr A. Tawse-Smith, University of Colombia, USADr D. Wismeijer, University of Amsterdam, NetherlandsDr M. Esposito, Cochrane Collaboration, University of Manchester, United KingdomResearch Associate Professor C. Sissons, School of Medicine, University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand 
  • 45. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006daVId G. purTonMDS FRACDSOral RehabilitationSenior Lecturer, Head of DepartmentDavid Purton studies the restoration or replacement of teeth with functional, biocompatible,aesthetic and durable fixed prostheses.Research and Collaboration Restoration of endodontically treated teeth is studied in collaboration with AssociateProfessor N. Chandler, of the University of Otago and Dr Alison Qualtrough, Universityof Manchester. Tooth preparations for fixed restorations with particular reference toradiographic assessment and evaluation of a technique using electrical resistance tomeasure proximity of the dental pulp are studied in collaboration with Mr D. Violich,Associate Professor N. Chandler, Professor B. Monteith, of the University of Otago and DrA. Qualtrough. Tooth sensibility testing techniques are optimised in collaboration with MrJ. Lin, Associate Professor N. Chandler and Professor B. Monteith. Clinical protocols fordental implant use in partially dentate patients are tested in collaboration with Mr J. Halland Associate Professor A. Payne.Publication Hall, J.A.G., Payne, A.G.T., Purton, D.G., and Torr, B. (2006). A randomized controlled clinical trial of conventional and immediately loaded, tapered implants with screw- retained crowns. International Journal of Prosthodontics 19:17-19.Research CollaboratorsAssociate Professor N. Chandler, J. Lin, Professor B. Monteith and D. Violich, Oral Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin New ZealandDr A. Qualtrough, University of Manchester, Manchester, EnglandandreW n. QuICkBChD BSc MChD MORTHRCSEdOral SciencesSenior LecturerAreas of research interest include the properties of alloy wire designs for space closure duringorthodontic treatment, as well as the investigation of jaw movement following orthodontictreatment. A clinical trial is under way to investigate therapy of demineralisation of enamelconsequent to orthodontic treatment, using a novel dental delivery device.Research and CollaborationThe properties of nickel titanium orthodontic wires and their application to new roles inclinical space closure is a world first, and in vitro testing over the last five years has set thestage for a clinical trial that will commence in 2007.Enamel demineralisation is an ongoing problem in orthodontics, and a pilot study haselucidated techniques for analysing and quantifying demineralisation changes consequentto different types of therapy. A novel patented device (through Otago Innovation Limited)that will enhance compliance with home-based therapy is being investigated.Mandibular motion studies have not been conducted in orthodontic patients undergoingcertain types of (growth modification) treatment. The changes that take place are beinginvestigated using a 12-camera digital recording system, in collaboration with the Schoolof Physiotherapy.
  • 46. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYSelected Publications Wong, B.K.J., Theobald, A., Thomson, W.M., and Quick, A. (2006). The big OE: NZ dental graduates’ self-reported experience of working overseas. New Zealand Dental Journal, 102:35-8.Murfitt, P.G., Quick, A.N., Swain, M.V., and Herbison, P. (2006). A randomised clinical trial to investigate bond failure rates using a self-etching primer. European Journal of Orthodontics 28: 444-449.Lam, E., Quick, A.N., and Herbison, P. (2006). Cephalometric correction factors for bite opening – a dry skull study. European Journal of Orthodontics 28:378-382.Kieser, J.A., Thomson, W.M., Koopu, P., and Quick, A.N. (2005). Oral piercing and oral trauma in a New Zealand sample. Dental Traumatology 21:254-257.Quick, A.N., Harris, A.M.P., and Joseph, V.P. (2005). Office reconditioning of stainless steel orthodontic attachments. European Journal of Orthodontics 27:231-236.Research CollaboratorsDr G. Johnson, School of Physiotherapy, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandProfessors J. Kieser, Oral Sciences, and M. Swain, Oral Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand Associate Professor P. Herbison, Preventive and Social Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandalIson m. rIChBDS MDSc PhD FRACDS FFOP (RCPA)Oral Diagnostic and Surgical SciencesAssociate Professor Rich investigates various diseases of the oral mucosa, particularlypotentially malignant and malignant oral mucosal lesions.Research and CollaborationCurrently, histological assessment of a biopsy from a potentially malignant oral mucosallesion provides the most accurate information relating to its likely behaviour. Theassessment of dysplasia is subjective, and lesions with dysplasia do not necessarily progressto malignancy. Others indicators of behaviour are required. Using immunohistochemistry,the expression of gene products associated with withdrawal from the cell cycle and apoptosis(p53), inhibitors of cell cycle withdrawal and apoptosis (mdm2, bcl-2) and markers ofcell proliferation (PCNA, Ki-67) in oral hyperplastic, dysplastic and malignant is beingexamined. The role that Candida albicans might play in oral mucosal carcinogenesis is beinginvestigated in conjunction with Dr Ann Holmes and colleagues. Other areas of interestinclude: histological and immunohistochemical changes in oral lichen planus; follow-up ofpatients with oral leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma; and genetic profiles and cellproliferation in odontogenic cysts.PublicationsLou, S.M-Y., Rich, A.M., De Silva, R.K., and Ferguson, M.M. (2006). Pleomorphic adenoma of a molar salivary gland. Oral Oncology Extra 42:170-172.Innes, P.B., and Rich, A.M. (2005.) Changes in the selection of dental students in New Zealand. New Zealand Dental Journal 101:19-21.Research CollaboratorsProfessor R. Cannon and Dr A. Holmes, Oral Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand 
  • 47. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006GreGory J. seymour amBDS MDSc PhD FRCPath FFOP(RCPA) FRACDS(Perio) FICD FADIDean, Faculty of Dentistry and Professor of PeriodontologyProfessor Seymour’s research interests are in the fields of oral immunology, periodontologyand oral mucosal diseases.Research and CollaborationProfessor Seymour is currently working on several large multidisciplinary clinical andbasic science studies. His interests specifically include immunological, microbiological,environmental and genetic risk factors for periodontal disease, and the relationship betweenperiodontal disease and systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Anongoing research project investigates the pattern of gene expression in antigen specific T-cells following stimulation with P. gingivalis, in order to identify possible at risk-patients.The role of molecular mimicry as a possible mechanism underpinning the relationshipbetween infection especially periodontal infection and atherosclerosis is another majorinterest. He is also part of large multidisciplinary group involved in a number of clinicalstudies investigating the relationship between oral and general health.Selected Publications Marchant, J.M., Masters, I.B., Taylor, S.M., Cox, N.C., Seymour, G.J., Chang, A.B. (2006). Evaluation and outcome of young children with chronic cough. Chest 129:1132-41.Gemmell, E., Drysdale, K., Seymour, G.J. (2006). Gene expression in splenic CD4 and CD8 cells from BALB/c mice immunized with Porphyromonas gingivalis. Journal of Periodontology 77:622-633.Ramirez-Yanez, Go., Hamlet, S., Jonarta, A., Seymour, G.J., Symons, A.L. (2006). Prostaglandin E2 enhances transforming growth factor-beta 1 and TGF-beta receptors synthesis: an in vivo and in vitro study. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes & Essential Fatty Acids 74:183-92.Gosling, P.T., Gemmell, E., Carter, C.L., Bird, P.S., Seymour, G.J. (2005). Immunohistological analysis of Tannerella forsythia-induced lesions in a murine model. Oral Microbiology and Immunology. 20:25-30.Nakajima, T., Ueki-Maruayama, K., Oda, T., Ohsawa, Y., Ito, H., Seymour, G.J., Yamazaki, K. (2005). Regulatory T-cells infiltrate periodontal disease tissues. Journal of Dental Research 84:639-643.Research CollaboratorsProfessors M. West, M. Faddy and D. Kavanagh, Associate Professors P. Walker and A. Symons, Drs M. Cullinan, B. Westerman, P.J. Ford, P.S. Bird, T. Holcombe, D. Roberts, S. Hamlet and J. Palmer, University of Queensland, Brisbane, AustraliaDr K Yamazaki, Laboratory of Periodontology and Immunology, Department of Oral Health and Welfare, Niigata University Faculty of Dentistry, Niigata, Japan.Professor N. Lang, University of Berne, Berne, SwitzerlandDr J. Taylor, Department of Oral Biology University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne UKDr O. Tut, Ministry of Health, Republic of Marshall IslandsDr W. Sosroseno, School of Dentistry, Asian Institute of Medicine, Science and Technology, Sungai Petani, Malaysia
  • 48. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYmIChael V. sWaInBSc PhDOral RehabilitationHead, Biomaterials LaboratoryProfessor Swain is developing an understanding of the mechanical behaviour of biomaterials,including teeth, bone, soft tissues and dental restorative materials. By combining the ability toquantify microstructure, understand mechanics and conduct detailed property measurements,it is possible to define the behaviour of materials and systems.Research and Collaboration Over the past few years, Professor Swain has had three major research foci: (i) the mechanicsand mechanisms of craniofacial structures and the failure of dental restorative systems, (ii)the microstructural and micromechanical properties of teeth, including the influence ofdisease (caries) and defective (hypoplasia) conditions; and (iii) remineralisation of enameland dentine.Research on the mechanics and mechanisms of the failure of dental restorative systems hasused detailed knowledge of craniofacial biomechanics, including an effort to understandthe role of the chin in modern man. The failure mechanisms of both restored teeth andoverdenture-supported structures have been evaluated from detailed microstructureanalysis using electron microscopy and finite element analysis. This research has beenin collaboration with PhD students (Ionut Ichim and Neil Waddell), members of staff(Professor Jules Kieser and Associate Professor Alan Payne) and international collaborators(Dr Qing Li at the University of Sydney).The microstructure and mechanical properties of teeth has been a long-term researchinterest. Nano-indentation is used to quantify the spatial dependence of the properties ofenamel and dentine and determine how these properties vary throughout natural cariouslesions in enamel and dentine. It has also involved a critical appraisal of the properties ofhypo-plastic enamel. This research involves Dr Rami Farah (PhD student), and ongoingcollaboration with Associate Professor Nicky Kilpatrick (Melbourne Children’s Hospital),Dr Erin Mahoney (Victoria University Wellington), and Associate Professor BernadetteDrummond (Oral Sciences).The remineralisation and demineralisation of enamel and dentine carious lesions have beenthe subject of collaborations with various groups including the University of Sydney, DrPatrick Schmidlin (University of Zurich), and Associate Professor Chris Sissons, DentalResearch Group, University of Otago Wellington. This research has used microCT andnano-indentation to understanding the mineral gradients and mechanical properties innatural carious and artificial lesions, before and after various remineralisation procedures.Selected PublicationsGuazzato, M., Quach, L., Albakry, M., and Swain, M.V. (2005). Influence of surface and heat treatments on the flexural strength of Y-TZP dental ceramic. Journal of Dentistry 33:9-18.Angker, L., and Swain, M.V. (2006). Nano-indentation: application to dental hard tissue investigations (A review). Journal of Materials Res. 21:1893-1905. Ichim, I., Swain, M.V., Kieser, J. (2006). Mandibular Biomechanics and Development of the Human Chin. Journal of Dental Research 85:638-642.Guazzato, M., Albakry, M., Quach, L., Proos, K., and Swain, M.V. (2005). Influence of surface and heat treatments on the flexural strength of a glass-infiltrated alumina/ zirconia-reinforced dental ceramic. Dental Materials 21: 454-463. Angker, L., Swain, M.V., Kilpatrick, N. (2005). Characterising the micro-mechanical behaviour of carious dentine of primary teeth using nano-indentation. Journal of Biomechanics 38:1535-1542. 
