Integrating Disciplines: Conceptualisation to Actualisation   John Dyson Faculty of Dentistry The University of Hong Kong
Faculty of Dentistry, HKU <ul><li>Full-time academic staff     48 </li></ul><ul><li>Part-time academic staff   160  </li><...
Summary <ul><li>Integration – definitions, motivation, forms </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated undergraduate dental PBL curricu...
What is integration? <ul><li>“ Any  intentional uniting or meshing  of discrete elements or features constitutes some form...
Why integration ? <ul><li>respects the interconnectedness of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>better appreciation of connection...
Approaches to integration in higher education <ul><li>Separate discipline-based courses aligned to theme </li></ul><ul><li...
Undergraduate Dental Education in Hong Kong 1980  First undergraduate dental  curriculum in Hong Kong commenced
Basic, medical and dental sciences  in the dental curriculum Medical  Sciences Clinical Dental Subjects Traditional dental...
Basic, medical and dental sciences  in the dental curriculum Rudimentary vertical integration “ Diagonally integrated” HKU...
Undergraduate Dental Education in Hong Kong <ul><li>1980 </li></ul><ul><li>Features of first curriculum: </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>1990s </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on content,    -  much delivered as  lectures  </li></ul><ul><li>Overfilled </li></u...
<ul><li>1996 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Routine external review of Faculty of Dentistry initiated by HKU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Departmental Structure  (pre-1996) Dean (Elected) Heads of Departments Departments Conservative  Dentistry Prosthetic  Den...
Current Matrix Structure   Associate  Deans  Dean (Appointed, Executive) Undergraduate Education Postgraduate Education Re...
Undergraduate Dental Curriculum Reform <ul><li>May 1996 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Review of Faculty of Dentistry (initiated by...
The 1998 undergraduate dental curriculum <ul><li>Integration of basic and clinical sciences through open-discovery model o...
Implementation considerations <ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Funding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>development and implement...
Dean Associate Dean  (UE) Assistant Dean  (UE) Faculty Curriculum Development Committee Undergraduate Curriculum Managemen...
Programme aims  – Statement of Intent <ul><li>To produce: </li></ul><ul><li>Competent and caring dental practitioners able...
Curriculum Design Statement of Intent Competency Statements Learning Objectives Curriculum Streams Learning themes distrib...
<ul><li>6-8 students per group </li></ul><ul><li>Staff facilitators  </li></ul><ul><li>- not content experts </li></ul><ul...
Components of a PBL problem e.g. photos, dental records, documents, specimens, models, video Written problem statement Pre...
Components of a PBL problem <ul><li>Anticipated Learning Issues identified under: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biomedical Science...
Components of a PBL problem <ul><li>Facilitator notes </li></ul><ul><li>Overview of learning issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
PBL tutorial 1
PBL tutorial 1 Facts   Ideas Learning   Issues Relevant facts identified Ideas/hypotheses generated –  based on prior know...
Learning opportunities <ul><li>2 – 4 self-directed learning sessions </li></ul>
Learning opportunities <ul><li>2 – 4 self-directed learning sessions </li></ul>
Learning opportunities <ul><li>2 – 4 self-directed learning sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Practical   – e.g. laboratory pract...
Learning opportunities <ul><li>2 – 4 self-directed learning sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Practical   – e.g. laboratory pract...
Learning opportunities <ul><li>2 – 4 self-directed learning sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Practical   – e.g. laboratory pract...
Learning opportunities <ul><li>2 – 4 self-directed learning sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Practical   – e.g. laboratory pract...
PBL tutorial 2 <ul><li>Discuss problem again and share new knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate own performance </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Techniques courses  -   Simulation laboratory   </li></ul>Clinical skills Demonstrations Practice  Worksheets (Int...
<ul><li>Supervised clinical practice in Polyclinics </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>briefing/debriefing discussions – sharing, r...
<ul><li>Community outreach clinics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>briefing/debriefing discussions </li></ul></ul>Clinical experience
Additional learning opportunities <ul><li>Community dental health projects </li></ul>
Additional learning opportunities <ul><li>Community dental health projects </li></ul><ul><li>Electives </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Assessment Principles <ul><li>Knowledge: application / integration  </li></ul><ul><li>Reasoning / problem-solving </li></u...
Assessment tools <ul><li>Facilitator / tutor assessment for each tutorial/clinical session  (knowledge, behaviour, skills)...
Curriculum evaluation and review  <ul><li>Internal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>w...
Ongoing developments <ul><li>Appointment of new posts in Dental Education/E-learning, Director of Polyclinics </li></ul><u...
Reflections on the reform <ul><li>Enabling factors </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards </li></ul>
Enabling factors <ul><li>Management structure </li></ul><ul><li>University support  </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership - determi...
