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Dental Materials 2
Dental Materials 2
Dental Materials 2
Dental Materials 2
Dental Materials 2
Dental Materials 2
Dental Materials 2
Dental Materials 2
Dental Materials 2
Dental Materials 2
Dental Materials 2
Dental Materials 2
Dental Materials 2
Dental Materials 2
Dental Materials 2
Dental Materials 2
Dental Materials 2
Dental Materials 2
Dental Materials 2
Dental Materials 2
Dental Materials 2
Dental Materials 2
Dental Materials 2
Dental Materials 2
Dental Materials 2
Dental Materials 2
Dental Materials 2
Dental Materials 2
Dental Materials 2
Dental Materials 2
Dental Materials 2
Dental Materials 2
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Dental Materials 2

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  • 1. Module: Restorative MaterialsFaculty Teaching Guide for Dental MaterialsModule - Restorative Materials -1- 1
  • 2. Faculty Teaching Guide for Dental MaterialsFaculty Teaching Guide for Dental MaterialsModule: Restorative MaterialsReview of Previous ModuleReview topics from the previous module to confirm understanding prior to presenting new material.Module OverviewAdvances in dental materials have been rapid in the area of esthetics, such as the expanded application ofcomposites for posterior restorations, and in the development of fluoride releasing glass ionomer cements andfilling materials. This module discusses a large variety of dental materials that the dental assistant will use everyday. Each material has unique properties in order to perform specific functions. Restorative dentistry, also calledoperative dentistry, provides direct restoration of tooth structure by reproducing the original shape of the tooth. The Big Picture Faculty Teaching Guide for Dental Materials Module: Restorative Materials Section 1: Section 2: Section 3: Dental Cements Amalgam Restorations Composite Restorations Part A: Dental Material Part A: Cavity Part A: Bonding Agents Properties Preparations Part B: Composite Part B: Dental Cements Part B: Amalgam Restorative Materials Restorative MaterialResourcesThis module utilizes the following learner resources:Textbooks:Dental Assisting, A Comprehensive Approach, 2nd edition, by Donna J. Phinney and Judy Halstead. DelmarLearning, 2004. ISBN 1-4018-3480-9.Materials and Procedures for Today’s Dental Assistant, by Ellen Dietz, Delmar Learning, 2004. ISBN:1401837336. 2
  • 3. Module: Restorative MaterialsWorkbook: Workbook to Accompany Dental Assisting, A Comprehensive Approach, 2nd edition, by Donna J.Phinney and Judy Halstead, prepared by Karen L. Waide, Delmar Learning, 2004. ISBN 1-4018-3483-3.Instructor’s Manual: Instructor’s Manual to Accompany Delmar’s Dental Assisting, A Comprehensive Approach,2nd edition, by Donna J. Phinney and Judy Halstead. Delmar Learning, 2004. ISBN 1-4018-3482-5.Delmar’s Dental Assisting Video Series: Delmar Learning. ISBN 0-7668-1031-3.Electronic CD-ROM: Delmar’s Dental Assisting Interactive Skills and Procedures CD-ROM, ISBN 1-4018-3485-X.Faculty CD-ROM: The faculty CD-ROM includes this Faculty Guide and the PowerPoint for Dental Materials.Additional ResourcesSafety Standards and Infection Control for Dental Assistants, by Ellen Dietz. Delmar Learning, 2002. ISBN0-7668-2659-7.Electronic Classroom Manager to Accompany Delamr’s Dental Assisting, A Comprehensive Approach, 2nd edition,by Donna J. Phinney and Judy Halstead. Delmar Learning, 2004. ISBN: 1-4018-3484-1.Section 1: Dental CementsSection OverviewThe mouth is a harsh environment. It is warm and moist, has corrosive conditions, experiences drastictemperature changes, as well as stresses involved during mastication. The properties of dental materials must beable to withstand these tough conditions and be biocompatible with the body.Outline of Section 1Part A: Dental Material PropertiesPart B: Dental CementsLearning Objectives and Competencies -3- 3
  • 4. Faculty Teaching Guide for Dental MaterialsThese learning activities directly address the Learning Objectives and Competenciesas stated. Teaching TipKnowledge: Practice good1. Define the Key Terms. facilitation skills when conducting activitiesComprehension and class discussion. Pay attention to2. Explain properties of dental materials. learners who are not participating. Attempt3. List materials used to restore cavity preparations. to determine factors that might motivate or4. Explain composition, uses, and manipulation of dental cements. reduce their motivation, and act accordingly.Application:5. Demonstrate manipulation of zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate, glass ionomer, and zinc oxide eugenol cements.Learning ActivitiesThese learning activities directly address the Learning Objectives and Competencies as stated.[Insert Homework Assignment icon] Key Term Glossary (Part A, All Objectives)[Insert In-Class Activity icon] Set Up and Manipulating Calcium Hydroxide (Part A, Objective 3-4)[Insert In-Class Activity icon] Prepare and Manipulate Resin Cements (Part A, Objective 3-4)[Insert In-Class Activity icon] Prepare and Utilize Acid Etch Solution (Part A, Objectives 3-4)[Insert In-Class Activity icon] Manipulate Bonding Materials (Part A, Objectives 3-4)[Insert Homework Assignment icon] Textbook Assignment (Parts A-B, All Objectives)[Insert In-Class Activity icon] Manipulate Zinc Phosphate Cement (Part B, Objectives 4-5)[Insert In-Class Activity icon] Manipulate Zinc Ozide Eugenol Cement (Part B, Objectives 4-5)[Insert In-Class Activity icon] Manipulate Polycarboxylate Cement (Part B, Objectives 4-5)Insert In-Class Activity icon] Glass Ionomer Cement (Part B, Objectives 4-5)[Insert Homework Assignment icon] Posttest (Part B, All Objectives) The Adult Learner…. is time conscious learners. Don’t waste time. Be prompt in starting and ending class, and avoid busy work, unless it serves a useful purpose. 4
