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978

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  • 1. Infants, Children, and Adolescents Laura E. Berk 6th edition
    • Chapter 5
    • Physical Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood
    • This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:
    • Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network;
    • Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part of any images;
    • Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
  • 2. Body Growth
    • Gain 50% in height from birth to age 1; 75% by age 2
    • Grow in spurts
    • Gain “baby fat” until about 9 months, then get slimmer
    • Girls slightly shorter and lighter than boys
  • 3. Growth Trends
    • Cephalocaudal
    • “ Head to Tail”
    • Lower part of body grows later than the head
    • Proximodistal
    • “ Near to far”
    • Extremities grow later than head, chest, and trunk
  • 4. Epiphyses of the Bone
  • 5. The Skull at Birth
  • 6. Neurons and Their Connective Fibers
  • 7. Major Milestones of Brain Development
  • 8. Methods for Measuring Brain Functioning
  • 9. Regions of the Cerebral Cortex
  • 10. Lateralization and Plasticity of the Cerebral Cortex
    • The left and right hemispheres of the brain control different functions.
    • Specialization of the two hemispheres is called lateralization.
      • Left hemisphere: best at processing information in a sequential, analytic way.
      • Right hemisphere: best at processing information in a holistic, integrative manner.
    • In a highly plastic cerebral cortex, many areas are not yet committed to one function, consequently, the cortex has a high capacity for learning.
  • 11. Brain Plasticity Insights
    • In children with injuries to the cerebral cortex that occurred before birth or in the first 6 months of life, language delays persisted to about 3 ½ years of age.
    • Yet, by age 5, the children caught up in grammatical and vocabulary skills, showing that the undamaged area of the brain—either hemisphere—had taken over the language function.
    • Spatial skills showed more impairment after a brain injury. Researchers speculate that spatial processing is more lateralized at birth.
    • Brain plasticity can occur later in adulthood, for example, in stroke victims.
  • 12. Sensitive Periods in Brain Development
    • Early, extreme sensory deprivation results in permanent brain damage and loss of function.
    • Babies born with cataracts in both eyes who have corrective surgery within 4 to 6 months show rapid improvement in vision.
    • The longer the surgery is postponed, the less complete the recovery of visual skills.
  • 13. Brain Development in Orphanage Children
    • Children adopted from Romanian orphanages before 6 months of age showed dramatic cognitive and physical gains.
    • Those adopted after 6 months, however, showed serious intellectual deficits.
    • The chronic stress of early, deprived orphanage rearing disrupts the brain’s ability to manage stress, with long-term consequences.
  • 14. Relationship of Age at Adoption to Mental Test Scores
  • 15. Sensitive Periods in Brain Development
    • Experience-expectant growth
      • Ordinary experiences
      • “ expected” by brain to grow normally
    • Experience-dependent growth
      • Specific experience, varies widely
  • 16. Appropriate Stimulation
    • Experience-expectant brain development takes place early and naturally as part of a preschooler’s daily routine.
    • No evidence exists to support a sensitive period in early life when mastering skills that depend on extensive training can occur. In fact, rushing early learning can overwhelm young brains.
  • 17. Sleep Patterns
    • Sleep moves to an adult-like night-day schedule during the first year.
    • Sleep needs decline from 18 to 12 hours a day by age 2.
    • Night wakings often increase between the ages of 1 ½ and 2 years, and then decline.
  • 18. Cultural Variations in Infant Sleeping Arrangements
    • Cosleeping is the norm for 90% of the world’s population.
    • Cultural values of collectivism versus individualism strongly influence infant sleeping arrangements.
    • Cosleeping is increasing in North America, perhaps because more mothers are breastfeeding.
  • 19. Influences on Early Growth
    • Heredity
    • Nutrition
      • Breast v. Bottle Feeding
      • Malnutrition
    • Emotional Well-Being
      • Problems Can Cause Failure to Thrive
  • 20. Benefits of Breastfeeding
    • Correct fat-protein balance
    • Nutritionally complete
    • More digestible
    • Better growth
    • Disease protection
    • Better jaw and tooth development
    • Easier transition to solid food
  • 21. Are Chubby Babies At Risk for Later Obesity?
    • Recent research shows that there is a relationship between rapid weight gain in infancy and later obesity.
    • What to do?
      • Breastfeed for six months.