Challenges - Staff <ul><li>Staff resistance  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workshops by invi...
Challenges - Students <ul><li>Concerns regarding lack of guidance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information for student applicants...
Challenges  - Resources and facilities <ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>University Development Funds </li></ul></ul...
Rewards <ul><li>Active learners: Involved, self-critical, and questioning  </li></ul><ul><li>Better learning skills: Integ...
Curriculum reform in Hong Kong <ul><li>The secondary school curriculum across Hong Kong shortened from seven to six years....
Undergraduate education reform at HKU <ul><li>“ Distinctive features” of the HKU Curriculum: </li></ul><ul><li>Interdiscip...
Six educational aims   for HKU <ul><li>To enable our students to develop capabilities in: </li></ul><ul><li>Critical intel...
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  1. 1. Integrating Disciplines: Conceptualisation to Actualisation John Dyson Faculty of Dentistry The University of Hong Kong
  2. 2. Faculty of Dentistry, HKU <ul><li>Full-time academic staff 48 </li></ul><ul><li>Part-time academic staff 160 </li></ul><ul><li>Undergraduate students 250 (5 x 50) </li></ul><ul><li>Bachelor of Dental Surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Taught Postgraduate students 111 </li></ul><ul><li>Master Dental Surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Master of Science </li></ul><ul><li>Postgrad. Dip. in Dental Surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Adv. Dip. in Dental Surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Research Postgraduate students 49 </li></ul><ul><li>Doctor of Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Master of Philosophy </li></ul>Dental School established in 1980 Status as independent Faculty from 1982
  3. 3. Summary <ul><li>Integration – definitions, motivation, forms </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated undergraduate dental PBL curriculum introduced in Hong Kong in1998 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Factors enabling reform </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rewards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Planning for extended curriculum in 2012 under Hong Kong’s educational reforms </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is integration? <ul><li>“ Any intentional uniting or meshing of discrete elements or features constitutes some form of integration.” Case R. 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>“ An integration is a philosophy of teaching in which content is drawn from several subject areas to focus on a particular topic or theme.” McBrien JL & Brandt RS, 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated curriculum is “...education that is organized in such a way that it cuts across subject-matter lines, bringing together various aspects of the curriculum into meaningful association to focus upon broad areas of study.” Shoemaker 1989 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why integration ? <ul><li>respects the interconnectedness of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>better appreciation of connections between concepts </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge not compartmentalized </li></ul><ul><li>increased ability to apply concepts to complex real-life situations </li></ul><ul><li>increased use of higher thinking skills </li></ul><ul><li>increased curiosity and motivation to learn </li></ul><ul><li>encourages creative thinking </li></ul><ul><li>reduced duplication </li></ul><ul><li>promotes greater efficiency (transferable skills) </li></ul><ul><li>heightened levels of collegial interaction </li></ul>
  6. 6. Approaches to integration in higher education <ul><li>Separate discipline-based courses aligned to theme </li></ul><ul><li>Themed course taught by interdisciplinary team </li></ul><ul><li>Project work </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential learning (e.g. internship) </li></ul><ul><li>Case-based learning, problem-based learning </li></ul>
  7. 7. Undergraduate Dental Education in Hong Kong 1980 First undergraduate dental curriculum in Hong Kong commenced
  8. 8. Basic, medical and dental sciences in the dental curriculum Medical Sciences Clinical Dental Subjects Traditional dental curriculum Basic Sciences Anatomy Physiology Biochemistry Pathology Microbiology Medicine Surgery Operative Dentistry Oral Rehabilitation Endodontics Children’s Dentistry Periodontology Orthodontics Dental Public Health Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
  9. 9. Basic, medical and dental sciences in the dental curriculum Rudimentary vertical integration “ Diagonally integrated” HKU 1980 dental curriculum Traditional dental curriculum Medical Sciences Clinical Dental Subjects Basic Sciences
  10. 10. Undergraduate Dental Education in Hong Kong <ul><li>1980 </li></ul><ul><li>Features of first curriculum: </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of learning between clinical subjects and supporting sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Learning in small groups </li></ul><ul><li>Active learning promoted </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>1990s </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on content, - much delivered as lectures </li></ul><ul><li>Overfilled </li></ul><ul><li>Duplication </li></ul><ul><li>Integration between subjects limited </li></ul>Undergraduate Dental Education in Hong Kong
  12. 12. <ul><li>1996 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Routine external review of Faculty of Dentistry initiated by HKU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outcome - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty agreed to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>restructure (matrix management) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reform curriculum </li></ul></ul>Faculty Review
  13. 13. Departmental Structure (pre-1996) Dean (Elected) Heads of Departments Departments Conservative Dentistry Prosthetic Dentistry Periodontology and Public Health Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Orthodontics and Children’s Dentistry Management Team
  14. 14. Current Matrix Structure Associate Deans Dean (Appointed, Executive) Undergraduate Education Postgraduate Education Research and Discovery External Affairs Global and Mainland Affairs Areas/Disciplines Family Dentistry Oral Rehabiltation Periodontology etc. Management Team