  • 5. Module: Restorative MaterialsPart A: Dental Material PropertiesOverviewDental materials must be compatible with the oral environment. They must bestrong enough to withstand the forces of chewing, protect the tooth and oraltissues, not harmful to the body, resemble natural dentition, and be easily formedand placed in the mouth. This part examines the many diverse properties ofdental restorative materials. Understanding these properties will enable thedental assistant to provide quality care and maximum patient comfort.Initial Questions and Activities1. Who of you have fillings in your teeth? Are they silver fillings or tooth colored? There will be a variety of responses to this question depending on learners’ previous experience. Encourage learners to share their experiences with the class. Discuss with them how they will learn to help the dentist restore tooth structure for their patients, and that some of them may become expanded function dental assistants, placing and finishing these restorations themselves after the dentist prepares the tooth.Key Concepts References and Activities SlidesIntroduction to Module Slides 1-2Introduction to Section 1 Slide 3Key Terms [Insert Home Ass icon] Key Term Glossary Slide 4Dental Material Properties Chapter ___, pgs. ____ (Phinney & Halstead) Slides 5-6 Chapters ____ (Dietz) [Insert In-Class Activity icon] Set Up and Manipulating Calcium Hydroxide [Insert In-Class Activity icon] Prepare and Manipulate Resin Cements [Insert In-Class Activity icon] Prepare and Utilize Acid Etch Solution [Insert In-Class Activity icon] Manipulate -5- 5
  • 6. Faculty Teaching Guide for Dental MaterialsKey Concepts References and Activities Slides Bonding Materials [Insert Home Ass icon] Textbook Assignment[ ] Group Activities [ ] Homework [ ] Individual Activity [ ] Internet Activity [ ] In-Class Discussion [ ] In-Class Act [ ] Evaluation[Insert In-Class Act icon] In-Class Activities Set Up and Manipulating Calcium Hydroxide (Part A, Objectives 3-4). Goal: To have learners set up for and manipulate calcium hydroxide. Instructor should ensure enough materials and supplies are available for the activity. Learners should be graded on the procedure steps as outlined on pg. ____, Chapter ____(Phinney & Halstead). Learner workbooks contain check off sheets that can be utilized. Prepare and Manipulate Resin Cements (Part A, Objectives 3-4). Goal: To have learners prepare and manipulate resin cements in a two paste, powder/liquid, or syringe system. Learners should be placed into teams for this activity. Learners should be graded on the procedure steps as outlined on pg. ____, Chapter ____(Phinney & Halstead). Learner workbooks contain check off sheets that can be utilized. Prepare and Utilize Acid Etch Solution (Part A, Objectives 3-4). Goal: To have learners prepare and utilize acid etch solution. Learners should be graded on the procedure steps as outlined on pg. ____, Chapter ____(Phinney & Halstead). Ensure proper PPE is used by learners. Learner workbooks contain check off sheets that can be utilized. Manipulate Bonding Materials (Part A, Objectives 3-4). Goal: To have learners manipulate bonding materials. Instructor ensure enough materials and supplies are available for learners. Learners should be graded on the procedure steps as outlined on pg. ____, Chapter ____(Phinney & Halstead). Learner workbooks contain check off sheets that can be utilized. [Insert In-Class Dis Ques icon] In-Class Discussion 1. How should the patient be seated in the dental chair for the procedure if the filling is going to be in a mandibular tooth? The patient should be seated in a supine position with the light directed downward for mandibular illumination. Teaching Tip Focus on why learning[Insert Home Ass icon] Homework Assignments about this subject is necessary, and an obligation, to ensure the highest standard of patient care. Discuss 6 why each activity is important for learners to understand and to practice skills until proficient.
  • 7. Module: Restorative MaterialsKey Term Glossary. Learners will define key terms listed in the PowerPointpresentation. They are to enter this glossary on disk, in a dedicated notebook orin a designated part of a notebook. They are expected to augment informationfrom text or lecture with other resources including any available in the school orpublic libraries or on the Internet and will be graded at the end of the module oncompleteness and presentation. Textbook Assignment. Learners are to read Chapter _____ (Phinney & Halstead). Presentation Tools Note: If you change Objectives or Assignments, don’t forget to change the slides accordingly.Slide 1 [Insert DM 2-1] Power Point Presentation for Dental Materials with DM – Stands for Dental Labs Module: Restorative Materials Materials. The 1st number “2” Prior to introducing this module. Ask learners if any represents the Module called questions remain from the previous module. If questions Restorative Materials. The 2nd remain review the material as needed. number indicates the slide Introduce this module. number.Slide 2 [Insert DM 2-2] Module: Restorative Materials Introduce the sections and each part.Slide 3 [Insert DM 2-3] Section 1: Dental Cements Discuss each objective in detail. Learners need to know what they will be learning and why. Try to relate it back to their careers as dental assistants.Slide 4 [Insert DM 2-4] Key Terms (cont.) Review each key term and discuss. Homework Assignment: Stop here and go over the Key Term Glossary assignment.Slide 5 [Insert DM 2-5] Part A: Dental Material Properties -7- 7
  • 8. Faculty Teaching Guide for Dental Materials Introduce learners to the many properties of dental materials. Go through each term and explain what it means. Explain how many foods we eat are acidic and that even plaque has some acidic properties. Discuss how adhesion is necessary for dental materials to be able to stay in place on the tooth. Explain how normal biting forces in the posterior of the mouth are stronger than in the anterior areas. Discuss how metals and alloys for restorations are susceptible to corrosion and tarnish. Point out that aluminum, zinc, and nickel tend to oxidize relatively easily and that the more precious metals silver, platinum, and gold resist oxidation. Explain that tooth structure and restorative materials in the mouth will expand when warmed by hot foods and beverages, but contract when exposed to cold substances, and that such expansions and contractions over time, may result in breaking the marginal seal of a filling. Address how the elastic limit is the maximum stress a material will withstand without permanent deformation, and that certain materials will change shape or flow. Discuss galvanic response resulting from dissimilar metal fillings in opposing or adjacent teeth, how this small electrical current is carried through the saliva to the pulp, and that the patient may call the office to say it is like they 8