  • 49. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006Research CollaboratorsProfessor J. Kieser and Associate Professor B. Drummond, Oral Sciences, Associate Professor A. Payne and Dr R. Cook, Oral Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandAssociate Professor N. Kilpatrick, Children’s Hospital, Melbourne, AustraliaDr P. Schmidlin, University of Zurich, Zurich, SwitzerlandDr Q. Li, Aeromechanical Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.Professor G. Schneider, Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, Harburg GermanyW. murray ThomsonBSc BDS MComDent MA PhD FICDOral SciencesProfessor Thomson studies oral epidemiology and its implications for public health.Research and CollaborationProfessor Thomson’s epidemiological and clinical research efforts cover a wide range oforal conditions, problems and settings, most notably in the fields of gerodontology, dentalcaries and tooth loss, periodontal disease, dental anxiety and xerostomia. While longitudinalresearch is his favoured approach, he also conduct cross-sectional surveys, secondary analysesof routinely-collected data-sets, and a variety of health services research projects, includingqualitative research. Inequalities in oral health are a recurring theme throughout his work.Since 1998, the University of Otago has designated dental epidemiology and public healthas an Area of Research Strength.He is currently collaborating on a number of projects with researchers from institutionsin New Zealand, Australia, Canada, the USA and Britain. Examples include the DunedinMultidisciplinary Health and Development Study (a prospective observational study of acohort of New Zealanders born in 1972-73) and the South Australian Dental LongitudinalStudy (a prospective observational study of a cohort of older South Australians).Selected Recent Publications Thomson, W.M., Lawrence, H.P., Broadbent, J.M., and Poulton, R. (2006). The impact of xerostomia on oral-health-related quality of life among younger adults. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 4:86-92. Thomson, W.M., Broadbent, J.M., Poulton, R., and Beck, J.D. (2006). Changes in periodontal disease experience from age 26 to 32 in a birth cohort. Journal of Periodontology 77:947-954.Thomson, W.M. (2005). Issues in the epidemiological investigation of dry mouth. Gerodontology 22:65-76.Foster Page, L.A., Thomson, W.M., Jokovic, A., and Locker, D. (2005). Validation of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14). Journal of Dental Research 84:649-652. Thomson, W.M., Poulton, R., Broadbent, J.M., and Al-Kubaisy S. (2006). Xerostomia and medications among 32-year-olds. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 64:249-254.Research CollaboratorsProfessor R. Poulton, School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandProfessor D. Locker, University of Toronto, Toronto, CanadaProfessor J. Beck, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAssociate Professor J. Chalmers, University of Iowa, Iowa City, USAProfessors G. Slade and A. Spencer, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, AustraliaProfessors J. Newton, A. Caspi, and T. Moffitt, University of London, London, England
  • 50. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYGeoffrey r. TompkInsBSc PGDipSci PhDOral SciencesSenior LecturerCo-ordinator: University of Otago Oral Microbiology and Dental Health Research ThemeTooth decay and periodontal disease are two of the most prevalent diseases afflicting humans.Dr Tompkins is interested in (i) understanding how oral bacteria are able to acquire theiron that they need to survive, grow and cause disease, and (ii) the huge variety of bacteriaassociated with the teeth; why there is such variety and whether the differences betweenindividuals can be exploited in the forensic analysis of bite marks.Research and CollaborationHaem acquisition by periodontal gram-negative anaerobic bacteria (in particular,Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia). Both of these organisms have arequirement for haem which they acquire from their mammalian host. The project aimsto determine the mechanisms of bacterial haem acquisition in the presence of high-affinitymammalian haem-sequestering proteins. Dr Tompkins is also interested in the influence ofbacterial haem status on resistance to host defensive factors such as reactive oxygen species.Recovery and comparison of oral bacteria from bite marks for forensic purposes. Becauseof difficulties in the analysis of bite marks by traditional morphometric methods andmammalian DNA recovery methods, it may be feasible to recover oral streptococci frombite marks and compare their genomic profiles with those from the teeth of suspects. Thepractical aspects of this project have been undertaken entirely by undergraduate dentalstudents.A method for rapid quantitation of salivary Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinusby Real-Time PCR is being developed. It is expected that this method will be used in contractresearch, as several companies have approach the School of Dentistry seeking assistance inthe clinical assessment of topical antimicrobials for oral health care.An ongoing industry collaboration with AgResearch (Ruakura) studies the inhibition bymilk products of Streptococcus mutans colonisation.Publications Heng, N.C.K., Tagg J.R., and Tompkins G.R. (2006). Identification and characterization of the loci encoding the competence-associated alternative σ factor of Streptococcus gordonii. FEMS Microbiol. Letts 259:27-34.Rahimi, M., Heng, N.C.K., Kieser, J.A., and Tompkins, G.R. (2005). Genotypic comparison of bacteria recovered from human bite marks and teeth using arbitrarily-primed PCR (AP-PCR). Journal of Applied Microbioogy 99:1265–1270. Tompkins, G.R. (2005). Genotypic comparison of oral bacteria isolated from bite marks and teeth. In: Dorion R.B.J. Bitemark Evidence. Marcel Dekker, New York, USA.Kieser, J.A., Tompkins, G.R., Buckingham, D., Firth, N.A., and Swain, M.V. (2005). Bitemarks: presentation, analysis and evidential reliability. Forensic Pathology Reviews 3, 157–179.Research Collaborators Drs B. Haigh and L. Carpenter, AgResearch Ltd., Ruakura, New ZealandProfessor J. Tagg and Dr R. Simmonds, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandProfessor J. Kieser, Oral Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandDrs J. Horswell and C. McDonald, ESR, Kenepuru, New Zealand 
  • 51. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006darryl C. TonGBDS MBChB MDS FFDRCSI FDSRCSOral Diagnostic and Surgical SciencesSenior LecturerDarryl Tong’s main areas of interest include oral and maxillofacial trauma and generaltrauma medicine, especially ballistic injuries to the face and jaws. Other interests includemilitary medicine, oral cancer and medicine in relation to dentistry. Collaboration withcolleagues within the Faculty of Dentistry and with other surgical colleagues at DunedinHospital is an ongoing commitment.PublicationsTong, D.C. (2006). Buccal advancement flap closure of oro-antral communication. New Zealand Dental Association News 132:38-39. Tong, D.C. (2006). Commentary on Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Endocarditis. New Zealand Dental Journal 102:69-70.J. neIl WaddellMDipTech PGDipCDTech HDEOral RehabilitationSenior LecturerNeil is an expert in dental technology aspects of implant overdentures, all-ceramic and metal-ceramic systems, brazing and soldering of dental alloys and dental technology materials.Selected PublicationsWaddell, J.N., Payne, A.G.T., and Swain, M.V. (2006). Physical and metallurgical considerations of failures of solder joints in bar attachment systems for implant overdentures: a review of the literature. Journal of Prostheic Dentistry. 96:283-8.Kieser, J., Herbison, P., Waddell, J.N., Kardos, T., and Innes, P. (2006). Learning in oral biology: a comparison between deep and surface approaches. New Zealand Dental Journal 102(3):64-68.Tholey, M.J., Waddell, J.N., and Swain, M.V. (2006). Influence of the bonder on the adhesion of porcelain to machined titanium as determined by the strain energy release rate, Dent. Mater. [Epub ahead of print].Homann, F., Waddell, J.N., and Swain, M.V. (2006). Influence of water, loading rate and bonder on the adhesion of porcelain to titanium, Journal of Dentistry. 31:775-84. Kuzmanovic, D.V., and Waddell, J.N. (2005). Fabrication of a self-retaining surgical template for surgical placement of dental implants for the partially edentulous patient. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 93:95-6.Research CollaboratorsProfessor J. Kieser, Oral Sciences, Professor M. Swain, Associate Professor A. Payne and I. Ichim, Oral Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand W. Birch, Department of Anatomy, University College, Gower Street, London, EnglandDr A.Tawse-Smith, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, EnglandProfessor H. Nicholson, School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand Dr V. Bernal, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina Associate Professor A. Pullan and Dr O. Roehrle, Bioengineering Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Associate Professor J. Bronlund, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand0
  • 52. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYGraduaTe sTudenT researChThe School of Dentistry offers an outstanding environment for graduates seeking the clinicalexpertise and research experience required for professional and academic qualifications.Until now, all graduate students in the Masters degree programmes have carried out researchprojects as part of the requirements for their degrees. In the Master of Dental Surgeryprogrammes, the research has been presented either as a paper ready for submission, aresearch report or a thesis. In the Master of Community Dentistry programme, the researchhas involved the presentation of a thesis. The Faculty also has 16 students enrolled in PhDstudy.From 2007, the Faculty is introducing the degree of Doctor of Clinical Dentistry, a taughtprogramme with a significant research component. The level of training (involving aspecialist level of clinical competence, together with the knowledge and research that isexpected of our graduates completing a training programme and entering independentspecialist practice) is recognised to be at the level of a doctorate. The degree is endorsed(as appropriate) in the specialist disciplines of Endodontics, Orthodontics, Special NeedsDentistry, Periodontology, Oral Pathology, Paediatric Dentistry, Oral and MaxillofacialSurgery, Oral Medicine or Prosthodontics.The Doctorate embodies significant research involving both an independent research projectleading to a thesis, and clinical research, including clinical audit and reviews. Graduatesfrom the programme are expected to be able to not only practise in their specialist field,but to have demonstrated also a high level of competence in research within their specialistdiscipline. The Master of Dental Surgery programme will continue in the disciplines ofOral Surgery, General Dental Practice and Biomaterials Science. The Master of CommunityDentistry programme also remains.a GraduaTe sTudenT researCh suCCess sToryIonut Ichim is a dentally qualified graduate who has been in the Faculty of Dentistry forthree years undertaking a PhD. He has brought to the Faculty computer-based modellingskills that have wide application in understanding craniofacial biomechanics and the elasticand fracture properties of dental materials. Ionut was recently appointed as a lecturer inthe Department of Oral Rehabilitation. His unique perspectives and training enable anengineering-based work-frame for craniofacial biomechanical research that is developingnew questions and providing solutions to them. The linear elastic and non-linear analysis isused to explore the properties of craniofacial tissues.Ionut applied the reverse-engineering method to the development of the human chin inorder to assess its biomechanical significance. The most widespread theory on humanchin development was tested and found be invalid. An alternative explanation of thebiomechanical events that may have led to the development of the chin was then successfullytested. This indicated that the action of the tongue during non-masticatory activity (such asarticulated speech) may have led to the development of the human chin.In another application, the problem of restoration of non-carious cervical lesions waschosen because their treatment poses significant clinical difficulties. Firstly, elements offracture mechanics were explored in a non-linear explicit discrete numerical work-frame.Linear elastic analysis was then used to investigate why the restorations fail. Finally, discretenumerical modelling employed in a forward-engineering fashion was used to estimate theoptimal elastic properties of the restorative materials. The study revealed the inability of theexisting restoratives to cope with the mechanical demands of such lesions and identified theelastic properties of a more suitable material. 
