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Chapter 18

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  • 1. Chapter 18 Dental Assistant Skills
  • 2. Career Highlights
    • Dental assistants are valuable members of the dental health care field
    • Education requirements
    • Certification obtained through the Dental Assisting National Board
    • Duties performed follow state regulations
    • Required skills
  • 3. 18:1 Identifying the Structures and Tissues of a Tooth
    • Odontology: study of the anatomy, growth, and diseases of the teeth
    • Teeth are accessory organs of the digestive tract
    • Aid in mastication (chewing) of food
  • 4. Two Sets of Teeth
    • Dentitions: sets of teeth
    • Primary or deciduous dentition
    • Permanent or succedaneous dentition
  • 5. The Tooth
    • Crown—visible in the mouth
    • Root—below the gum line
    • Cervix—where the crown meets the root
    • Apex—tip of the root
  • 6. Tissues of the Tooth
    • Enamel—covers the crown
    • Cementum—covers the outside of the root
    • Dentin—located under the enamel and cementum of the root
    • Pulp—in the inner area of the tooth
  • 7. Periodontium
    • Structures that surround and support teeth
    • Alveolar process or ridge—surrounds the roots and has sockets
    • Periodontal ligament—supports the tooth in the socket
    • Gingiva or gums—surrounds the cervix
  • 8. Dental Care
    • Disease can affect the teeth and supporting structures
    • Dental care
      • Preventing and treating dental disease
      • Preserving and prolonging the life of the teeth
  • 9. 18:2 Identifying the Teeth
    • Incisors—front and center of the mouth
    • Cuspids—at angles of lips
    • Bicuspids—before the molars
    • Molars—back of the mouth
  • 10. Primary or Deciduous Teeth
    • First set of teeth—called “baby” teeth
    • 20 teeth
    • Naming of teeth
  • 11. Permanent or Succedaneous Teeth
    • Second or permanent set of teeth
    • 32 teeth
    • Naming of teeth
  • 12. 18:3 Identifying Teeth Using Numbering Systems
    • Universal National Numbering System
      • Identified by using letters A to T
    • Federation Dentaire International System
      • Two-digit code and 4 quadrants
  • 13. 18:4 Identifying the Surfaces of the Teeth
    • Anterior (toward the front) teeth
    • Posterior (toward the back) teeth
    • Crown surfaces
    • Suggested abbreviations
    ( continues )
  • 14. Identifying the Surfaces of the Teeth ( continued )
    • Line angles—form where two crown surfaces meet
    • Point angles—form where three crown surfaces meet
    • Abbreviations for line angles and point angles of anterior teeth
    • Abbreviations for line angles and point angles of posterior teeth
  • 15. 18:5 Charting Conditions of the Teeth
    • Conditions of the teeth are often charted on dental charts or insurance forms
    • Forms, symbols used, abbreviations, and other factors vary
    • Dental charts are legal records
    • Dental charts
    • Anatomic diagrams
    ( continues )
  • 16. Charting Conditions of the Teeth ( continued )
    • Geometric diagrams
    • Surfaces of teeth
    • Charting guidelines
    • Common symbols for anatomic or geometric diagrams
    • Recording treatments or services
    • Use of computerized dental charting
  • 17. 18:6 Operating and Maintaining Dental Equipment
    • Follow manufacturer’s recommendations for operation of equipment
    • Infection control
    • Personal protective equipment (PPE)
    • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
    • Covers for dental equipment
    ( continues )
  • 18. Operating and Maintaining Dental Equipment ( continued )
    • Dental light
    • Dental chair
    • Air compressor
    • Oral-evacuation system
    • Assistant’s cart
    • Tri-flow or air-water syringe
    • Saliva ejector
    ( continues )
  • 19. Operating and Maintaining Dental Equipment ( continued )
    • High-velocity oral evacuator
    • Cuspidor
    • Doctor’s cart
    • Low-speed hand piece
      • Contra angle for cutting and polishing
      • Prophylaxis angle for holding cups, etc.