  • 9. Module: Restorative Materials are biting on foil. Explain that hardness is the toughness of a material, that microleakage can take place between the tooth and filling material at the margin where they meet, and discuss mechanical verses chemical retention. Make clear that many dental cements are used underneath the stronger filling materials, to form a base in deep cavities, and to insulate the pulp from possible chemical and thermal trauma, because some cements can be dissolved if exposed to oral fluids. Ensure understanding of how materials may conduct temperature, especially metal fillings, and how this causes expansion and contraction, and therefore dimensional change. Question: Think of the last time you had a hot drink with cold food, or hot food and a cold drink. How did these temperature changes feel on your teeth and restorations? Explain that viscosity is the resistance of a material to flow and that many materials used in dentistry need to be viscous. Explain that the wettability of a material is its property to flow over a surface.Slide 6 [Insert DM 2-6] Biting Forces Explain that tensile or tension forces are two sets of forces directed away from each other in a straight line, that compression is two sets of forces directed toward each other, and shear is two sets of forces directed parallel to each other. -9- 9
  • 10. Faculty Teaching Guide for Dental Materials Point out that force applied to a dental restoration may be a combination of tensile, compressive, and shear. Short Activity: Stop and show Video #4 from Delmar’s Dental Video Series.Part B: Dental CementsOverview Teaching TipA wide assortment of dental cements are used for various applications. They are Remind learners that they should know these terms without thinking –dispensed as powder and liquid, two-paste systems, or in a capsule. Each has like they know their right and left. Use properunique properties and specific functions. Dental assistant’s must thoroughly terminology often when discussing dentalunderstand how to manipulate cements at chairside as well as the function of concepts.each.Initial Questions and Activities 1. What would happen if a metal filling is placed near the tooth pulp? The tooth would be very sensitive to temperature. Metal conducts temperature, so the dentist will line the cavity with a base or cement to insulate the pulp from thermal trauma. 2. Why would it be important for adhesion of crowns and bridges to tooth structure? The prostheses must be cemented on the tooth or teeth and should last a lifetime for the patient.Key Concepts References and Activities SlidesDental Cements Chapter ___, pgs. ____ (Phinney & Halstead) Slide 7-14 Chapter ___ (Dietz) [Insert In-Class Activity icon] Manipulate Zinc Phosphate Cement [Insert In-Class Activity icon] Manipulate Zinc Ozide Eugenol Cement [Insert In-Class Activity icon] Manipulate Polycarboxylate Cement 10
  • 11. Module: Restorative MaterialsKey Concepts References and Activities Slides [Insert In-Class Activity icon] Glass Ionomer CementAssessment Questions [Insert Homework Ass icon] Textbook Slide 15 Assignment [Insert Homework Ass icon] Posttest[ ] Group Activities [ ] Homework [ ] Individual Activity [ ] Internet Activity [ ] In-Class Discussion [ ] In-Class Activity [ ] Evaluation[Insert In-Class Act icon] In-Class Activities Manipulate Zinc Phosphate Cement (Part B, Objectives 4-5). Goal: To have learners Manipulate Zinc Phosphate Cement. Instructor should ensure enough materials are available for learners. Learners should be graded on the procedure steps as outlined on pg. ____, Chapter ____(Phinney & Halstead). Learner workbooks contain check off sheets that can be utilized. Manipulate Zinc Ozide Eugenol Cement (Part B, Objectives 4-5). Goal: To have learners Manipulate Zinc Oxide Eugenol Cement. Instructor should ensure enough materials are available for learners. Learners should be graded on the procedure steps as outlined on pg. ____, Chapter ____(Phinney & Halstead). Learner workbooks contain check off sheets that can be utilized. Manipulate Polycarboxylate Cement (Part B, Objectives 4-5). Goal: To have learners Manipulate Polycarboxylate Cement. Instructor should ensure enough materials are available for learners. Learners should be graded on the procedure steps as outlined on pg. ____, Chapter ____(Phinney & Halstead). Learner workbooks contain check off sheets that can be utilized. Glass Ionomer Cement (Part B, Objectives 4-5). Goal: To have learners Glass Ionomer Cement. Instructor should ensure enough materials are available for learners. Learners should be graded on the procedure steps as outlined on pg. ____, Chapter ____(Phinney & Halstead). Learner workbooks contain check off sheets that can be utilized.[Insert In-Class Dis Ques icon] In-Class Discussion 1. What types of viscosity did you work with when taking alginate impressions and then pouring them with plaster and stone materials? - 11 - 11
  • 12. Faculty Teaching Guide for Dental Materials The alginate material is thick and viscous. The plaster and stone are less viscous than alginate, so that they can be poured into the patient’s impression, yet much more viscous than the water used when preparing these materials. [Insert Home Ass icon] Homework Assignments Textbook Assignment. Learners are to read Chapters ____ (Dietz). Posttest. Have learners complete the Skills Mastery Assessment: Posttest in Chapters ____ (Dietz).Ideas for learners struggling with this material … Develop Questions. Suggest learners develop questions for the exam as if they were the instructor. Then, answer the questions. Encourage them to use this as a review tool for exams. They should assess how close they are to the real questions on each exam. Soon they will be able to accurately predict the questions. Ideas for learners who are ahead and want to learn more … Web Research. Have learners go to the website http://www.dentsply.com and review the product catalogue for new products. Be prepared to discuss their discoveries in class. Presentation Tools Note: If you change Objectives or Assignments, don’t forget to change the slides accordingly.Slide 7 [Insert DM 2-7] Part B: Dental Cements Review Part A. Review the homework and answer questions as needed. Introduce Part B. Explain that a wide variety of dental cements are used in dentistry. Address the purposes for each type of cement.Slide 8 [Insert DM 2-8] Material Preparing for Restoration Explain the purpose of a cavity liner. Discuss how some liners, such as calcium hydroxide, provide therapeutic benefits to the tooth. Point out that fluoride compounds have been added to 12