  • 53. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006posTGraduaTe sTudenTs GraduaTInG In 00-00 00 Master of Community Dentistry P. Koopu Professor W.M Thomson, Kia pakari mai nga niho: oral health Dr J Baxter outcomes, self-report oral health measures and oral health service utilisation among Mäori and non-Mäori. Master of Dental Surgery M. Al-Zubeaidi Associate Professor A. Payne, Patient satisfaction with implant Professor W.M. Thomson overdentures: a longitudinal study. H. English Professor W.M. Thomson, Periodontal disease in New Zealand mothers Dr W. Duncan with premature low birth-weight infants: a case-control study. J. Hall Associate Professor A. Payne, Immediate loading of single implants. Professor W.M. Thomson, D. Purton D. Kirk Professor R. Love The influence or two different flap designs on the incidence of pain, swelling, trismus and alveolar osteitis in the week following third molar surgery. C. Lewis Professor M. Ferguson, R. De Silva, A retrospective analysis comparing the value D. Tong, P. Liston, of three imaging techniques used for the Professor W.M. Thomson investigation of internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint. D. Tan Professor W.M Thomson, A randomized controlled clinical trial of Dr W. Duncan conventional and immediate loading of tapered single implants with crowns. 00 Doctor of Philosophy J. Broughton Professor W.M. Thomson, Orango niho: a review of Mäori dental Associate Professor R. McGee health service provision using a kaupapa Mäori methodology. Master of Community Dentistry P. Malden Professor W.M. Thomson, K. Ayers Oral-health-related Qualityof Life of children receiving dental treatment under general anaesthetic at Wellington and Kenepuru Hospitals. Master of Dental Surgery J. Eggerath Dr W. Duncan Conventionally- and immediately-loaded tapered implants in a sheep mandibular model. T. Gracia Professor B. Monteith, Associate Accuracy of size estimations by dentists of Professor N. Chandler simulated pulp exposures and cavity reparations.
  • 54. FACULTY OF DENTISTRY C. Minguez Professor B. Monteith, K. Lyons Altered jaw posture leading to occlusal disruption following mandibular advancement therapy for sleep apnoea: A follow-up study using cephalometric predictors. B. Patel Professor M. Meikle, T. Milne Molecular events involved in mechanically- induced connective remodeling and bone resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. D. Rose A. Quick Moment to force ratio characteristics of preactivated Japanese NiTi and TMA closing loops. B. Singh Professor J. Kieser, Professor Tongue pressure dynamics and mandibular M. Swain morphology. R. Te Moananui Professor J. Kieser, Professor Tooth development standards for New W.M Thomson Zealand Mäori children. Master of Health Sciences J. Egan Associate Professor A. Payne, Denturism in New Zealand: a survey of the Professor W.M. Thomson impact of their service. J. Aarts Associate Professor A. Payne, Comparison of two different occlusal Professor W.M. Thomson schemes for implant overdentures.enrolled posTGraduaTe sTudenTs 00-00 Doctor of Philosophy K. Ayers Professor W.M. Thomson, The New Zealand dental workforce. Associate Professor A. Rich M. Bakri Dr A. Holmes, Associate Professor Role of Candida albicans in pre-cancerous A. Rich oral lesions. J. Broadbent Professor W.M. Thomson, Professor A life-course approach to oral health R. Poulton, Professor J. Kieser inequalities. J. Doss Professor W.M. Thomson, Oral-health-related quality-of-life Associate Professor B. Drummond measurement for oral cancer patients in Malaysia. R. Farah Associate Professor B. Drummond, Investigating the structure and hardness of Professor M. Swain hypomineralised dental enamel and novel treatments to improve the quality of the enamel. F. Fischer Professor R. Cannon, Dr A. Holmes Inhibition of Candida albicans adherence by immunoglobulins. L. Foster-Page Professor W.M. Thomson, A. Quick Malocclusion and orthodontic care: a health services investigation. 
  • 55. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006 R. Hashim Professor W.M. Thomson, K. Ayers Oral health of pre-school children in the Emirate of Ajman, UAE. D. Healey Professor W.M. Thomson, Expectations and satisfaction with Associate Professor R. Gauld orthodontic treatment. I. Ichim Professor J. Kieser, Biomechanical aspects of mastication. Professor M. Swain, Associate Professor A. Payne D. Kuzmanovic Professor R. Love, Effect of endodontic access cavities on the Professor M. Swain structural integrity of all-ceramic crowns. K. Lyons Professor R. Cannon, Professor Biofilm formation on materials used to make R. Love obturators. K Matejka Dr G. Tompkins Biofilm formation by Moraxella catarrhalis. A. Meldrum Professor J. Kieser, Associate Challenging dominant epistemologies: Professor A. Harland professional education in Dentistry. A. Quick Professor J. Kieser, Professor M. The influence of orthodontic and Swain, Dr G. Johnson, P. Herbison orthognathic therapy on mandibular motion. N. Waddell Professor M. Swain, Physical and metallurgical assessment of bar- Associate Professor A Payne joint and bar-attafhment solder joints in Professor J Kieser implant overdentures; an in vivo study. Master of Community Dentistry P. Sussex Professor W.M. Thomson, Understanding edentulism among older Dr R.P. Fitzgerald Pakeha New Zealanders. Master of Dental Surgery R. Anning Professor W.M. Thomson, A survey of postgraduate orthodontic A. Quick students worldwide. J. Buchanan Associate Professor A. Rich, The effect of continuous tensile strain on R. De Silva, Contribution RANKL, OPG, M-CSF and IL1β by Dr P Priest periodontal ligament fibroblasts in vitro. D. Campbell D. Kuzmanovic, R. De Silva, Osseointegration of dental implants coated Professor R. Love with keratin product: an in vivo investigation. D Fitzgibbon Dr W. Duncan, D. Holborow Immediately-loaded Branemark TiUnite implants in the sheep mandibular model. B. Gaffey Professor M. Meikle, T. Milne The effect of continuous tensile strain on RANKL, OPG, M-CSF and IL1β by periodontal ligament fibroblasts in vitro. R. Jattan D. Kuzmanovic, R. De Silva, Immediate loading of implants with fixed full Professor R. Love arch prostheses: All-On-Four Concept. D. Kennedy Professor J. Kieser, Professor Use of a newly developed technique to M. Swain measure intraoral pressures during mastication, swallowing and speech.
  • 56. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYJ. Kim Dr W. Duncan, J. Leichter Immediately-loaded 3i Osseotite NT implants in the sheep mandibular model.J. Lin Associate Professor N. Chandler, The optimum electrode placement site for D. Purton electric pulp testing of first molar teeth.A. Mackie Associate Professor A. Payne, Mandibular 2-implant overdentures: K. Lyons, Professor W.M. Thomson Prosthodontic maintenance using different matrices with different loading strategies.T. Mackie Dr G. Tompkins, D. Holborow Haem-binding bacteria in periodontitis.C. O’Shea A. Quick, S. Johnson The effect of functional appliances on (Physiotherapy) mandibular motion.D. Parmar C. Hauman, J. Leichter, Lasers for root canal preparation and Dr G. Tompkins disinfection.K. Patel R. De Silva Correlation of clinical diagnosis and histopathological diagnosis of oral mucosal lesions.M. Pinkerton Professor M. Meikle, T. Milne The effect of continuous tensile strain on RANKL, OPG, M-CSF and IL1β by periodontal ligament fibroblasts in vitro.R. Roy Associate Professor N. Chandler, Effect of illusions on root-end cavity C. Hauman, R. O’Shea (Psychology) preparations.K. Selvarajah Professor R. Love, R. De Silva, Interpersonal violence and change in legal D. Tong drinking age.L. Soo J. Leichter, Professor G. Seymour, A comparative, in vivo study of an Er:YAG M. Cullinan Laser, Er:YSGG Laser, ultrasonic scaling and hand scaling/root planning for periodontal treatment.R. Verma Dr W. Duncan, Professor Retrospective analysis of clinical and G. Seymour, M. Cullinan microbiological status of patients provided with dental implants at the School of Dentistry.D. Violich Associate Professor N. Chandler, Effect of the smear layer on the prepometer D. Purton dentine measuring instrument.D. Wescott Professor M. Meikle, T. Milne A cDNA microarray analysis of the effect of intermittent tensile mechanical strain on the expression of osteogenic genes by cultured human periodontal ligament cells.Master of Health SciencesB. Torr Professor M. Swain, Associate Fracture and flexural strength of four single Professor A. Payne tooth implant-borne ceramic systems: An in vitro study. 