    • High-speed handpiece (ultraspeed)
  • 20. Summary
    • Responsibilities for care and maintenance of dental equipment will vary
    • Dental assistant should learn exactly what maintenance is expected as a part of the job
    • Read specific manufacturer’s instructions for equipment you will handle
  • 21. 18:7 Identifying Dental Instruments and Preparing Dental Trays
    • Methods for setting up dental trays
    • Organization of trays
    • Main parts of a dental hand instrument
    • Standard instruments
    • Guidelines for preparing dental trays
    • Examples of tray set-ups
    • Basic principles for preparing dental trays
  • 22. 18:8 Positioning a Patient in the Dental Chair
    • Designed to position patient comfortably while providing doctor and assistant easy access to oral cavity
    • Headrests
    • Supine position
    • Explanation of all chair movements
    • Protective drape and safety glasses
    • Positioning of light
    • Principles of seating patient in dental chair
  • 23. 18:9 Demonstrating Brushing and Flossing Techniques
    • Using correct brushing and flossing techniques is essential in prevention of dental disease
    • May be responsible for teaching patients
    • Correct brushing and flossing is one method of prophylactic care
    ( continues )
  • 24. Demonstrating Brushing and Flossing Techniques ( continued )
    • Purposes
    • Demonstrations
    • Bass method
    • Five surfaces on each tooth
    • Toothbrushes
    • Toothpastes or dentifrices
    • Dental floss
  • 25. Summary
    • Correct brushing and flossing provides prophylactic care
    • Give thorough explanation to all patients
    • Be sure patient understands procedures
    • Asking patient to demonstrate procedures is a good way to determine if all points have been learned
  • 26. 18:10 Taking Impressions and Pouring Molds
    • Impression
      • Negative film reproduction of a tooth, several teeth, or a dental arch
      • Taken to form a model of the area for restoration treatment that will take place outside of the mouth
      • Common materials used to take impressions
  • 27. Alginate
    • Hydrocolloid impression material that cannot be returned to its original state
    • Advantages
    • Disadvantages
    • Alginate powder—follow manufacturer’s recommended directions
    • Principles for taking alginate impression
    • Storage of alginate material
  • 28. Rubber Base or Polysulfide
    • Elastomeric impression material that is elastic and rubbery in nature
    • Three types are available
    • Can be used in any type of dental impression
    • Not as subject to dimension changes as alginate
    ( continues )
  • 29. Rubber Base or Polysulfide ( continued )
    • Models should be poured promptly if possible
    • Disadvantages
    • Basic principles of preparing rubber base
  • 30. Silicones
    • Polysiloxane or polyvinylsiloxane
    • Available in different material qualities
    • Supplied in two tubes—base and catalyst
    • Advantages
    • Disadvantages
  • 31. Gypsum Products
    • Two main products to form models
      • Plaster
      • Stone
    • Principles for the use of gypsum
    • Follow standard precautions for infection control when taking impressions and pouring models
  • 32. 18:11 Making Custom Trays
    • Impression trays that are made to fit patient’s mouth
    • Materials used to produce trays
    • Acrylic resins are self-curing or light-curing
    • Types of custom trays
    • Clean and replace all equipment
  • 33. 18:12 Maintaining and Loading an Anesthetic Aspirating Syringe
    • Anesthesia is used for pain control
    • Types of anesthesia
      • General anesthesia
      • Analgesia
      • Local anesthesia
      • Topical anesthesia
  • 34. Injections
    • Two main kinds of injections for used for local anesthesia
      • Block
      • Infiltration
    • Types of medications
    • Anesthetic carpules (cartridges)
    • Aspirating syringes
    • Follow standard precautions
  • 35. 18:13 Mixing Dental Cements and Bases
    • Cements and bases used in variety of dental procedures
    • Terminology
    • Types of products
    • Basic principles of mixing cements and bases
  • 36. 18:14 Preparing Restorative Materials
    • Restoration: process of replacing a diseased portion of a tooth or a lost tooth by artificial means
    • May include filling material, crowns, bridge, denture, partial denture, or implant
    • Dental caries or decay
  • 37. Amalgam
    • Restorative material used mostly on posterior teeth
    • Contains four main metals
      • Silver
      • Tin
      • Copper
      • Zinc
    ( continues )
  • 38. Amalgam ( continued )
    • Mercury when added to other metals forms amalgam
    • Must be handled with care due to toxicity
    • Use protective clothing
    • Follow manufacturer’s recommendations
  • 39. Composite
    • Restorative material used primarily for the repair of anterior teeth
      • Self-curing (chemical-curing)
      • Light-curing
    • Various shades to blend with teeth
    • Follow manufacturer’s instructions
  • 40. 18:15 Developing and Mounting Dental X-Rays
    • Dental X-rays or radiographs
      • Radiolucents
      • Radiopaque
    • Types of dental radiographs
    • Developing films
    • Mounting X-rays
  • 41. Summary
    • The dental assistant acquires many skills
    • Use of these skills enables the dental assistant to perform or assist with many procedures in the dental care setting
    • Following procedures the assistant is often responsible for cleaning and care of equipment used

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