  • 13. Module: Restorative Materials certain cavity liners in an attempt to reduce the possibility of secondary caries around permanent restorations or to reduce sensitivity. Discuss low strength verses high strength bases. Explain that low strength bases are also referred to as liners, intermediary bases, or pulp-capping agents. Address how varnishes aid in the reduction of post- operative sensitivity when applied to dentinal surfaces under newly placed fillings. Explain that cements can be used to hold materials to tooth structure, or used as a high strength base underneath restorations. Discuss how bonding agents work together with acid etched enamel to create a combination of mechanical and chemical bonding of dental restorative materials to tooth enamel and dentin, and that there are a wide variety of bonding material systems available.Slide 9 [Insert DM 2-9] Calcium Hydroxide Inform learners that calcium hydroxide is used for lining deep cavities or for direct pulp capping. Explain how it provides some thermal insulation and stimulates production of secondary dentin between the pulp and the filling material. Point out that sometimes a high strength base will be placed over the calcium hydroxide material. Ensure learners understand that they only need to mix a small amount of equal portions of calcium hydroxide. - 13 - 13
  • 14. Faculty Teaching Guide for Dental MaterialsSlide 10 [Insert DM 2-10] Copalite Varnish Discuss how cavity varnishes are used to seal the dentinal tubules that have been cut during the cavity preparation. Ensure learners understand that varnishes are not used under resin or composite materials as they affect the setting of the filling material.Slide 11 [Insert DM 2-11] Luting Cements Remind learners that luting means to bond or cement materials together and that in dentistry we have permanent, temporary, and intermediate cements. Review each of the cements listed on the slide and inform learners that they will have the opportunity to work with each material every day in their dental office depending on the preferences of the dentist.Slide 12 [Insert DM 2-12] Zinc Phosphate Cement Discuss how a proper amount of powder should be incorporated into the liquid slowly, and mixed on a cool glass slab to slow the setting time. Explain how the chemical setting results in an exothermic reaction, giving off of heat, which must be dissipated or the cement will become thick and set too fast. Tell learners that is why a cool glass slab must be used and the cement spread over the entire surface, in a figure eight motion as it is mixed. Ensure learners understand that the lid for the liquid must be replaced immediately after dispensing because when exposed to humidity, it will absorb water, and when exposed to dry air, tends to result in a loss of water, 14
  • 15. Module: Restorative Materials causing a changing its chemistry.Slide 13 [Insert DM 2-13] Glass Ionomer Cements Explain that glass ionomers come in many different dispensing methods, where the powder is a fluoroaluminumsilicate glass. Point out that glass ionomer cements bond chemically to enamel and dentin during the setting process, and that they have become popular due to their ability to release fluoride into the tooth structure. Ensure learners understand these materials are very sensitive to moisture, so the tooth must be completely dry.Slide 14 [Insert DM 2-14] Polycarboxylate Cement Explain that the liquid of the polycarboxylate cement liquid is extremely viscous, so it is often dispensed with a syringe. Point out that the dispensing of the liquid should be done immediately before mixing, to prevent evaporation of water, and that the mixed cement should be used only as long as it still appears glossy on the surface. Explain that once the surface appears dull, the cement develops stringiness and is too thick to use. Ensure learners understand that the cement spatula must be cleaned immediately after use with alcohol, or it will be extremely difficult to remove after it is completely set.Slide 15 [Insert IDA 2-15] Assessment Questions Short Activity: Stop here and have learners answer the questions on the slide. Review material as needed to enhance understanding. In-Class Activity: Stop here for the in-class activities. - 15 - 15
  • 16. Faculty Teaching Guide for Dental Materials Homework Assignment: Stop here to assign and discuss the homework.Section 2: Amalgam RestorationsSection OverviewThe goal of restorative dentistry is to re-establish a tooth to its full function in the mouth, in an esthetically pleasingmanner, with as little loss of healthy tooth structure as possible. There are many choices of restorative materialsavailable. This section discusses the material that has been used in dentistry the longest.Outline of Section 2Part A: Cavity PreparationsPart B: Amalgam Restorative MaterialLearning Objectives and CompetenciesThese learning activities directly address the Learning Objectives and Competencies as stated.Knowledge Teaching Tip6. Define the Key Terms. Bring up all the real world things that can go wrongComprehension when learners do not acquire these skills and7. List the components of amalgam alloy. understand this information thoroughly. Share your8. Identify cavity preparation terminology. personal experiences in the field about the subjectApplication and the skills being taught. We all had to practice to acquire new skills in the9. Demonstrate manipulation of calcium hydroxide and cavity varnish. beginning.10. Demonstrate the steps of an amalgam restorative procedure.Learning ActivitiesThese learning activities directly address the Learning Objectives and Competencies as stated.[Insert Homework Assignment icon] Key Term Glossary (Part A, Objectives 7-9)[Insert In-Class Activity icon] Manipulating Calcium Hydroxide (Part A, Objective 9)[Insert In-Class Activity icon] Using Cavity Varnish (Part A, Objective 9)[Insert In-Class Activity icon] Using Amalgamator (Part B, Objective 10)[Insert In-Class Activity icon] Assisting an Amalgam Procedure (Part B, Objective 10) 16