  • 57. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006 I. van Staden Professor M. Swain, Associate A study on the force distribution in a single Professor A. Payne distal implant used to provide support and retention for partial dentures in mandibular Kennedy Class I situations. An in-vitro photo-elastic study. Postgraduate Diploma in Clinical Dentistry K. Becconsall-Ryan Professor R. Love, Associate A clinical and histopathological analysis of Professor A. Rich, D. Tong radiolucent lesions of the jaws. Postgraduate Diploma in Pharmacy A. Nguyen Dr B. Monk, Dr J. Tyndall The expression of glioma related pathogenesis protein in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae system. John Broughton after receiving the Te Amorangi National Mäori Academic Excellence Award in the presence of King Tuheitia
  • 58. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYsummer sTudenTshIps student supervisor(s) Title of research project award 00-00 L. Bateman A Meldrum Elderly Oral Health (Christchurch Oral Colgate Summer Studentship Health Unit). J. Chou Dr D Boyd The effect of ozone on the dental pulp. Sir John Walsh Summer Studentship H. Clarke Dr S. MacFarlane Head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma R.C. Tonkin Summer Studentship Dr D. Hay (Auck.DHB) (and other soft tissue sarcoma) in a Dr A Rich New Zealand paediatric population. A. Ljubin Associate Professor R. Love IRL dental ultrasound probe. Industrial Research Limited S. Luxton Professor J. Kieser Database input. NZDRF Research Grant R. Stettler Professor J. Kieser The cervical finish line as a determinant Auckland Dental Association I. Ichim of the stress pattern in PFM coronal restorations; a linear finite element anlaysis. Y-T. Ting Dr N. Heng Molecular characterisation of anginolysin Oral Microbiology and Dental Health Professor J. Tagg A, a lytic bacteriocin produced by Theme Streptococcus anginosus. G. Turton Dr D. Boyd The effect of ozone on enamel and dentine. Ministry of Health A. Ukra Professor J. Kieser Anatomical study of the floor of the Deputy Vice-Chancellor’s Grant mouth and maxillary artery. B. Wong D. Holborow Radiographic determination of alveolar NZ Periodontology Society J. Leichter crest levels in a young adult New Zealand population. N.C. Yang Professor R. Cannon Are suger-free sweets good for your teeth? Oral Microbiology and Dental Health Theme J. Zhu Dr R. Simmonds Quantitation of Steptococcus mutans and Oral Microbiology and Dental Dr G. Tompkins Streptococcus sobrinus in saliva by Health Theme polymerase chain reaction. 00-00 O. Allsobrook J. Leichter, Evaluation of the performance of dental NZ Periodontology Society D. Holborow im-plant drills. A. Bhatnagar H. Tan What are 8-year-olds’ perceptions of why Colgate Summer Studentship K. Hore teeth decay/oral health in general. R. Keng Dr B. Monk Fungal drug efflux pump inhibitor Oral Microbiology and Dental Dr K. Niimi discovery. Health Theme A. McCaw Professor J. Tagg Investigation of three novel bacteriocins Oral Microbiology and Dental Dr N. Heng (streptococcins) produced by Health Theme Streptococcus pyogenes. A. Mladenovski Professor J. Kieser 3D: A new patient medium for wisdom Auckland Dental Association tooth removal. S. Raju Professor J. Kieser Nanohardness of eroded teeth. Sir John Walsh Summer Professor M. Swain Studentship I. Ichim 
  • 59. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006C. Samaranayaka Dr B. Monk Packaging for DNA for efficient for Health Research Council Summer transformation of the oral pathogen Studentship Streptococcus mutans.E. Sim Professor M. Swain Effect of improving mineralisation of R.C. Tonkin Summer Studentship Associate Professor B. hypermineralised teeth on their Drummond mechanical properties.D. Soma Associate Professor C. Sissons Antimicrobial effects of botanic Oral Microbiology and Dental Health mouthrinses on plaque microcosm Theme biofilms.R. Stettler Professor M. Swain Metal coping design as determination of Otago Branch NZ Dental Association I. Ichim the stress pattern in PFM coronal restoration: a combined numerical experimental approach.J. Wang Professor R. Cannon Modification of a patented yeast Oral Microbiology and Dental Health Dr E. Lamping membrane protein hyper-expression Theme vector pABC3 to also achieve low and medium levels of expression.00-00R. Friedlander Dr G. Tompkins Molecular microbiological analysis of Oral Microbiology and Dental Health Dr J. Horswell bite marks. ThemeL. Hsu Dr G. Tompkins Bacterial DNA comparison of human bite R.C. Tonkin Summer Studentship (D. Power) marks and teeth by non-culturing molecular methods.J. Kaur Dr A. Rich Retrospective audit of the outcomes of the Auckland Dental Association Dr D. Hay Marx Protocol for prophylactic hyperbaric Summer Studentship Dr H. MacDonald oxygen therapy in management dental extractions following radiotherapy to head and neck.R. Keng Dr K. Niimi Discovery of inhibitors of the fungal Health Research Council Summer Dr B. Monk plasma membrane proton pump. StudentshipJ. Koh Dr B. Monk Mode of action of novel antifungals. Oral Microbiology and Dental Health ThemeY. Lim A. Quick Effect of temperature changes on Japanese Otago Branch NZ Dental Association NiTi and TMA closing loops.A. Marshal A. Meldrum An investigation of the health promotion Colgate Summer Studentship K. Morgaine and health education practices of New Zealand registered dental therapists and dental hygienists.S. Raju Dr A. Holmes Candida albicans plasma membrane efflux NZ Dental Research Foundation Professor R. Cannon pumps: functional analysis and micro- Board evolution.J. Rothnie Dr P. Ford Cross-reactive antibody responses to heat NZ Society of Periodontology shock proteins in atherosclerosis and periodontal disease.C. Samaranayaka Dr B. Monk Reconstitution of a thermophile DNA Sir John Walsh Summer gyrase for structural studies and drug Studentship discovery. 
  • 60. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYVIsITInG researCh felloWs 00 19 April Professor Jorgen Slots University of Professor Slots researches - 4 May Colgate Guest Lecturer 2005 Southern antimicrobial periodontal therapy California, USA and systemic complications from periodontal infections. January Professor Karen B. Williams University of Professor Williams investigates - 28 April Missouri-Kansas dental product efficacy, geriatric City Missouri, USA oral health, periodontics. 23 February Dr Minho Lee Chonbuk National Dr Lee specializes in cytotoxicity, 22 August 2006 Postgraduate Visiting Fellow University, Jeonju, bio-materials, bioceramics, nano- Republic of Korea biomaterials and tissue engineering. 1 May Dr Herenia Lawrence University of Dr Lawrence researches oral health - 1 August Postgraduate Visiting Fellow Toronto, Canada and the oral health quality of life of Canadians. 1 September Dr Patrick Schmidlin University of Zürich, Dr Schmidlin studies the - 1 December Postgraduate Visiting Fellow Switzerland remineralisation potential of materials on dentine and enamel in vitro. 19 September Dr Sonia Williams University of Leeds, Professor Williams’ research - 28 October William Evans Visiting UK interests are health promotion and Fellow oral health, nutrition and periodontal disease, tobacco use and osteoporosis. 3 October Emeritus Professor Edwina Kings College, Professor Kidd studies dental caries. - 30 October Kidd, Sir Thomas K. Sidey University of Visiting Professor London, UK 29 October Dr John Bowley Goldman School of Dr Bowley’s research interests lie in - 15 January Postgraduate Visiting Fellow Medicine, Boston the field of prosthodontics. University USA 00 2 July Professor Gary C Armitage University of Professor Armitage develops new - 28 August Sir Thomas K. Sidey California, methods to diagnose and treat Visiting Professor San Francisco, USA periodontal diseases. July Dr Adeleke O. Oginni Obafemi Awolowo Dr Oginni studies include - September Postgraduate Visiting Fellow University, Ile-Ife, pulp stones and canal calcifications Nigeria and management of enamel hypoplasias in the dimensions of pulps. 29 October Professor Jaroslav Mencik University of Professor Mencik researches the - 8 December Postgraduate Visiting Fellow Pardubice, Czech mechanical properties of dental Republic materials. 1 November Associate Professor Susumu Tokyo Institute of Associate Professor Kajiwara - 30 June 2007 Kajiwara Technology, investigates adhesion by Candida Postgraduate Visiting Fellow Yokohama, Japan albicans and protein expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 
  • 61. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006researCh fundInG 00-00 Year Approved Project Title Principal Investigator Funder Total $ 2006 Candida albicans: Survival without sex? Professor R. Cannon Marsden Fund with Massey University 315721 2006 Membrane protein structure and Professor R. Cannon NZ Lottery Grants Board 51559 function. 2006 Biofilm formation on prosthetic K. Lyons International Society for Maxillofacial 2308 materials used to restore maxillary Rehabilitation resection defects. 2006 Molecular analysis of antifungal Professor R. Cannon Japan Health Sciences Foundation 16667 resistance and identification of drug targets in pathogenic fungi. 2006 The effect of non-surgical peridontal M. Cullinan Colgate Palmolive 176000 treatment and the use of a Triclosan containing dentifrice on glycaemic control in type-2 diabetics. 2006 Inhibition of fungal drug efflux pump Dr B. Monk Japan Health Sciences Foundation 68493 CaCdr1p. 2006 Oral health among older people in Professor W.M. Thomson Health Research Council of NZ 112517 Otago/Southland. 2006 Development of risk for chronic diseases: Professor R Poulton, Health Research Council of NZ 3890260 a longitudinal multidisciplinary study Professor W.M. Thomson (programme grant). 2006 Craniofacial Biomechanics – future Professor J. Kieser University of Otago Competitive strategies. Symposium Funding 10000 2006 Satisfaction and expectations in D. Healey NZ Dental Research Foundation 1500 orthodontic treatment. 2006 In vivo response to sheep osseous Dr W. Duncan Chonbuk National University 110000 models – anodised dental implants in sheep models. 2006 Heme acquisition by periodontal bacteria. Dr G. Tompkins University of Otago 20000 2006 Involvement of glycolytic enzymes in Dr G. Tompkins NZ Dental Research Foundation 7000 destruction of hemopexin by the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. 2006 Candida albicans and oral cancer Dr A. Rich NZ Dental Research Foundation 5820 progression – linked by alcohol metabolism? 2006 Centrifuge for oral microbial research – Dr K. Niimi NZ Dental Research Foundation 6385 equipment grant. 2006 Biofilm formation on prosthetic K.Lyons NZ Dental Research Foundation 5320 materials used to restore maxillary resection defects. 2006 Lasers for root canal preparation and Dr J. Leichter New Zealand Society of Endodontics 7820 disinfection. 2006 Lasers for root canal preparation and Dr J. Leichter NZ Dental Research Foundation 7820 disinfection. 2006 Tongue pressure dynamics during eating, Professor J. Kieser NZ Dental Research Foundation 5150 swallowing and speech. 0
