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  • “Diabetes” alluded to the Greek word for “flowing through”, referring to the excessive production of urine
  • How about drawing an arrow (yellow?) to show the islets?
  • He used an extract of the pancreas of dogs that prolonged the life of diabetic dogs.
  • So, what do they all have in common?
  • The lettering needs to be larger. How about reading into Photoshop, erasing current lettering and put in larger font. Within the pancreas are islets of Langerhans The islets contain special cells called beta cells Beta cells produce insulin Insulin allows glucose to be absorbed into muscles and tissues
  • As in previous slide, lettering is too small. Also, did you get permission to use these illustrations? We need that (and also a reference for where they came from) Type 1 – Pancreas produces little or no insulin Glucose unable to enter body effectively Type 2 – Pancreas produces sufficient insulin, but it doesn’t work effectively Glucose unable to enter body effectively
  • This is true, but does not follow logically from the previous slide. Parts of the body don’t “want” anything. You need to explain why surplus glucose in these organs is a problem.
  • Blood vessel damage
  • But none of this explain why extra glucose causes such problems. High blood pressure/heart attack/stroke caused by the thickening and weakening of blood vessels due to absorption of glucose Blindness is caused by both the absorption of glucose by the lenses of the eyes, distorting them and the damage to blood vessels in the retina
  • High blood pressure/heart attack/stroke caused by the thickening and weakening of blood vessels due to absorption of glucose Blindness is caused by both the absorption of glucose by the lenses of the eyes, distorting them and the damage to blood vessels in the retina
  • Kidney failure also due to damage to the organ’s blood vessels Ketoacidosis is caused by excessive ketone levels due to the break down of fats and proteins, and lack of glucose absorbed. It is also made worse by the dehydration caused by diabetes
  • Kidney failure also due to damage to the organ’s blood vessels Ketoacidosis is caused by excessive ketone levels due to the break down of fats and proteins, and lack of glucose absorbed. It is also made worse by the dehydration caused by diabetes Why is there more breakdown of fats and proteins? Also, you need to remind presenter to explain ketoacidosis in 8 th grade language.
  • Type 1 has not been explained. By the way, I have seen sudden weight loss in adults with Type 2 (isn’t Type 1 childhood diabetes)? Need to credit the source of the slide.
  • Credit source of photos
  • Prevalence is increasing
  • Talk about diet needs specific to animals
  • Specific oral medications
  • Need elaboration in notes section.
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    1. 1. Diabetes mellitus
    2. 2. Definition <ul><li>Diabetes is a metabolic disorder resulting in abnormally high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) </li></ul>Blood sugar is normally controlled by a hormone called insulin that is secreted by the pancreas
    3. 3. History of Diabetes First known reference comes from an Egyptian papyrus dating back to 1550 BC Diabetes was named by the Greek physician Aretaeus between 30 and 90 AD
    4. 4. History of the Disease Avicenna, a famous Arab physician, described the complications of the disease and how it progressed French physician Bouchardat recognized the importance of calorie intake in the 1870s
    5. 5. History of the Disease <ul><li>Paul Langerhans identified the importance of the pancreas in the early 19 th century and discovered the islets of Langerhans, a group of cells that would later be known to produce insulin </li></ul>
    6. 6. History of the Disease <ul><li>Frederick Banting discovered the hormone insulin and won the Nobel Prize for his efforts in the 1920s </li></ul>
    7. 7. Mental Break 1 <ul><li>Who is this? </li></ul>
    8. 8. Mental Break 1 <ul><li>How about this? </li></ul>
    9. 9. Mental Break 1 <ul><li>And finally, who is this? </li></ul>
    10. 10. Statistics <ul><li>8% of the population has some form of diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>The number of cases increased by 13.5% between 2005 and 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Total economic cost of diabetes in the United States in 2007 was estimated at $174 billion </li></ul>
    11. 11. Healthy Metabolism
    12. 12. Diabetic Metabolism
    13. 13. How might this cause problems?
    14. 14. How it causes problems <ul><li>Too much glucose inhibits the reabsorption of water by the kidney </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes excessive thirst and urination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It gets absorbed by parts of the body in which excess glucose is not tolerated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Can you guess what kind of major complications excess glucose in these organs would cause?