      • Avoid foods loaded with sugar, salt, and saturated fats.
      • Promote physical exercise.
      • Limit TV viewing time.
  • 22. Malnutrition
    • Physical symptoms
    • Growth and weight problems
    • Poor motor development
    • Learning, attention problems
    • Passivity, irritability, anxiety
    Consequences
    • Marasmus
    • Kwashiorkor
    • Iron-deficiency anemia
    • Food insecurity
    Types
  • 23. Nonorganic Failure to Thrive
    • The baby is offered enough food and has no serious illness, but still has a wasted body and is withdrawn and apathetic.
    • Family circumstances surrounding failure to thrive often help explain the problem.
    • When treated early, by helping the parents or placing the baby in a caring foster home, failure-to-thrive infants show quick catch-up growth. Left untreated, most will remain small and have lasting difficulties.
  • 24. The Steps of Classical Conditioning
  • 25. Operant Conditioning Terms
    • Reinforcer
    • Increases probability of behavior occurring again
    • Presenting desirable stimulus
    • Removing unpleasant stimulus
    • Punishment
    • Reduces probability of behavior occurring again
    • Presenting unpleasant stimulus
    • Removing desirable stimulus
  • 26. Using Habituation to Study Infants
  • 27. Imitation
    • Imitation is a powerful method of learning.
    • It is more difficult to induce in babies 2 to 3 months old than right after birth.
    • Andrew Meltzoff: newborns imitate as much as older children and adults do.
    • Mirror neurons enable us to observe another person’s behavior while simulating that behavior in our own brain.
    • Meltzoff’s theory of newborn imitation as a voluntary capacity is controversial.
  • 28. The Sequence of Motor Development
    • Gross motor development
      • crawling, standing, walking
    • Fine motor development
      • reaching and grasping
  • 29. Gross and Motor Development in the First Two Years
  • 30. Motor Skills as Dynamic Systems
    • Increasingly complex systems of action with each skill
    • 4 factors in each new skill:
      • CNS development
      • Body’s movement capacity
      • Child’s goals
      • Environmental supports
  • 31. Steps in Reaching and Grasping
    • Prereaching
    • Reaching
      • With two hands, then one
    • Ulnar Grasp
      • Adjust grip to object
      • Move objects from
      • hand to hand
    • Pincer Grasp
  • 32. Keeping Infants and Toddlers Safe
    • Provide safe toys
    • Child-proof all rooms
    • Continuously monitor the infant or toddler
    • Use a car seat, following government regulations
    • Report any unsafe toys and equipment
  • 33. Bowel and Bladder Control
    • Toilet training is best delayed until the months following the second birthday.
    • Effective training techniques include:
      • establishing regular toileting routines
      • using gentle encouragement
      • praising children for their effort
  • 34. Developments in Hearing Can detect words that start with weak syllables 10 months Divide the speech stream into word-like units 7 – 9 months “ Screen out” sounds from non-native languages 6- 8 months Sense of musical phrasing 4 – 7 months
  • 35. Improvements in Vision
    • Brain development helps infants reach adult levels of vision skills:
    • 2–4 months: focus and color vision
    • 6 months: acuity, scanning & tracking
    • 6–7 months: depth perception
  • 36. Steps in Depth Perception Sensitivity to pictorial cues. Wariness of heights. 6 –7 months Sensitivity to binocular cues. 2 – 3 months Sensitivity to motion cues. Birth – 1 month
  • 37. Steps in Pattern Perception Can detect objects if two-thirds of drawing is missing. 12 months Can detect patterns even if boundaries are not really present. 4 months Can detect fine-grained detail. Prefer complex patterns. 2 months Poor contrast sensitivity. Prefer large simple patterns. 3 weeks
  • 38. Appearance of Checkerboards to Very Young Infants
  • 39. Subjective Boundaries in Visual Patterns
  • 40. Stimuli for Studying Infants’ Facial Perception
  • 41. Testing Infants’ Ability to Perceive Object Unity
  • 42. Differentiation Theory of Infant Perception
    • Infants actively search for invariant , unchanging features of the environment.
      • Borders of stimuli, faces
    • They note stable relationships between features.
      • Complex visual patterns, intermodal relationships
    • Perception gets more and more sensitive— differentiation
    • Acting on the environment helps this process— affordances

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