  • 62. FACULTY OF DENTISTRY Year Approved Project Title Principal Investigator Funder Total $ 2006 Bench-top fermentation system. Associate Professor G. Cook, Lottery Grants Board 70000 Professor R Cannon 2006 School of Medicine Research Award. P. Dawes, Professor R. University of Otago 34497 Cannon 2006 Molecular analysis of antifungal Professor R. Cannon Japan Health Sciences Foundaiton 82082 resistance and identification of drug targets in pethogenic fungi. 2006 AIDS: Fungal transporters; from Professor R. Cannon National Institutes of Health USA 1393610 resistance to new antifungals. 2006 Developing measures of voice prosthesis Professor R. Cannon University of Otago 20000 failure for future therapeutic clinical trials. 2006 Saliva components with health potential. Professor R. Cannon University of Otago Contestable Funding to Support Symposia 8925 2006 Molecular events involved in Professor M. Meikle NZ Dental Research Foundation 6140 mechanically induced connective tissue remodelling and bone resorption during orthodontic tooth movement in a rat. 2006 Inhibition of colonisation of A. Meldrum AgResearch 10701 Streptococcus mutans by milk products. 2006 Saliva components with health potential. Professor R.Cannon University of Otago 8925 2006 Mechanisms of low susceptibility to Professor R. Cannon Astellas 119512 micafungin in Candida glabrata. 2006 Investigation of dental lasers in J. Leichter Kavo Company 11757 periodontal and endodontic treatment. 2006 Inhibition of attachment of Dr G. Tompkins AgResearch 20000 streptococcus mutans by milk products. 2006 Biotechnological and pharmaceutical Dr B. Monk University of Otago 42300 applications of recombinant DNA gyrase. 2006 Welding Knowledge. A. Meldrum NZ Dental Research Foundation 1500 2006 How does the periodontal pathogen Dr G. Tompkins University of Otago 25799 Porphyromonas gingivalis outsmart hemopexin when scavenging for heme? 2006 Influence of sodium hypo-chlorite Professor M. Swain NZ Dental Research Foundation 6000 solutions on the micro-mechanical properties of sound and hypo-plastic enamel. 2006 Malocclusion and orthodontic care: a Professor W.M. Thomson Maurice and Phyllis Paykel Trust 22500 HSR investigation. 2005 Purification system for biochemical and Dr B. Monk – OMDH Theme University of Otago Theme 50000 structural analysis of soluble, membrane Competitive Fund and cell surface proteins. 2005 Dental age for New Zealand Mäori Professor J. Kieser, Health Research Council of NZ 10000 adolescents. R. TeMoananui 2005 Craniofacial bloodspatter analysis. Professor J Kieser, NZ Police ESR Capability 5150 Dr M Taylor Development Fund 2005 High resolution X-ray micro-tomograph. Professor J. Kieser NZ Lottery Grants Board 172000 2005 Malocclusion and orthodontic care: a Associate Professor W.M. Maurice and Phyllis Paykel Trust 22500 health services investigation. Thomson 
  • 63. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006 Year Approved Project Title Principal Investigator Funder Total $ 2005 Conference Grant (ANZ IADR), Associate Professor A. Payne NZ Dental Research Foundation 2260 Queenstown, Sept 2005. 2005 A within-subject comparison of a new Associate Professor A. Payne Ivaclar Vivadent (NZ), Shalfoon (NZ) 6000 physiological occlusal scheme for complete denture patients with mandibular 2-implant overdentures. 2005 The response of human periodontal Professor M. Meikle NZ Dental Research Foundation 6500 ligament fibroblasts to tensile and compressive mechanical strain in vitro. 2005 Osstell Mentor Resonance Frequency Dr W. Duncan NZ Dental Research Foundation 6919 analysis instrument and SmartPeg transducers (equipment). 2006 AIDS: Fungal transporters; from Professor R. Cannon National Institutes of Health USA 1393610 resistance to new antifungals. 2005 High-speed centrifuge for oral microbial Associate Professor NZ Dental Research Foundation 4825 research. R. Cannon 2005 45th Meeting of the Australian/NZ Associate Professor Health Research Council of NZ 8250 Division of the International R. Cannon Association for Dental Research. 2005 Susceptibility of Candida glabrata strains Associate Professor Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Company 13333 from Fukuoka University to micafungin. R. Cannon 2005 Susceptibility of Candida glabrata strains Associate Professor Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Company 93333 from Teikyo University to micafungin. R. Cannon 2005 Efflux pump ABCA1: a new target for Associate Professor University of Otago 40000 atherosclerosis? R. Cannon 2005 Salivary quantitation of cariogenic Dr G. Tompkins University of Otago 9000 bacteria by polymerase chain reaction. 2005 Analysis of jaw motion in subjects A. Quick NZ Association of Orthodontists 2500 undergoing functional appliance treatment. 2005 Remineralization of decalcified tooth A. Quick University of Otago 27502 enamel consequent to orthodontic treatment. 2005 The role of matrix metalloproteinases in Professor M. Meikle University of Otago 10000 the regulation of extracellular matrix proteolysis during craniofacial morphogenesis. 2005 Characterising the oral microbiota of a Professor W.M.Thomson University of Otago 101128 population sample of adults using checkerboard analysis. 2005 Osseointegration of dental implants D. Kuzmanovic University of Otago 29008 coated with hydroxyapatite-reconstituted keratin: An in vivo investigation. 2005 Tongue pressure dynamics and Professor J. Kieser University of Otago 24005 mandibular morphology. 2005 Impact of oranga niho on quality of life Associate Professor Health Research Council of NZ 5000 of rangatahi Mäori. J. Broughton 2005 New Zealand Drivers Study Associate Professor Health Research Council of NZ 200000 (part of programme grant). J. Broughton 
  • 64. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYfaCulTy publICaTIons 00-00Angker, L., and Swain, M.V. (2006). Nano-indentation: application to dental hard tissue investigations (A review). Journal of Materials Res. 21:1893-1905. Ayers, K.M.S., Meldrum, A.M., Thomson, W.M., and Newton, J.T. (2006). The working practices and job satisfaction of dental hygienists in New Zealand. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 66:186-91. Barker, M.J., Thomson, W.M., and Poulton, R. (2005). Personality traits in adolescence and satisfaction with orthodontic treatment in young adulthood. Australian Orthodontic Journal 21:87-93.Broadbent, J.M., Thomson, W.M., and Poulton, R. (2006). Progression of dental caries and tooth loss between the third and fourth decades of life: a birth cohort study. Caries Research 40:459-465.Broadbent, J.M., Thomson, W., and Poulton, R. (2006). Oral health beliefs in adolescence and oral health in young adulthood. Journal of Dental Research 85:339-43. Broadbent, J.M., and Thomson, W.M. (2005) For debate: problems with the DMF index pertinent to dental caries data analysis. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 33:400-09. Broadbent, J.M., Thomson, W.M., and Poulton, R. (2006). Progression of dental caries and tooth loss between the third and fourth decades of life: a birth cohort study. Caries Research 40:459-465. Broadbent, J.M., Thomson, W.M., and Williams, S.M. (2005). Does caries in primary teeth predict enamel defects in permanent teeth? A longitudinal study. Journal of Dental Research 84: 260-264. Broadbent, J.M., Williams, K.B., Thomson, W.M., and Williams, S.M. (2006). Dental restorations: a risk factor for periodontal attachment loss? Journal of Clinical Periodontology 33:803-810. Broughton, J.R. (2006). Oranga Niho: A review of Mäori oral health service provision utilising a kaupapa Mäori methodology. PhD thesis, University of Otago. Buchanan, J.E., Friedlander, L.T., Colquhoun, A.N., Evans, S.A., Whitley, B.D., and Thomson, W.M. (2005). A 12-year study of maxillofacial trauma at Waikato Hospital. New Zealand Medical Journal 118-1217. Cannon, R.D., and Firth, N.A. (2006). Fungi and fungal infections of the oral cavity. In Oral microbiology and immunology. R.J. Lamont, R.A. Burne, M.S. Lantz, D.J. LeBlanc (eds), ASM Press, Washington, ISBN 1- 55581-262-7 pp 333-348.Chandler, N.P., Ng, B.P., and Monteith, B.D. (2005). Radiographic recognition and distribution of approximal carious lesions in New Zealand undergraduate dental students. New Zealand Dental Journal 101:106-109.Cho, S.Y., and Drummond, B.K. (2006). Solitary median maxillary central incisor and normal stature: a report of three cases. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 16:128–134.Dennison, K.J., Kieser, J.A., and Herbison, P. (2005). Incidence and expression of the subcondylar tubercle of the mandible in early Polynesians and modern Indians and Europeans. Anthropologischer Anzeiger 63:129-140.Dias, G., Kieser, J.A., and Dennison, K.J. (2005). Patent premaxillary suture in adult early Polynesians – a pathological feature? Journal of Palaeopathology 16:155-161.Dias, G.D., Premachandra, I.M., Mahoney, T., and Kieser, J.A. (2005). A new approach to improve TMJ morphological information from plain film radiographs. Journal of Craniomandibular Practice 23:30-38.Ford, P.J., Gemmell, E., and Seymour, G.J. (2005). The immunopathology of periodontal disease: links with atherosclerosis. Microbiology Australia 26:127-129.Ford, P.J., Gemmell, E., Hamlet, S.M., Hasan, A., Walker, P.J., West, M.J., Cullinan, M.P., and Seymour, G.J. (2005). Cross-reactivity of GroEL antibodies with human heat shock protein 60 and quantification of pathogens in atherosclerosis. Oral Microbiology and Immunology 20:296-302. Ford, P.J., Gemmell, E., Walker, P., West, M.J., Cullinan, M.P., and Seymour, G.J. (2005). Characterization of heat shock protein-specific T-cells in atherosclerosis. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 12:259-267.Ford, P.J., Gemmell, E., Chan, A., Carter, C.L., Walker, P.J., Bird, P.S., West, M.J., Cullinan, M.P., and Seymour, G.J. (2006). Inflammation, heat shock proteins and periodontal pathogens in atherosclerosis: an immunohistological study. Oral Microbiology and Immunology 21:206-211.Foster Page, L.A., and Thomson, W.M. (2005). Malocclusion and uptake of orthodontic treatment in Taranaki 12-13-year-olds. New Zealand Dental Journal 101:98-105. Foster Page, L.A., Thomson, W.M., Jokovic, A., and Locker, D. (2005). Validation of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14). Journal of Dental Research 84:649-652. Garcia-López, S., Meikle, M.C., Villanueva, R.E., Montaño, L., Massó, F., Ramirez-Amador, V., and Bojalil, R. (2005). Mechanical deformation inhibits IL-10 and stimulates IL-12 production by mouse calvarial osteoblasts in vitro. Archives of Oral Biology 50:449-452.Gemmell, E., Drysdale, K., and Seymour, G.J. (2006). Gene expression in splenic CD4 and CD8 cells from BALB/ c mice immunized with Porphyromonas gingivalis. Journal of Periodontology 77:622-633.Gordon, M.P.J., Love R. M., and Chandler, N.P. (2005). An evaluation of .06 tapered gutta-percha cones for filling of .06 taper prepared curved root canals. International Endodontic Journal 38: 87-96. 