    16. 16. Why diabetes is bad <ul><li>If left uncontrolled, diabetes can lead to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart attack/Stroke – the risk of each is 2 to 4 times higher in people with diabetes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Blood Pressure – 73% of diabetics have high blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blindness – diabetes is the leading cause of blindness in adults 20-74 years of age </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Why diabetes is bad
    18. 18. Why diabetes is bad <ul><ul><li>Kidney failure – diabetes is also the leading cause of kidney failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ketoacidosis - diabetic comas due to biochemical imbalances that can even lead to death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diabetes can also lead to nervous system disease, gum disease, and pregnancy complications </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Why diabetes is bad
    20. 20. Signs and Symptoms <ul><li>Excessive urine production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results in increased thirst and fluid intake </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blurred vision </li></ul><ul><li>Weight loss (Type 1) </li></ul><ul><li>Lethargy </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in metabolism </li></ul>
    21. 21. Diagnosis <ul><li>Doctors use either a Fasting Plasma Glucose Test (FPG) or an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) to confirm that a patient has diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>The FPG is recommended because it is easier, faster, and less expensive to perform </li></ul>
    22. 22. Mental Break 2 <ul><li>A Public Service Announcement from Michael Phelps… </li></ul><ul><li>Breakfast: Three fried-egg sandwiches loaded with cheese, lettuce, tomatoes, fried onions and mayonnaise. Two cups of coffee. One five-egg omelet. One bowl of grits. Three slices of French toast topped with powdered sugar. Three chocolate-chip pancakes. </li></ul><ul><li>Lunch: One pound of enriched pasta. Two large ham and cheese sandwiches with mayo on white bread. Energy drinks packing 1,000 calories. </li></ul><ul><li>Dinner: One pound of pasta. An entire pizza. More energy drinks. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Mental Break 2 <ul><li>So, eating 12,000 calories a day is ok if you are Michael Phelps </li></ul>
    24. 24. Types <ul><li>Type 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Type 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Gestational </li></ul><ul><li>Risk factors and treatment for diabetes differ slightly between the types </li></ul><ul><li>However, genetics impact both type 1 and type 2: having relatives with diabetes increases ones chances of getting the disease. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Type 1 <ul><li>5-10% of diagnosed diabetes cases in humans </li></ul><ul><li>Immune system destroys beta cells in the pancreas, the only cells in the body capable of making insulin. </li></ul><ul><li>Previously known as juvenile diabetes because it most often diagnosed in children and young adults </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike Type 2, diet and exercise cannot prevent the disease. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Treatment of Type 1 <ul><li>Insulin replacement therapy – insulin is supplemented to the body either by injection or an insulin pump </li></ul><ul><li>Strict dietary management is required - carbohydrate tracking and monitoring glucose levels </li></ul><ul><li>Both of these have to be kept up for the life of the patient </li></ul>
    27. 27. Treatment of Type 1
    28. 28. Type 2 <ul><li>90-95% of diagnosed diabetes cases in humans </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreas produces insulin, but the body’s response to insulin is diminished </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike type 1, it is usually a late-onset disease, meaning that it develops later in life </li></ul>
    29. 29. Type 2 <ul><li>Prevalence is rapidly increasing and it is also being found more often in younger people </li></ul><ul><li>Both of these observations are being linked to the obesity epidemic that has taken over the globe. </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity has been found to cause increased insulin resistance which can result in diabetes </li></ul>
    30. 30. Type 2 <ul><li>Over 85% of diabetics have a Body Mass Index of over 25, which is classified as overweight </li></ul><ul><li>Over 55% have a BMI of over 30, which is obese </li></ul>
    31. 31. Treatment and Prevention of Type 2 <ul><li>A proper diet and good exercise habits can support weight loss and effectively limit the effects of the disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Management of glucose levels </li></ul><ul><li>is still required and often </li></ul><ul><li>insulin replacement therapy </li></ul><ul><li>is also needed. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Gestational <ul><li>Characterized by high glucose levels in pregnant women who never showed signs of diabetes before their pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Affects about 3-10% of pregnancies </li></ul><ul><li>It is believed that hormones released during pregnancy increase insulin resistance </li></ul>
    33. 33. Gestational Cont… <ul><li>Babies are at increased risk of complications </li></ul><ul><li>Mothers are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes after pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>It is a treatable condition by controlling diet, monitoring glucose, and giving insulin when necessary </li></ul>
    34. 34. Mental Break 3 <ul><li>Who can name the hormone that regulates glucose? </li></ul><ul><li>Which diabetes is treatable with diet and exercise? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the largest planet in the solar system? </li></ul>
    35. 35. Presentation in Animals <ul><li>Diabetes is a growing problem in both dogs and cats </li></ul><ul><li>Dogs are most often </li></ul><ul><li>found to have type 1 </li></ul><ul><li>diabetes, while cats </li></ul><ul><li>have a combination </li></ul>
    36. 36. Symptoms <ul><li>Symptoms are similar to those in humans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sudden weight loss or gain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive drinking or urination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appetite is either excessive or absent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dogs are highly sensitive to eye problems such as blurred vision and cataracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In cats, the back legs become weak and their gait may become wobbly or stilted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinning of the skin can also occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dehydration can finally lead to death </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Treatment <ul><li>If left untreated, diabetes is life-threatening in pets. </li></ul><ul><li>However, diagnosis and treatment by a veterinarian can control the disease, prolonging life, and can even lead to remission in cats. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Diet <ul><li>A simple change of diet can go a long ways in helping to reduce the effects of diabetes. </li></ul><ul><li>A low-carbohydrate diet reduces the amount of insulin needed and stabilizes blood sugar levels in cats. </li></ul><ul><li>A high-fiber, moderate-carb diet has been recommended for dogs. </li></ul>
    39. 39. Medications <ul><li>The most common form of treatment in pets is insulin injections similar to those used in humans. </li></ul><ul><li>Oral medications in the form of pills are available, but are not often recommended because they are much less effective. </li></ul>
    40. 40. Ongoing Research <ul><li>Type 1 Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Islet Cell Encapsulation – transplant of insulin-producing Islet cells encapsulated in permeable membrane to get around the immune system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islet Cell Regeneration – Involves a protein that is responsible for the regeneration of Islet cells and other important hormones in the pancreas – in clinical trials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islet cell development from stem cells </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Ongoing Research <ul><li>Type 1 Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gene Therapy – an oral medication consisting of viral vectors containing the insulin gene is digested and delivered to the upper intestines where it is reproduced </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Type 1 Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immunization – a biochemical mechanism is being researched that prevents the immune system from attacking beta cells </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Ongoing Research Islet Cell Nanotechnology
    43. 43. Any Questions?
    44. 44. References <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
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