Chapter 8 Digestive System
Multimedia Directory <ul><li>Slide 16	 Digestive System Animation </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 58	 Digestive System Exercise </...
Digestive System at a Glance <ul><li>Function of the Digestive System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical and chemical digest...
Digestive System at a Glance <ul><li>Organs of the Gastrointestinal tract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral cavity </li></ul></ul...
Digestive System at a Glance <ul><li>Accessory Organs  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pancreas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liver </l...
Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson...
Digestive System Combining Forms <ul><li>an/o anus </li></ul><ul><li>append/o appendix </li></ul><ul><li>appendic/o append...
Digestive System Combining Forms <ul><li>cholangi/o bile duct </li></ul><ul><li>cholecyst/o gallbladder </li></ul><ul><li>...
Digestive System Combining Forms <ul><li>enter/o small intestine </li></ul><ul><li>esophag/o esophagus </li></ul><ul><li>g...
Digestive System Combining Forms <ul><li>jejun/o jejunum </li></ul><ul><li>labi/o lip </li></ul><ul><li>lapar/o abdomen </...
Digestive System Combining Forms <ul><li>palat/o palate </li></ul><ul><li>pancreat/o pancreas </li></ul><ul><li>pharyng/o ...
Digestive System Suffixes <ul><li>– emesis vomit </li></ul><ul><li>– lithiasis stone </li></ul><ul><li>– orexia appetite <...
Anatomy and Physiology <ul><li>Also called: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gastrointestinal system (GI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Anatomy and Physiology <ul><li>Organs of the continuous gut tube in order: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral cavity </li></ul></u...
Anatomy and Physiology <ul><li>Accessory organs  are connected to gut tube by ducts </li></ul><ul><li>Include: </li></ul><...
Digestive System Animation Click  here  to view an animation of the digestive system.  Back to Directory
Anatomy and Physiology <ul><li>Three main functions of Digestive system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digesting food </li></ul></u...
Digesting Food <ul><li>Physical and chemical breakdown of large food particles </li></ul><ul><li>Produces simple nutrient ...
Absorbing Nutrients <ul><li>Simple molecules are absorbed from intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Circulated through body by card...
Eliminating Waste <ul><li>Some ingested food cannot be digested or absorbed </li></ul><ul><li>Expelled from body as solid ...
Oral Cavity <ul><li>Roof is  palate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard – bony anterior  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soft – flexible...
Oral Cavity <ul><li>Cheeks  are lateral walls </li></ul><ul><li>Lips  are anterior opening </li></ul><ul><li>Entire cavity...
<ul><li>Figure 8.1 – Anatomy of the oral cavity. </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie ...
Oral Cavity <ul><li>Digestion begins when food enters mouth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanically broken up by chewing </li><...
Teeth <ul><li>Cutting teeth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut  </l...
Teeth <ul><li>Grinding teeth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bicuspids (premolars) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molars </li></ul></ul>...
<ul><li>Figure 8.3A – The name and shape of the adult teeth.  </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Ed...
<ul><li>Figure 8.3B – Color enhanced X-ray of teeth showing four wisdom teeth that have not erupted.  (Science Photo Libra...
Tooth Structure <ul><li>Gums </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mucous membrane + connective tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seals of...
Tooth Structure <ul><li>Enamel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer covering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In crown only </li></ul></u...
Tooth Structure <ul><li>Pulp cavity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In crown and root canal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood vessels...
<ul><li>Figure 8.4 – Internal structures of the crown and root. </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth ...
Humans Have 2 Sets of Teeth <ul><li>Deciduous teeth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First set, baby teeth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Pharynx <ul><li>Swallowed food enters  oropharynx  </li></ul><ul><li>Proceeds down pharynx into  laryngopharynx </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Figure 8.2 – Structures of the oral cavity, pharynx, and esophagus. </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Langua...
Esophagus <ul><li>10-inch long muscular tube </li></ul><ul><li>Food enters from pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Delivered to sto...
The Stomach <ul><li>J-shaped muscular organ </li></ul><ul><li>Collects & churns food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixes it with  ...
The Stomach <ul><li>Three regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundus  – upper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body  – main </li></ul>...
Sphincters <ul><li>Muscular valves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control flow of food  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lower esophageal (ca...