  • 17. Module: Restorative MaterialsPart A: Cavity PreparationsOverviewThe shapes of all cavity preparations are designed for maximum retention of the restorative material within thetooth, so that the filling is able to receive compressive forces and to minimize tension or shear of the restorativematerial. Understanding this will help the dental assistant realize why the dentist prepares the cavity in a specificform. Teaching Tip When asking questions ofInitial Question and Activities learners, count to thirty 1. Why would it be important to seal the dentinal tubules? before going on if you don’t get an immediate answer. Remember learners need The dentinal tubules lead to the tooth pulp, and after being cut by time to process your question, apply it to what the dentist, will be uncomfortable for the patient if not sealed. they know, formulate a response, and sometimes to get up the courage to respond. Try not to answer your own question.Key Concepts References and Activities SlidesIntroduction to Section 2 Slide 13Key Terms [Insert Home Ass icon] Key Term Glossary Slide 14Cavity Preparations Chapter ____, pgs. ____ (Phinney & Halstead) Slides 15-21 [Insert Group Activity icon] Manipulating Calcium Hydroxide [Insert Group Activity icon] Using Cavity Varnish [Insert Group Activity icon] Using Amalgamator [Insert Home Ass icon] Textbook Assignment [Insert Home Ass icon] Posttest[ ] Group Activities [ ] Homework [ ] Individual Activity [ ] Internet Activity [ ] In-Class Discussion [ ] In-Class Activity [ ] Evaluation[Insert In-Class Act icon] In-Class Activities - 17 - 17
  • 18. Faculty Teaching Guide for Dental Materials Manipulating Calcium Hydroxide (Part A, Objective 9). Goal: For learners to again practice manipulating calcium hydroxide. Instructor should ensure there are enough materials and supplies for the class and separate learners into teams. Learners should be graded on the procedure steps as outlined on pg. ____, Chapter ____(Phinney & Halstead). Learner workbooks contain check off sheets that can be utilized. Using Cavity Varnish (Part A, Objective 9). Goal: For learners to gain experience using cavity varnish. Instructor should ensure there are enough materials and supplies for the class and separate learners into teams. Learners should be graded on the procedure steps as outlined on pg. ____, Chapter ____(Phinney & Halstead). Learner workbooks contain check off sheets that can be utilized. Using Amalgamator (Part A, Objective 10). Goal: For learners to gain experience using an amalgamator. Instructor should ensure there are enough materials and supplies for the class and separate learners into teams. Learners should be graded on the procedure steps as outlined on pg. ____, Chapter ____(Phinney & Halstead). Learner workbooks contain check off sheets that can be utilized.[Insert In-Class Dis Ques icon] In-Class Discussion1. What were some of the problems found with manipulating calcium hydroxide, the resin cement, the etchant, and the bonding materials? Teaching Tip Discuss proper techniques for using these materials. Explain clearly to Encourage learners to critically think about the learners how to perform each step again now that they have experience material presented and how it relates to the workplace. Consider manipulating these materials. having questions already prepared to ask during2. What does calcium hydroxide do for the tooth? appropriate times. Also write down good Calcium hydroxide is used for lining deep cavities or for direct pulp questions posed by learners for future capping. It provides some thermal insulation and stimulates production classes for even for exam questions. of secondary dentin between the pulp and the filling material.[Insert Home Ass icon] Homework AssignmentsKey Term Glossary. Learners will define key terms listed in the PowerPoint presentation. They are to enter thisglossary on disk, in a dedicated notebook or in a designated part of a notebook. They are expected to augmentinformation from text or lecture with other resources including any available in the school or public libraries or onthe Internet and will be graded at the end of the module on completeness and presentation. Textbook Assignment. Learners are to read Chapter ___ (Dietz). 18
  • 19. Module: Restorative Materials Posttest. Have learners complete the Skills Mastery Assessment: Posttest in Chapter ___ (Dietz).Ideas for learners struggling with this material … Take Time To Read. Encourage learners to read the textbook more than once or twice. Inform them that the first reading is a preview. The second time it will be effective learning. The third will be an important review. Ideas for learners who are ahead and want to learn more … Web Research. Suggest that these learners find web sites that are useful in learning the topic. This will help them keep up with the latest news. Encourage them to consider finding at least two websites that can help them keep current and review them each week. This is a good habit to take to the workplace. Presentation ToolsNote: If you change Objectives or Assignments, don’t forget to change the slides accordingly.Slide [Insert DM 1-16] Section 2: Amalgam Restorations16 Discuss each objective in detail. Learners need to know what they will be learning and why. Relate it back to their careers as dental assistants.Slide [Insert DM -17] Key Terms Review each key term and discuss the importance of17 knowing the definition of each. Homework Assignment: Stop here to discuss the Key Term Glossary assignment.Slide [Insert DM 1-18] Part A: Cavity Preparations Inform learners that tooth structure will need to be18 restored to its natural function due to the decay process, fracture, abrasion, undesirable esthetics, or attrition.Slide [Insert DM 2-19] Cavity Preparations (cont.) Discuss the elements involved in cavity preparation.19 Explain that the cavity preparation design helps keep the restoration in place as well as to aid in resistance to - 19 - 19
  • 20. Faculty Teaching Guide for Dental Materials occlusal forces.Slide [Insert DM 2-20] Cavity Preparations (cont.) Address how each part of the prep relates to the name of20 the surface of the tooth. Note to Instructor: During this discussion refer learners to the Cavity Preparation Identification section on pg. ____ in Chapter ____ (Phinney & Halstead). Remind learners that a line angle is where two surfaces meet and a point angle refers to where three surfaces meet.Slide [Insert DM 2-21] Steps of Cavity Preparation Ensure learners understand the basic steps of a cavity21 preparation. Point out that the enamel is cut with a high speed bur, which prepares the shape of the cavity, then the low speed is used to remove any decay that is present, and hand instruments are used to refine the outline of the prep. Explain that the area must be free of moisture before the base or liner is placed in the tooth. In-Class Activity: Stop here for the in-class activities. Homework Assignment: Stop here and review the Key Terms Glossary homework assignment.Part B: Amalgam Restorative MaterialOverview Teaching Tip A freshly mixed mass of silver alloy and mercury has a plasticity that permits Create an environment where group activities it to be packed or condensed into a prepared tooth cavity and shaped to re- are taken seriously and learners are expected to establish its form and function. The toxicity of mercury has forced dental act in a professional manner. These behaviors will carry over material manufacturers to create better quality restorative materials, although into the workplace. 20