  • 65. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006Gosling, P.T., Gemmell, E., Carter, C.L., Bird, P.S., and Seymour, G.J. (2005). Immunohistological analysis of Tannerella forsythia-induced lesions in a murine model. Oral Microbiology and Immunology 20:25-30.Hall, J.A.G., Payne, A.G.T., Purton, D.G., and Torr, B. (2006). A randomized controlled clinical trial of conventional and immediately loaded, tapered implants with screw-retained crowns. International Journal of Prosthodontics 19:17-19. Harland, T., Kieser, J.A., and Meldrum, A. (2006). Cultural fragmentation of knowledge in clinical teaching. Teaching in Higher Education 11:149-160.Hashim, R., Thomson, W.M., Ayers, K.M.S., Lewsey, J.D., and Awad, M. (2006). Dental caries experience and use of dental services among preschoolers in Ajman (UAE). International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 16:257-262.He, L-H., Fujisawa, N., and Swain, M.V. (2006). Elastic modulus and stress–strain response of human enamel by nanoindentation. Journal of Biomaterials 27:4388-4398.Healey, D.H., and Kieser, J.A. (2005). Unusual fatal dog attack in Dunedin, New Zealand. Journal of Forensic Odonto-Stomatology 23:51-54.Healey, D.L., Plunkett, D.J., and Chandler, N.P. (2006). Orthodontic movement of two root fractured teeth. Review and case report International Endodontic Journal 39:324-329.Heng, N.C.K., Tagg, J.R., and Tompkins, G.R. (2006). Identification and characterization of the loci encoding the competence-associated alternative s factor of Streptococcus gordonii. FEMS Microbiology Letters 259:27-34. Holmes, A.R, Tsao, S., Lamping, E., Niimi, K., Monk, B.C., Tanabe, K., Niimi, M., and Cannon, R.D. (2006). Amino acid residues affecting drug pump function in Candida albicans. Japanese Journal of Medical Mycology 47: 275-281.Holmes, A.R., Tsao, S., Ong, S., Lamping, E., Niimi, K., Monk, B.C., Niimi, M., Kaneko, A. Holland, B.R., Schmid, J., and Cannon, R.D. (2006). Heterozygosity and functional allelic variation in the Candida albicans efflux pump genes CDR1 and CDR2. Molecular Microbiology 62:170-186.Holmes, A.R., Van der Wielen, P.A., Cannon, R.D., and Dawes P. (2006). Candida albicans binds to saliva proteins selectively adsorbed to silicone. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology 102:488-494.Homann, F., Waddell, J.N., and Swain, M.V. (2006). Influence of water, loading rate and bonder on the adhesion of porcelain to titanium. Journal of Dentistry 8:775-84.Ichim, I, Swain, M., and Kieser, J.A. (2005). Biomechanical analysis of the canine tuberculum dentale. Dental Anthropology 18:50-54.Ichim, I., Kieser, J., and Swain, M. (2006). Mandibular biomechanics and development of the human chin. Journal of Dental Research 85:638-42.Ichim, I., Kieser, J.A., and Swain, M., (2006). Mandibular stiffness in humans: numerical predictions. Journal of Biomechanics 39:1903-13.Ichim, I., Kuzmanovic, D.V., and Love, R.M. (2006). A finite element analysis of ferrule design on restoration, resistance and distribution of stress within a root. International Endodontic Journal 39:443-452. Ichim, I.P., Qing, L., Wei, L., Swain, M., and Kieser, J.A. (2006). The uniqueness of the human anterior dentition: a geometric morphometric analysis. Journal of Forensic Sciences 52: 31-37. Innes, P.B., and Rich, A.M. (2005). Changes in the selection of dental students in New Zealand. New Zealand Dental Journal 101:19-21.James, H. (ed), and Kieser, J.A. (2005), (contributing author). Thai Tsunami victim identification – overview to date. Journal of Forensic Odonto-Stomatology 23:1-18.Jamieson, L.M., and Thomson, W.M. (2006). Adult oral health inequalities described using area-based and household-based socio-economic status measures. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 66:104-109. Jeng, H-W, Holmes, A.R., and Cannon R.D. (2005). Characterisation of two Candida albicans surface mannoprotein adhesions that bind immobilized saliva components. Medical Mycology 43:209-17.Kieser, J.A., Herbison, G.P., Waddell, J.N., Kardos, T.B., and Innes, P.B. (2006). Learning in oral biology; a comparison between deep and surface approaches. New Zealand Dental Journal 102:64-68.Kieser, J.A. (2005). Weighing bitemark evidence: a postmodern perspective. Forensic Science, Medicine and Pathology 1:75-80.Kieser, J.A., Herbison, P., and Harland, A. (2005). The influence of context on students’ approaches to learning: a case study. European Journal of Dental Education 9:1-7.Kieser, J.A., and Kieser, A.Y. (2005). Dental functional status in the disabled adult. New Zealand Disability Studies 11:88-102.Kieser, J.A., Laing, W., and Herbison, P. (2006). Lessons learned from large-scale comparative dental analysis following the South Asian Tsunami of 2004. Journal of Forensic Sciences 51:109-113. Kieser, J.A., Thomson, W.M., Koopu, P., and Quick, A.N. (2005). Tongue piercing and oral trauma in a New Zealand population. Dental Traumatology 21:254-257. (Reprinted in Il Giornale dell’Odontoiatra).