<ul><li>Figure 8.5 – The regions and internal structures of the stomach. </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language ...
Small Intestine <ul><li>Longest portion of alimentary canal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Averages 20 feet  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Three Sections of Small Intestine <ul><li>Duodenum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First section – about 10-12 inches long </li></ul...
<ul><li>Figure 8.6 – The small intestine – duodenum, jejunum, ileum – begins at the pyloric sphincter and ends at the colo...
Colon  <ul><li>5 feet long </li></ul><ul><li>Extends from  ileocecal valve  to  anus  </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid that remains...
Regions of the Colon  <ul><li>Cecum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appendix </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ascending colon </li></ul><ul><l...
Rectum and Anus <ul><li>Rectum  is area for storage of feces </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to anus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Externa...
<ul><li>Figure 8.7 – The regions of the colon. </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F....
Accessory Organs  <ul><li>Generally function by producing substances necessary for chemical breakdown of food </li></ul><u...
Salivary Glands <ul><li>Produce  saliva </li></ul><ul><li>Allows food to be swallowed without choking </li></ul><ul><li>Sa...
Salivary Glands <ul><li>Three pairs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parotid glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sublingual glands </li...
<ul><li>Figure 8.8 – The salivary glands, parotid, sublingual, and submandibular.  </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living...
Liver <ul><li>Located in right upper quadrant of abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>Processes nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Detoxifie...
<ul><li>Figure 8.9 – The accessory organs of the digestive system: the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.  </li></ul>Medica...
Gallbladder  <ul><li>Lies under liver </li></ul><ul><li>Stores bile produced by liver </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hepatic duct <...
<ul><li>Figure 8.9 – The accessory organs of the digestive system: the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.  </li></ul>Medica...
Pancreas <ul><li>Digestive juices include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffers  – neutralize acidic chyme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
<ul><li>Figure 8.9 – The accessory organs of the digestive system: the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.  </li></ul>Medica...
Digestive System Exercise Click  here  to review digestive system anatomy in a labeling activity. Back to Directory
Word Building with an/o & bucc/o pertaining to lips and cheeks labiobuccal labi/o  –al pertaining to cheek buccal – al per...
Word Building with append/o & appendic/o inflammation of appendix appendicitis – itis surgical removal of appendix appende...
Word Building with cholecyst/o & dent/o tooth pain dentalgia – algia pertaining to teeth dental – al gallbladder pain chol...
Word Building with col/o & colon/o pertaining to colon colonic – ic instrument to view colon colonoscope – scope pertainin...
Word Building with duoden/o, enter/o, & esophag/o pertaining to duodenum duodenal – al inflammation of intestine enteritis...
Word Building with gastr/o  stomach softening gastromalacia – malacia stomach specialist gastroenterologist enter/o  – olo...
Word Building with gastr/o  surgical removal of stomach gastrectomy – ectomy inflammation of stomach gastritis – itis inst...
Word Building with gingiv/o & gloss/o pertaining to under tongue hypoglossal hypo– –al pertaining to tongue glossal – al g...
Word Building with hepat/o & ile/o new opening into ileum ileostomy – ostomy pertaining to ileum ileal – al pertaining to ...
Word Building with jejun/o, lapar/o, & lingu/o pertaining to jejunum jejunal – al instrument to view inside colon laparosc...
Word Building with odont/o, or/o, & palat/o pertaining to straight teeth orthodontic orth/o –ic pertaining to mouth oral –...
Word Building with pancreat/o & pharyng/o surgical repair of pharynx pharyngoplasty – plasty pharynx paralysis pharyngople...
Word Building with proct/o & pylor/o pertaining to pylorus pyloric – ic surgical fixation of rectum & anus proctopexy – pe...
Word Building with rect/o, sialaden/o, & sigmoid/o pertaining to rectum rectal – al pertaining to sigmoid colon sigmoidal ...
Word Building with –emesis, –orexia, & –prandial excessive vomiting hyperemesis hyper– vomit blood hematemesis hemat/o abn...
Word Building with –pepsia & –phagia too much eating polyphagia poly– abnormal eating dysphagia dys– lack of eating aphagi...
Digestive System Vocabulary loss of weight and wasting occurring during chronic disease cachexia loss of appetite with oth...