  • 21. Module: Restorative Materials amalgam is still an excellent replacement for tooth structure and is still the most popular filling material. Understanding how to manipulate dental materials is the role of dental assisting. Depending on state regulations, expanded function dental assistants may be asked to place and shape restorations in patient’s mouths independently, but under supervision of the dentist.Initial Questions and Activities1. What are some of reasons a tooth may need to be restored? A tooth may need a restoration due to caries, a fracture, abrasion, attrition, or for esthetics.Key Concepts References and Activities SlidesAmalgam Restorative Materials Chapter ___, pgs. ___ (Phinney & Halstead) Slides 22-23 Chapter ____ (Dietz)Assessment Questions [Insert Group Activity icon] Assisting an Slide 24 Amalgam Procedure[ ] Group Activities [ ] Homework [ ] Individual Activity [ ] Internet Activity [ ] In-Class Discussion [ ] In-Class Activity [ ] Evaluation[Insert In-Class Act icon] In-Class Activities Assisting an Amalgam Procedure (Part B, Objective 10). Goal: For learners to gain experience assisting during an amalgam procedure. Instructor should ensure there are enough materials and supplies for the class and separate learners into teams. Instructor should be the operator for this procedure. Learners should be graded on the procedure steps as outlined on pg. ____, Chapter ____(Phinney & Halstead). Learner workbooks contain check off sheets that can be utilized. [Insert In-Class Dis Ques icon] In-Class Discussion1. What is the pulpal wall? The pulpal wall is the floor of the preparation over the pulp chamber. 2. What is a point angle? A point angle is where three tooth surfaces meet.Ideas for learners struggling with this material … - 21 - 21
  • 22. Faculty Teaching Guide for Dental Materials Improve Concentration. Suggest learners improve their concentration by, working in a quiet environment, eliminating external distractions, avoid internal distractions, take breaks when needed, get sufficient rest, lower stress levels, and exercise. Ideas for learners who are ahead and want to learn more Web Research: Have learners research on the web for more information on cements, restorative materials, bases, and liners. Learners should be prepared to discuss their findings with the class.Presentation ToolsNote: If you change Objectives or Assignments, don’t forget to change the slides accordingly.Slide [Insert DM 2-22] Part B: Amalgam Restorative Material22 Review Part A. Make sure that any remaining questions are answered. Discuss the complete homework and review any areas that need more clarification. Introduce Part B. Discuss how amalgam restorations are easy to insert, maintain anatomical form well, maintain adequate resistance to fracture, prevent marginal leakage, and provide a long service for the patient. Explain that the drawbacks of dental amalgam are that their color does not match tooth structure, is more brittle than desirable, subject to corrosion and galvanic action, and eventually show marginal breakdown. Ensure learners understand that amalgam alloy should not be contaminated with moisture during its condensation or expansion of the material will occur after placement.Slide [Insert DM 1-23] Amalgam Restoration Set-up23 Address the importance of the proper set up for an 22
  • 23. Module: Restorative Materials amalgam restoration. Explain to learners that they will have the opportunity to practice setting up and going through the steps of an amalgam restoration. Point out that the alloy powder and the mercury are mixed, or triturated, inside a capsule with an amalgamator, and that the material can be over-mixed or under-mixed, so it is important to read the manufacture’s directions for how long to mix when using any dental material.Slide [Insert DM 1-24] Assessment Questions Short Activity: Ask the group to answer these questions to24 assess their comprehension of the material recently presented. Review any material that does not seem clear. In-Class Activity: Stop here to complete the in-class activities. Homework Assignment: Stop here to assign and discuss the homework.Section 3: Composite RestorationsSection OverviewComposite restorations are often called tooth colored fillings. They are dependent on etching and bondingtechniques and are usually distributed as composite restorative systems. This section discusses bonding methodsand materials used for ideal tooth replacement. Teaching TipOutline of Section 3 Focus each overview onPart A: Bonding Agents why learners are studying this information. Ask themPart B: Composite Restorative Materials directly why they think it is important. Sometimes the act of trying to find theLearning Objectives and Competencies reason is enough to engage them and focusThese learning activities directly address the Learning Objectives and Competencies their attention on what you are about to teach them.as stated.Knowledge - 23 - 23
  • 24. Faculty Teaching Guide for Dental Materials11. Define Key Terms.Comprehension12. Explain the use of glass ionomer, resin reinforced glass ionomer, and compomer restorative materials.13. Explain the composition of composite resins.Application14. Demonstrate manipulation of etchant material and bonding agents.15. Demonstrate the steps of a composite restorative procedure.Learning ActivitiesThese learning activities directly address the Learning Objectives and Competencies as stated.[Insert Homework Ass icon] Key Term Glossary (Part A, Objective 11)[Insert In-Class Activity icon] Using Acid Etch (Part A, Objective 14)[Insert In-Class Activity icon] Using Bonding Material (Part A, Objective 14)[Insert In-Class Activity icon] Manipulate Resin Cement (Part A, Objectives 13 and 15)[Insert In-Class Activity icon] Assisting During a Light-Cured Composite (Part B, Objectives 13 and 15)[Insert In-Class Activity icon] Assisting During a Self-Cure Composite (Part B, Objectives 13 and 15)[Insert In-Class Activity icon] Glass Ionomer Restoration (Part B, Objectives 12 and 15)[Insert Homework Activity icon] Instrument Set Up Review (Part B, All Objectives)[Insert Homework Ass icon] Workbook Assignment (Part B, All Objectives)[Insert Homework Ass icon] End of Chapter Activities (Part B, All Objectives)Part A: Bonding AgentsOverviewBonding agents are vital to the success of resin and composite restorations. When adequate bonding is achieved,more conservative cavity preparations can be used, and the original strength of the clinical crown approximated,due to less tooth structure being removed. Dental assistants must understand various bonding systems in order tobe able to perform the tasks required of them.Initial Questions and Activities1. How would a filling stick to tooth structure? The shape of the cavity preparation is mechanical retention, but a combination of mechanical and chemical retention is accomplished through etching the tooth surface and bonding materials together. 24