  • 66. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYKieser, J.A., Tompkins, G.R., Buckingham, D., Firth, N.A., and Swain, M.V. (2005). Bitemarks: Presentation, analysis and evidential reliability. Forensic Pathology Reviews 3:157-183. Kieser. J., Kieser, D.C., and Hauman, C.H.J. (2005). Course and distribution of the inferior alveolar nerve. The Journal of Craniofacial Surgery 16:6-9. Kuzmanovic, D.V., Payne A.G.T., and Purton, D.G. (2004). Distal implants to modify the Kennedy classification of a removable partial denture: A clinical report. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 92:8-11 (selected for inclusion in the 2005 Year Book of Dentistry published by Mosby, Elsevier).Kuzmanovic, D.V., and Waddell, N.J. (2005). Fabrication of a self-retaining surgical template for surgical placement of dental implants. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 93:95-6. (selected for inclusion in the 2005 Year Book Of Dentistry published by Mosby, Elsevier).Lam, E., Quick. A.N., and Herbison P. (2006). Cephalometric correction factors for bite opening – a dry skull study. European Journal of Orthodontics 28:378-382.Lamping, E., Tanabe K., Niimi, M., Uehara, Y., Monk, B.C., and Cannon, R.D. (2005). Characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae sec6-4 mutation and tools to create S. cerevisiae strains containing the sec6-4 allele. Gene 361:57-66.Larking, P., Leichter, J., and Lyons, K.M. (2005). Dental implants: patient selection, patient satisfaction and cost factors. Commissioned by Accident Compensation Corporation.Li, Q., Ichim, I., Loughran, J., Li, W., Swain, M., and Kieser, J.A. (2006). Numerical simulation of crack formation in all ceramic dental bridge. Key Engineering Materials 312:293-298.Li, W., Li, Q., Loughran, J., Swain, M., Ichim, I., and Fujisawa, N. (2006). Contact-driven crack formation in dental ceramic materials. Key Engineering Materials 325:1257-1260.Lou, S. M-Y., Rich, A. M., De Silva, R.K., and Ferguson, M.M. (2006). Pleomorphic adenoma of a minor salivary gland. Oral Oncology Extra, 42:170-172. Love, R.M. (2005). Criteria for the evaluation of endodontic treatment outcome. In: Lakshmi Narayanan L., Rao C.V.N., Mohan B., eds. Future and advancements in conservative dentistry and endodontics II p146-151. Lyons, K.M., Beumer J., and Caputo, A.A. (2005). Abutment load transfer by removable partial denture obturator frameworks in different acquired maxillary defects. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 94:281-288.Mackay, T.D., and Thomson, W.M. (2005). Enamel defects and dental caries among Southland children. New Zealand Dental Journal 101:35-43. Marchant, J.M., Masters, I.B., Taylor, S.M., Cox, N.C., Seymour, G.J., and Chang, A.B. (2006). Evaluation and outcome of young children with chronic cough. Chest 129:1132-41.Mariño, R., Morgan, M.V., Winning, T., Thomson, W.M., Marshall, R., Gotjamanos, T., and Evans, R.W. (2006). Socio-demographic backgrounds and career decisions of Australian and New Zealand dental students. Journal of Dental Education 70:169-178. Meikle, M.C. (2006). The tissue, cellular and molecular regulation of orthodontic tooth movement: 100 years after Carl Sandstedt. European Journal of Orthodontics 28:221-240.Monk, B.C., and Harding, D.R.K. (2005). Peptide Motifs for cell-surface intervention: Application to anti- infective and biopharmaceutical development. Biodrugs 19:261-278.Monk, B.C., Niimi, K., Lin, S., Knight, A., Kardos, T.B., Cannon, R.D., Parshot, R., King, A., Lun, D., and Harding, D.R.K. (2005). Surface-active fungicidal D-peptide inhibitors of the plasma membrane proton pump that block azole resistance. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 49:57-70.Morgaine, K.C., Firth, H.M., Herbison, G.P., Feyer, A-M., and McBride, D.I. (2005). Obtaining health information from farmers: interviews versus postal questionnaires in a New Zealand case study. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine 12(2):223-228. Morgaine, K.C., Langley, J.D., and McGee, R.O. (2005). Farmers and Farm Safety: Baseline Report to Accident Compensation Corporation, Injury Prevention Research Unit.Morgaine, K.C., Langley, J.D., and McGee, R.O. (2006). The FarmSafe Programme in New Zealand: Process Evaluation of Year One (2003). Safety Science 44:359-371.Murfitt, P.G., Quick, A.N., Swain, M.V., and Herbison, G.P. (2006). A randomised clinical trial to investigate bond failure rates using a self-etching primer. European Journal of Orthodontics 28:444-449.Nakajima, T., Ueki-Maruayama, K., Oda, T., Ohsawa, Y., Ito, H., Seymour, G.J., and Yamazaki, K. (2005). Regulatory T-cells infiltrate periodontal disease tissues. Journal of Dental Research 84:639-643.Narayanan, D., Hamlet, S., Cullinan, M.P., Davies, R., Ellewood, R., Bird, P.S., and Seymour, G.J. (2005). The distribution of Tannerella forsythia in an adolescent and adult population. Journal of Periodontal Research 40:482-488. Niimi, K., Maki, K., Ikeda, F., Holmes A.R., Lamping, E., Niimi, M., Monk, B.C., and Cannon, R.D. (2006). Over- expression of Candida albicans CDR1, CDR2 or MDR1 does not produce significant changes in echinocandin susceptibility. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 50:1148-1155. 
  • 67. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006Niimi, M., Tanabe, K., Wada, S., Yamazaki, A., Uehara, Y., Niimi, K., Lamping, E., Holmes, A.R., Monk, B.C., and Cannon R.D. (2005). ABC transporters of pathogenic fungi: Recent advances in functional analyses. Japanese Journal of Medical Mycology 46:249-260.Niimi, M., Wada, S., Tanabe, K., Takano, Y., Umeyama, T., Hanaoka, H., Uehara, Y., Lamping, E., Niimi, K., Holmes, A.H., Cannon, R.D., and Monk, B.C. (2005). Functional analysis of fungal drug efflux transporters by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Japanese Journal of Infectious Disease 58:1-7.Orozco, A., Gemmell, E., Bickel, M., and Seymour, G.J. (2006). Interleukin-1beta, interleukin-12 and interleukin- 18 levels in gingival fluid and serum of patients with gingivitis and periodontitis. Oral Microbiological Immunology 21:256-60.Poljak-Guberina. R., Culig, B., Zivkovic, O., Catovic, A., Kuzmanovic, D., and Muljacic, A. (2005). Patients’ satisfaction with prosthetic devices. Collegium Anthropologicum 29:615-21.Ponnambalam, Y., and Love, R.M. (2006). Dens evaginatus: case reports and review of the literature. New Zealand Dental Journal 102: 30-34. Qing, L., Ichim, I., Loughran, J., Wei, L., Swain, M., and Kieser, J.A. (2005). Numerical simulation of crack formation in all ceramic dental bridges. Key Engineering Materials 312:293-298.Quick, A.N., Harris, A.M.P., and Joseph, V.P. (2005). Office Reconditioning of stainless steel orthodontic attachments. European Journal of Orthodontics 27:231-236.Rahimi, M., Heng, N., Kieser, J.A., and Tompkins, G.R. (2005). Genotypic comparison of bacteria recovered from human bite marks and teeth using arbitrarily-primed PCR (AP-PCR). Journal of Applied Microbiology 99:1265-1270.Ramirez-Yanez, G.O., Seymour, G.J., and Symons, A.L. (2005). Local application of prostaglandin E2 reduces TRAP, calcitonin receptor and metalloproteinase-2 immunoreactivity in the rat periodontium. Archives of Oral Biology 50:1014-1022.Ramirez-Yanez, G.O., Hamlet, S., Jonarta, A., Seymour, G.J., and Symons, A.L. (2006). Prostaglandin E2 enhances transforming growth factor-beta 1 and TGF-beta receptors synthesis: an in vivo and in vitro study. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 74:183-92.Reid, D., Leichter, J.W., and Thomson, W.M. (2005). Dental implant use in New Zealand 2004. New Zealand Dental Journal 101:12-16. Roy, R., and Chandler, N.P. (2006). Contemporary perspectives on root-end management during periapical surgery. Endodontic Practice Today (in press).Seymour, G.J. (2005). Challenges for the University of Otago, Faculty of Dentistry, in the 21st century. New Zealand Dental Journal 101:82-83.Skidmore K.J., Brook K.J., Thomson W.M., and Harding WJ. (2006). Factors influencing treatment time in orthodontic patients. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 129:230-238. Sosroseno, W., Bird, P.S., Gemmell, E., and Seymour, G.J. (2006). The role of CD4+ and CD8+T cells on antibody production by murine Peyer’s patch cells following mucosal presentation of Actinomyces viscosus. Oral Microbiology and Immunology 21:411-4.Sosroseno, W., Bird, P.S., Gemmell, E., and Seymour, G.J. (2006). The induction of oral tolerance to Actinomyces viscosus in mice. Oral Diseases 12:387-394.Sosroseno, W., Bird, P.S., Gemmell, E., Seymour, G.J. (2006). The role of CD4+ and CD8+T cells in the induction of oral tolerance to A. viscosus in mice. Oral Microbiology and Immunology 21:151-158.Sosroseno, W., Bird, S., Gemmell, E., and Seymour, G.J. (2006). The effect of mucosal presentation of Actinomyces viscosus on delayed hypersensitivity and isotype specific immune responses in mice. Oral Microbiology and Immunology 12:387-394.Sosroseno, W., Musa, M., Ravichandran, M., Fikri Ibrahim M., Bird, P.S., and Seymour, G.J. (2006). The role of cyclic- AMP on arginase activity by a murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Oral Microbiology and Immunology 21:347-52. Sosroseno, W., Musa, M., Ravichandran, M., Fikri Ibrahim, M., Bird, P.S., and Seymour, G.J. (2006). Arginase activity in a murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide from A. actinomycetemcomitans. Oral Microbiology and Immunology 21:145-150.Theobald, A., Wong, B.K.J., Quick, A., and Thomson, W.M. (2006). The impact of the popular media on aesthetic dentistry. New Zealand Dental Journal 102: 58-63. Thomson, W.M. (2005). Issues in the epidemiological investigation of dry mouth. Gerodontology 22:65-76. Thomson, W.M., Broadbent, J.M., Poulton, R., and Beck, J.D. (2006). Changes in periodontal disease experience from age 26 to 32 in a birth cohort. Journal of Periodontology 77:947-54. Thomson, W.M., Chalmers, J.M., Spencer, A.J., Slade, G.D., and Carter, K.D. (2006). A longitudinal study of medication exposure and xerostomia among older people. Gerodontology 23:205-213. Thomson, W.M., Lawrence, H.P., Broadbent, J.M., and Poulton, R. (2006). The impact of xerostomia on oral- health-related quality of life among younger adults. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 4:86-92. 
  • 68. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYThomson, W.M., Poulton, R., Broadbent, J.M., and Al-Kubaisy, S. (2006). Xerostomia and medications among 32-year-olds. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 64:249-254. Tompkins, G.R. (2005). Genotypic comparison of oral bacteria isolated from bite marks and teeth. In: Dorion R.B.J. Bitemark Evidence. Marcel Dekker, New York.Tong, D.C. (2006). Buccal advancement flap closure of oro-antral communication. New Zealand Dental Association News 132:38-39. Tong, D.C. (2006). Commentary on antibiotic prophylaxis for endocarditis. New Zealand Dental Journal 102:69-70. Wada, S., Tanabe, K., Yamazaki, A., Niimi, M., Uehara, Y., Niimi, K., Lamping, E., Cannon, R.D., and Monk, B.C. (2005). Phosphorylation of Candida glabrata ATP-binding cassette transporter Cdr1p regulates drug efflux activity and ATPase stability. Journal of Biological Chemistry 280:94-103.Waddell, J.N., Payne, A.G.T., and Swain, M.V. (2006). Physical and metallurgical considerations of failures of bar attachment systems for implant overdentures: A review of the literature. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 96:283-8.Wong, B.K.J., Theobald, A., Thomson, W.M., and Quick, A. (2006). The big OE: NZ dental graduates’ self- reported experience of working overseas. New Zealand Dental Journal 102(2):35-8.Yamazaki, K., Honda, T., Oda, T., Ueki-Maruayama, K., Nakajima, T., Yoshie H., and Seymour, G.J. (2005). Effect of periodontal treatment on the C-reactive protein and proinflammatory cytokine levels in Japanese periodontitis patients. Journal of Periodontal Research 40:53-58. 