  15. 15. Undergraduate Dental Curriculum Reform <ul><li>May 1996 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Review of Faculty of Dentistry (initiated by HKU) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty agreed to restructure and reform curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May 1997 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty Curriculum Task Force formed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information collected (workshops, visits to overseas institutions, local & overseas consultants) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curriculum planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff orientation/training </li></ul></ul><ul><li>September 1998 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PBL curriculum commenced for new intake </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The 1998 undergraduate dental curriculum <ul><li>Integration of basic and clinical sciences through open-discovery model of problem-based learning (PBL). </li></ul><ul><li>No traditional-style lectures or seminars. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Implementation considerations <ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Funding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>development and implementation costs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tutorial rooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>library resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Staff development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reorientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>training (facilitators, problem writers, clinical teachers etc.) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Dean Associate Dean (UE) Assistant Dean (UE) Faculty Curriculum Development Committee Undergraduate Curriculum Management Year Course Director Year Curriculum Development Group Year Problem Development Group Subject representatives
  19. 19. Programme aims – Statement of Intent <ul><li>To produce: </li></ul><ul><li>Competent and caring dental practitioners able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Think independently and critically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respond quickly to patients with complex problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapt to future changes occurring in dentistry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remain contemporary in their skills and knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Life-long learners able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access and evaluate information from many sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oversee their own professional continuing education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(able to contribute to generation of new knowledge) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Curriculum Design Statement of Intent Competency Statements Learning Objectives Curriculum Streams Learning themes distributed across the years 1-5
  21. 21. <ul><li>6-8 students per group </li></ul><ul><li>Staff facilitators </li></ul><ul><li>- not content experts </li></ul><ul><li>- trained in process </li></ul>PBL tutorials
  22. 22. Components of a PBL problem e.g. photos, dental records, documents, specimens, models, video Written problem statement Presentation and inquiry materials One of your friends from the engineering faculty recently invited you to visit his home in Western Guangdong province for the weekend. … … you noticed that many of the adults appeared to have worn down and discoloured teeth … … a village elder approached you and said it would be a great privilege if you would consider coming to the village .. to provide dental treatment care for his community
  23. 23. Components of a PBL problem <ul><li>Anticipated Learning Issues identified under: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biomedical Sciences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioural Sciences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Sciences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical Dental Sciences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethics, jurisprudence, practice management etc. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Components of a PBL problem <ul><li>Facilitator notes </li></ul><ul><li>Overview of learning issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance to problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trigger questions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Product request </li></ul><ul><li>Statement of product requirement </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. concept map, instruction leaflet, letter, poster, role play </li></ul>
  25. 25. PBL tutorial 1
  26. 26. PBL tutorial 1 Facts Ideas Learning Issues Relevant facts identified Ideas/hypotheses generated – based on prior knowledge Issues for further study – possible resources discussed
  27. 27. Learning opportunities <ul><li>2 – 4 self-directed learning sessions </li></ul>
  28. 28. Learning opportunities <ul><li>2 – 4 self-directed learning sessions </li></ul>
  29. 29. Learning opportunities <ul><li>2 – 4 self-directed learning sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Practical – e.g. laboratory practical, consultation clinic </li></ul>
  30. 30. Learning opportunities <ul><li>2 – 4 self-directed learning sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Practical – e.g. laboratory practical, consultation clinic </li></ul><ul><li>Resource staff </li></ul>
  31. 31. Learning opportunities <ul><li>2 – 4 self-directed learning sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Practical – e.g. laboratory practical, consultation clinic </li></ul><ul><li>Resource staff </li></ul><ul><li>E-learning website </li></ul>
  32. 32. Learning opportunities <ul><li>2 – 4 self-directed learning sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Practical – e.g. laboratory practical, consultation clinic </li></ul><ul><li>Resource staff </li></ul><ul><li>E-learning website </li></ul><ul><li>Large group discussions </li></ul><ul><li>“ Resource sessions” at end of each module (7-8 weeks) – on request, interactive </li></ul>
  33. 33. PBL tutorial 2 <ul><li>Discuss problem again and share new knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate own performance </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss strategy for preparing product </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Techniques courses - Simulation laboratory </li></ul>Clinical skills Demonstrations Practice Worksheets (Integration with Dental Materials Science, Dental Technology etc.)