  • 25. Module: Restorative MaterialsKey Concepts References and Activities SlidesIntroduction to Section Slide 25Key Terms [Insert Homeword Ass icon] Key Term Slide 26 GlossaryComposite Restorations Chapter ___, pgs. ___ (Phinney & Halstead) Slides 27-31 Chapter ___ (Dietz) [Insert In-Class Activity icon] Using Acid Etch [Insert In-Class Activity icon] Using Bonding Material [Insert In-Class Activity icon] Manipulate Resin Cement[ ] Group Activities [ ] Homework [ ] Individual Activity [ ] Internet Activity [ ] In-Class Discussion [ ] In-Class Activity [ ] Evaluation[Insert In-Class Act icon] In-Class Activities Using Acid Etch (Part A, Objective 14). Goal: For learners to again practice using acid etch. Instructor should ensure there are enough materials and supplies. Separate learners into teams. Learners should be graded on the procedure steps as outlined on pg. ____, Chapter ____(Phinney & Halstead). Learner workbooks contain check off sheets that can be utilized. Using Bonding Material (Part A, Objective 14). Goal: For learners again practice using bonding material. Instructor should ensure there are enough materials and supplies. Separate learners into teams. Learners should be graded on the procedure steps as outlined on pg. ____, Chapter ____(Phinney & Halstead). Learner workbooks contain check off sheets that can be utilized. Manipulate Resin Cement (Part A, Objective 15). Goal: For learners manipulate resin cement. Instructor should ensure there are enough materials and supplies. Separate learners into teams. Learners should be graded on the procedure steps as outlined on pg. ____, Chapter ____(Phinney & Halstead). Learner workbooks contain check off sheets that can be utilized.[Insert In-Class Dis Ques icon] In-Class Discussion Teaching Tip 1. What were some of the problems you encountered during the amalgam Tell learners that you procedure? expect discussion and provide them with guidelines for effective discussion. Remind them constantly of the importance of this part of the class. - 25 - 25
  • 26. Faculty Teaching Guide for Dental Materials Discuss any problems learners had with the amalgam procedure. Explain techniques to help them and tell learners that they will improve with more experience.2. What will happen if the tooth gets wet with water or saliva during the condensing of an amalgam filling? The amalgam restoration will fail due to the moisture causing the material to expand.[Insert Home Ass icon] Homework AssignmentsKey Term Glossary. Learners will define key terms listed in the PowerPoint presentation. They are to enterthis glossary on disk, in a dedicated notebook or in a designated part of a notebook. They are expected toaugment information from text or lecture with other resources including any available in the school or publiclibraries or on the Internet and will be graded at the end of the module on completeness and presentation.Ideas for learners struggling with this material … Verbalize Thoughts. Encourage learners to try thinking about the concepts out loud. Tell them to verbalize their thoughts as though teaching the information to others. Tell them the act of verbalizing uses a different part of the brain and if able to explain something will really think about it and therefore understand it better.Ideas for learners who are ahead and want to learn more… Research Dental Amalgam Filings. Have learners find out the latest information about dental amalgam fillings at http://www.ada.org. and prepare a short report to present to the class.Presentation ToolsNote: If you change Objectives or Assignments, don’t forget to change the slides accordingly.Slide [Insert DM 2-25] Section 3: Composite Restorations25 Discuss each objective for this section in detail. Learners need to know what they will be learning and why. Try to relate it back to their careers as dental assistants.Slide [Insert DM 2-26] Key Terms26 Review each key term and discuss the importance of knowing the definition of each. Homework Assignment: Stop here to discuss the Key Term Glossary assignment. 26
  • 27. Module: Restorative MaterialsSlide [Insert DM 2-27] Part A: Bonding Agents27 Discuss enamel bonding. Point out that bonding to enamel is primarily mechanical and dependent on penetration of the resin into the irregularities on the enamel surface. Explain that to obtain optimum bond strength, the surface must be conditioned with a phosphoric etching solution, which increases surface area for bonding, and demineralized porous enamel rod ends into which the resin can penetrate. Point out that treatment of dentin is designed to remove the smear layer produced by the cavity preparation, but to leave the dentinal tubules plugged, therefore minimizing any pulpal sensitivity. Explain that most bonding agents are light cured and aid in the adhesion of the filling material to the tooth. Explain that they decrease microleakage, but the tooth still needs retention preps to help hold the material in place. Refer learners to the figure in Chapter ____ (Phinney & Halstead) of a microscopic view of etched enamal. In-Class Activity: Stop here for the in-class activities. Homework Assignment: Stop here to assign and discuss the homework.Part B: Composite RestorationsOverview The shape of the cavity preparation, proper procedures when placing Teaching Tip materials, matching the tooth shade, and proper composite restoration Equate classroom discussion to the ingredients in a recipe. No whole is greater that its parts – each participant adds a valuable element to the final product. Find the - 27 - 27 “spice” that each learner brings to the recipe. Stir and simmer. Classroom dinner is served!