  • 69. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006InVITed presenTaTIons 00 - 00professor rIChard Cannon8th International Mycology Congress, Cairns, Australia, 20-25 August 2006. “Oral adhesion of Candida albicans – a cellular and molecular view.” 8th International Mycology Congress, Cairns, Australia, 20-25 August 2006. “Overcoming the efflux-mediated drug resistance of human fungal pathogens.” 8th American Society for Microbiology Conference on Candida and Candidiasis, Denver, USA, 13-17 March 2006. “Candida albicans PNG2 is a hypermutable gene.” mary CullInan9th Australasian Menopause Society Congress, Gold Coast, Australia, 24 September 2005; Dental Assistants Association, Brisbane, Australia, August 2006. “Oral Health in Ageing Women.”Australian Society of Periodontology (Queensland Branch), Brisbane, Australia, May 2005.Clinical research at the University of Queensland. New Zealand Dental Association, Waikato Branch, Hamilton, New Zealand, July 2006. “Environmental and genetic risk factors and the progression of periodontal disease.”New Zealand Dental Association, Southland Branch, Te Anau, New Zealand, 2006 “Oral health education, Logan programme.” dr ann holmes49th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Medical Mycology, Chiba, Japan. October 2005. “Amino acid residues critical for drug pump function in Candida albicans.” professor Jules kIeserAuckland Winter Lecture Series, Auckland, New Zealand, 21 July 2006. “Blood sweat and teeth.”Royal Society of New Zealand, Dunedin Lecture, Dunedin, New Zealand, 8 February 2006. “The science behind dental forensics.”dr erWIn lampInGNihon Dental University, Niigata, Japan, 11 November 2006. “Investigating the innate resistance of Candida krusei to azole antifungal drugs.”professor roberT loVeHong Kong Endodontic Society, 15 September 2006. “Impact of dental materials in endodontics.”Hong Kong University, 13 September 2006. “Colonisation and disinfection of radicular dentine.”Australian Dental Council Special Needs Dentistry Symposium, 5 May 2006, Melbourne, Australia. “Regulatory implications in defining scopes of practice.”University of Otago Faculty of Dentistry Clinical Excellence day. 29 September 2006. “Do contemporary root canal instrumentation and filling materials and techniques influence treatment outcome?”NZDA Biennial Conference. 9 September 2006. “The Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act (2003) and the Dental Council two years on.”NZDA Waikato & Bay of Plenty Branch. 25 August 2006. “Do contemporary root canal instrumentation and filling materials and techniques influence treatment outcome?”
  • 70. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYdr brIan monkDepartment of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California San Francisco, 7 April 2005. “A yeast system for the functional expression of membrane proteins and drug discovery.” Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Instituto Superior Technico. Lisbon, Portugal, 13 March. 2005; Institut des Sciences de la Vie, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Belgium, 15 March 2006; Departamento de Biologia, University of Minho, Portugal, 17 March 2006; Instituto de Biologia y Celular de Plantas, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Spain, 21 March 2006; Dublin Dental School and Hospital, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland, 4 April 2006. “Applications of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae system for the heterologous hyper-expression of functional membrane proteins.”University of California San Francisco 10 May 2006, combined meeting of NIH roadmap funded membrane protein expression centres. “A Saccharomyces cerevisiae system for the heterologous hyper-expression of functional membrane proteins.” Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California San Francisco 30 May 2006. “Heterologous hyper-expression of functional membrane proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae; new avenues to drug discovery.” andreW QuICkNZDA 23rd Biennial Conference, Auckland 6-9 September 2006. “How to get teeth moving - mechanical principles and biology.” Trilogy of Orthodontic lectures 2006 for general dental practitioners. Day long course (early treatment), Friday 21 July 2006. Two-day course (hands on fixed appliances), 27, 28 October 2006.Trilogy of Orthodontic lectures 2005 for general dental practitioners. Day long course (Science of the appliance), Friday 13 May 2005. Day long course (early treatment), Friday 1 July 2005. Two-day course (hands on fixed appliances), 19, 20 August 2005.professor GreGory seymourAustralian Society of Periodontology. Brisbane, Australia, May 2005. “Periodontal Research at the University of Queensland.”Montreal, Canada, August 2005. “Infection or Inflammation? The relationship between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. Global consensus forum on oral and systemic disease.” NZDA Congress, Napier, New Zealand, September 2005. “Infection or Inflammation? The relationship between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease.” IADR (ANZ Division), Queenstown, New Zealand, September 2005. “The New Zealand PBRF model.” NZDA, Dunedin, New Zealand, October 2005. “Why do some people lose their teeth?” NZDA, Wellington, New Zealand, March 2006. “Body, Bugs and Lifestyle.” Genes and the Environment Conference. Dunedin, New Zealand, March 2006. “Smoking, IL-1 genotype, P.gingivalis and Periodontal Disease.” Malaysian Dental Association Congress, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, June 2006. “Inflammation and Atherosclerosis – The common link or just another piece in the puzzle?” IADR General Session (symposium speaker) Brisbane, Australia, June 2006. “Immunoregulatory control of Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles in periodontal disease.” IADR General Session (Science Transfer Symposium) Brisbane June 2006. “Periodontal disease, inflammation and atherosclerosis - The common link or just another piece in the puzzle?” NZDA, Hamilton, New Zealand, July 2006. “Dental Education at the University of Otago: Challenges for the 21st Century.” New Zealand Society of Hospital and Community Dentistry, Wellington, New Zealand, July 2006. “Postgraduate training at the University of Otago Faculty of Dentistry.” NZDA Southland, Invercargill, New Zealand, September 2006. “Dental Education at the University of Otago: Challenges for the 21st Century.” 
  • 71. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006professor W. murray ThomsonNZ Dental Association biennial conference, Auckland, New Zealand, 8 September 2006. “What’s happening out there? Scientific Transfer Programme, 84th General Session of the International Association for Dental Research, Brisbane, Australia, 30 July 2006. University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 23 May 2006. “Dry mouth.”Oral health status and quality of life – an overview. “The Human side of oral cancer: understanding and sharing concerns on oral health-related quality of life.”Geriatric Oral Research Group, 35th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Dental Research, Orlando, USA, 11 March 2006. “What can epidemiology contribute to geriatric oral care and research?”International Symposium on Water Fluoridation, Korean Academy of Dental Health, Seoul, South Korea, 9 September 2005. “Community water fluoridation in New Zealand.” Ngai Tahu Research Symposium, Dunedin, New Zealand, 26 August 2005. “Adolescent oral health research project: process and benefits.” Australia and New Zealand Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons Annual Meeting, Wellington, New Zealand, 29 July 2005. “The OMFS workforce study.” World Health Organization consultative meeting Oral Health in Ageing Societies: Integration of Oral Health and General Health, Kobe, Japan, 1-3 June 2005. “Oral health inequalities among older people.” Cronfocal microscopy of membrane proteins expressed in yeast0
  • 72. FACULTY OF DENTISTRYaWardsAssociate Professor John Broughton Te Amorangi National Mäori Academic Excellence Award. A result of his PhD on orango niho (Mäori oral health). Presented at Ngaruahahia on 2 March 2007 in the presence of King TuheitiaNorman Firth New Zealand Special Service Medal for service following the Thai Tsunami, 2006Dr Ann Holmes Japan Health Sciences Foundation Fellowship, 2005Ionut Paul Ichim IADR Colgate Travel Award: Postgraduate research – IADR Brisbane 2006 Visiting Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, James Cook University, Australia (December 2005-January 2006) Visiting Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, James Cook University, Australia (August 2006, December 2006)Professor Jules Kieser Commendation, for Forensic Identifications in Operation Phuket from New Zealand Commissioner of Police, 2005 New Zealand Special Service Medal for service following the Thai Tsunami, 2006 Fellowship of the Forensic Science Society 2006Dr Erwin Lamping Short-term JSPS Fellowship S06741, Japan Society for the Promotion of Sciences (JSPS) Short-term Scholar University of California San Francisco (March-July 2006)Kate Morgaine HRC Accident Compensation Corporation PhD Career Development Award (July 2004 – June 2006)Associate Professor Alan G.T. Payne University of Otago Research and International Office Award, Finalist for Postgraduate Supervisor of the Year for 2006Darryl Tong FDS ad eundem from The Royal College of Surgeons of England 2006 Sectioned mandibular incisor with dental pulp removed 
  • 73. RESEARCH REPORT 2005-2006sponsorsThe following is a list of donors who provided financial or in-kind support for research in the Faculty ofDentistry during 2005-2006. Their contributions are greatly appreciated by faculty and students. 3M Worldwide Arthur Hall Orthodontics (NZ) Ltd Colgate-Palmolive Ltd Crown Dental & Medical Dentarum Australia Pty Ltd Dentsply (Australia) Pty Ltd Ebos Group Limited GC Asia Dental Pte Ltd GSK Dental, Inc. Gunz Dental Supply Co (NZ) Ltd HealthCare Essentials Henry Schein Regional ITI Strauman Ivoclar Vivadent Ltd KaVo Dental Corporation Leone S.p.a. Medical Assurance Society Medlab South Neoss Ltd Nobel Biocare Australia Pty Ltd NZ Society of Endodontics NZ Society of Periodontology New Zealand Dental Association Oral-B Laboratories Pty Ltd Oraltec NZ Ltd Ormco Pt Ltd Sybron Dental Specialties Kerr SellAgence Limited Shalfoon Dental Ltd Sirona Dental systems Pty Ltd Southern Implants Pty Ltd The Wrigley Company (NZ) Ltd
  • 74. Faculty of Dentistry PO Box 647 University of Otago Dunedin 9054 New Zealand Email dentistry@otago.ac.nz Web www.otago.ac.nz/dentistry0800 80 80 98 www.otago.ac.nz txt 866 university@otago.ac.nz