  35. 35. <ul><li>Supervised clinical practice in Polyclinics </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>briefing/debriefing discussions – sharing, reflection (clinical issues and supporting sciences) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>supervised by staff team comprising representatives from relevant disciplines </li></ul></ul></ul>Clinical experience
  36. 36. <ul><li>Community outreach clinics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>briefing/debriefing discussions </li></ul></ul>Clinical experience
  37. 37. Additional learning opportunities <ul><li>Community dental health projects </li></ul>
  38. 38. Additional learning opportunities <ul><li>Community dental health projects </li></ul><ul><li>Electives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overseas attachment (3 weeks) </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Assessment Principles <ul><li>Knowledge: application / integration </li></ul><ul><li>Reasoning / problem-solving </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration / interpersonal skills </li></ul><ul><li>Professional attitudes / behaviours </li></ul><ul><li>Skills of profession / workplace </li></ul>Formative Summative
  40. 40. Assessment tools <ul><li>Facilitator / tutor assessment for each tutorial/clinical session (knowledge, behaviour, skills) </li></ul><ul><li>Key Skills Assessment (key clinical competencies – must pass all) </li></ul><ul><li>Triple Jump Assessment (PBL process) </li></ul><ul><li>OSCE (Objective structured clinical examinations) </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical Practice Assessment (case-based) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Mini-cases” (sequentially disclosed information) </li></ul><ul><li>Project reports </li></ul><ul><li>Student portfolio (reflective – reports on patient cases, projects etc.) </li></ul>
  41. 41. Curriculum evaluation and review <ul><li>Internal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>written evaluation of tutors and courses (4 x year) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>meetings with group representatives (4 x year) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(student personal learning journals) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graduate/employer feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>facilitator meetings (after each problem) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>written evaluation of problem scenarios </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>External </li></ul><ul><ul><li>external examiners’ reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reviews by invited consultants </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Ongoing developments <ul><li>Appointment of new posts in Dental Education/E-learning, Director of Polyclinics </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced web-based learning, research-based learning </li></ul><ul><li>New clinical techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Refinements to assessments and curriculum management structure </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing and rewarding good teaching </li></ul>
  43. 43. Reflections on the reform <ul><li>Enabling factors </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards </li></ul>
  44. 44. Enabling factors <ul><li>Management structure </li></ul><ul><li>University support </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership - determination and dedication of Task Force </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty commitment – critical mass of support </li></ul><ul><li>Workshops by local and visiting academics </li></ul>
  45. 45. Challenges - Staff <ul><li>Staff resistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workshops by invited academics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concerns about loss of disciplinary autonomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involvement of all areas in planning and management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protection of principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ongoing workshops </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perceptions on career advancement in disciplines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition of good teaching in promotions and tenure decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time compensation for development work </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Challenges - Students <ul><li>Concerns regarding lack of guidance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information for student applicants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Induction programme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved access to resource staff through websites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ongoing student support (Student Progress Coordinators, Personal Tutors) </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Challenges - Resources and facilities <ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>University Development Funds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching Development Grants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PBL Suite (suite of 15 tutorial rooms) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library discussion rooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple copies of textbooks </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Rewards <ul><li>Active learners: Involved, self-critical, and questioning </li></ul><ul><li>Better learning skills: Integrated knowledge base, better application of knowledge to clinical problems </li></ul><ul><li>Improved language and communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>More enjoyable for most students and teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalization of curriculum content </li></ul><ul><li>Favorable external reviews </li></ul><ul><li>(Better performance in external professional exams) </li></ul>
  49. 49. Curriculum reform in Hong Kong <ul><li>The secondary school curriculum across Hong Kong shortened from seven to six years. </li></ul><ul><li>5 + 2 + 3 3 + 3 + 4 </li></ul><ul><li>From 2012 the length of the undergraduate university curriculum in Hong Kong extended by one year. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Undergraduate education reform at HKU <ul><li>“ Distinctive features” of the HKU Curriculum: </li></ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>Multidisciplinary collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Polycontextual inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse learning experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple forms of learning and assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement with local and global communities </li></ul><ul><li>Development of civic and moral values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common core curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outcome based approach to teaching and learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student-centered learning </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Six educational aims for HKU <ul><li>To enable our students to develop capabilities in: </li></ul><ul><li>Critical intellectual inquiry in the disciplines, postgraduate research and life-long learning </li></ul><ul><li>Tackling novel situations and ill-defined problems, and creative thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Critical self-reflection and greater understanding of others </li></ul><ul><li>Intercultural communication, multicultural understanding and global citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>Communication and collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership and advocacy for the improvement of the human condition </li></ul>
  52. 52. Thank you

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