  • 28. Faculty Teaching Guide for Dental Materials finishing procedures are all vital to a successful composite filling. Development of optimum restoration contour and surface texture will minimize accumulation of plaque and decrease stain retention. Dental assistants must thoroughly understand each step in order to help the dentist ensure quality patient restorations.Initial Questions and Activities 1. Why would patients want tooth colored fillings rather than amalgam? Tooth colored restorations are always preferred in the anterior areas of the mouth, but with improvements in composite materials, posterior fillings are preferred in order to get away from the use of mercury and to be more esthetically pleasing.Key Concepts References and Activities SlidesComposite Restorations Chapter ___, pgs. ___ (Phinney & Halstead) Slides 28-31 Chapter ___ (Dietz)Assessment Questions [Insert In-Class Activity icon] Assisting During Slide 32 a Light Cured [Insert In-Class Activity icon] Assisting During a Self-Cure Composite [Insert In-Class Activity icon] Glass Ionomer Restoration [Insert Home Ass icon] Instrument Set Up Review [Insert Home Ass icon] Workbook Assignment [Insert Home Ass icon] End of Chapter ActivitiesSummary of Module Slide 33 28
  • 29. Module: Restorative Materials[ ] Group Activities [ ] Homework [ ] Individual Activity [ ] Internet Activity [ ] In-Class Discussion [ ] In-Class Activity [ ] Evaluation[Insert In-Class Act icon] In-Class Activities Assisting During a Light-Cured (Part B, Objective 15). Goal: For learners to practice assisting during a light-cured Composite procedure. Instructor should ensure there are enough materials and supplies. Separate learners into teams. Learners should be graded on the procedure steps as outlined on pg. ____, Chapter ____(Phinney & Halstead). Learner workbooks contain check off sheets that can be utilized. Assisting During a Self-Cure Composite (Part B, Objective 15). Goal: For learners to practice assisting during a self-cure Composite procedure. Instructor should ensure there are enough materials and supplies. Separate learners into teams. Learners should be graded on the procedure steps as outlined on pg. ____, Chapter ____(Phinney & Halstead). Learner workbooks contain check off sheets that can be utilized. Glass Ionomer Restoration (Part B, Objective 15). Goal: For learners to practice during a glass ionomer restoration procedure. Instructor should ensure there are enough materials and supplies. Separate learners into teams. Learners should be graded on the procedure steps as outlined on pg. ____, Chapter ____(Phinney & Halstead). Learner workbooks contain check off sheets that can be utilized. [Insert In-Class Dis Ques icon] In-Class Discussion1. What must the tooth be conditioned with in order for bonding materials to work? The tooth must be conditioned with phosphoric acid etch in order to create enamel rod tissue tags for the resin material to penetrate into.[Insert Home Ass icon] Homework AssignmentsInstrument Set-Up Review. Learners will need a computer with a CD-ROM drive to practice to complete thishomework. Using the Interactive Skills and Procedures CD-ROM, have learners complete the Specialty Set Upactivities. This activity should be a review for learners in preparation of the final exam of the course. Learnersshould repeat any area that is not clear.Workbook Assignment. Have learners complete the workbook assignments for Chapter ____ (Phinney &Halstead). - 29 - 29
  • 30. Faculty Teaching Guide for Dental MaterialsEnd of Chapter Activities. Have learners complete the Review Questions and Critical Thinking questions at theend of Chapter ____ (Phinney & Halstead).Ideas for learners struggling with this material … Focus on Objectives. Encourage learners to focus on the objectives that they must accomplish by the end of the module. Tell them to take an assessment of where they stand. They should ask themselves if they are achieving the objectives or are missing the point? Ideas for learners who are ahead and want to learn more… Tutor Others. Encourage learners to spend time in the dental lab helping other learners who are struggling with the procedures. Building on their skills while helping others will make a difference in their skill proficiency.Presentation ToolsNote: If you change Objectives or Assignments, don’t forget to change the slides accordingly.Slide [Insert DM 2-28] Part B: Composite Restorations28 Review Part A. Make sure that any remaining questions are answered. Introduce Part B. Discuss with learners how varied composite restorative materials are and that they are often called resins or porcelain fillings. Address the fact that dental manufacturing companies are developing new composite materials often in order to improve these materials and ensure their compatibility with oral tissues as well as the longevity of the restorations.Slide [Insert DM 2-29] Composite Compules and Syringe29 Explain that composite filling materials come in a wide variety of delivery systems.Slide [Insert DM 2-30] Composite Restoration Set-up30 Describe how adequate bonding to enamel is dependent on a dry etched surface that must be kept isolated from 30
  • 31. Module: Restorative Materials moisture. Explain how they must avoid exposure of all light-cured material to light. Also explain that proper finishing procedures establish a smooth surface texture that will reflect light in a similar manner to adjacent tooth enamel, restore proper tooth contour, can minimize occlusal stresses, and have proper adaptation of the resin at the cavosurface margin. Explain that light cured materials undergo some shrinkage as part of the polymerization setting process.Slide [Insert DM 2-31] Glass Ionomers and Compomers31 Address that glass ionomer filling materials can be used in areas where they are not required to undergo occlusal forces and that compomers are the most recent development in dental materials. Explain that the property of glass ionomer materials to release fluoride has made these more valuable to dentistry.Slide [Insert DM 2-32] Assessment Questions32 Short Activity: Ask the group to answer these questions to assess their comprehension of the material recently presented. Review any material that does not seem clear. Short Activity: Stop and discuss the Case Study at the end of Chapter ____ (Phinney & Halstead). In-Class Activity: Stop here to complete the in-class activities. Homework Assignment: Stop to assign and discuss the homework.Slide [Insert DM 2-33] Summary of Module - 31 - 31
  • 32. Faculty Teaching Guide for Dental Materials33 Review with learners the volume of skills they learned during this module and remind them that the more they practice the more proficient and valuable a dental assistant they will become. 32

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