Digestive System Vocabulary partial or complete set of artificial teeth denture frequent, watery bowel movements diarrhea ...
Digestive System Vocabulary diagnosis and treatment of diseases of internal organs internal medicine vomiting emesis prost...
Digestive System Vocabulary correction of problems of tooth alignment orthodontics yellow cast to skin; caused by deposit ...
Orthodontics Video Click  here  to view a video on orthodontics. Back to Directory
Digestive System Vocabulary backflow of stomach contents into mouth regurgitation treating conditions of the gums and area...
Oral Cavity Pathology ulcers in the mouth; commonly called canker sores aphthous ulcers congenital anomaly where hard pala...
Oral Cavity Pathology herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection; fever blisters or cold sores herpes labialis disease ...
Esophageal Pathology varicose veins in the esophagus; hemorrhaging occurs if rupture esophageal varices acid from stomach ...
GERD Video Click  here  to view a video on gastroesophageal reflux disease. Back to Directory
Stomach Pathology ulcer in the lower portion of esophagus, stomach, and/or duodenum; caused by high acid of stomach juices...
<ul><li>Figure 8.10 – A hiatal hernia or diaphragmatocele.  </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edit...
<ul><li>Figure 8.11A – The location and appearance of a peptic ulcer in both the stomach and the duodenum.  </li></ul>Medi...
<ul><li>Figure 8.11B – Photomicrograph of a gastric ulcer. </li></ul><ul><li>(Dr. E. Walker/Science Photo Library/Photo Re...
Small Intestine & Colon Pathology abnormal passageway from surface directly into rectum; around anal opening anal fistula ...
Small Intestine & Colon Pathology inflammation of a diverticulum, an outpouching off the colon; results from food being tr...
<ul><li>Figure 8.12 – Diverticulosis.  </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen...
Small Intestine & Colon Pathology varicose veins in the anal region hemorrhoids protrusion of a loop of bowel through abdo...
<ul><li>Figure 8.13 – An inguinal hernia.  </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fre...
Small Intestine & Colon Pathology one part of intestine slips or telescopes into another section intussusception disturban...
<ul><li>Figure 8.14 – Intussusception.  </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremge...
Small Intestine & Colon Pathology having polyps growing on the mucous membrane of the colon; may become cancerous polyposi...
<ul><li>Figure 8.15 – Photograph showing a polyp in the colon. </li></ul><ul><li>(ISM/Phototake NYC) </li></ul>Medical Ter...
<ul><li>Figure 8.16 – Volvulus.  </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and S...
Accessory Organ Pathology presence of gallstones; may or may not cause symptoms cholelithiasis inflammation of gallbladder...
<ul><li>Figure 8.17A – Common sites for cholelithiasis. </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition ...
<ul><li>Figure 8.17B – A gallbladder specimen with multiple gallstones.  </li></ul><ul><li>(Martin Rotker/Phototake NYC)  ...
Clinical Laboratory Tests normal enzyme in the bloodstream; increased levels indicate liver disease alanine transaminase (...
Clinical Laboratory Tests examination of feces for presence of parasites or their eggs ova and parasites (O&P) culture of ...
Diagnostic Imaging X-ray of teeth with film holder held in the teeth bite-wing X-ray X-ray of colon and rectum after bariu...
<ul><li>Figure 8.18 – Color enhanced X-ray of the colon taken during a barium enema. </li></ul><ul><li>(CNRI/Science Photo...
Diagnostic Imaging X-ray of liver and bile duct after dye is injected directly into liver percutaneous transhepatic cholan...
Endoscopic Procedures using a scope to view inside the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum esophagogastro-duodenoscopy (EGD) ...
Endoscopic Procedures visual examination inside of stomach using a gastroscope gastroscopy visual examination inside of co...
Sigmoidoscopy Video Click  here  to view a video on sigmoidoscopy. Back to Directory
Additional Diagnostic Procedures insertion of needle into abdominal cavity to withdraw fluid paracentesis
Dental Procedures removing teeth extraction drilling out of pulp cavity of a tooth; used to save a tooth that is badly inf...
Medical Procedures flexible catheter inserted into nose and down esophagus into the stomach nasogastric intubation  (NG tu...
Nasogastric Intubation Animation Click  here  to view an animation on nasogastric intubation. Back to Directory
Dieticians Video Click  here  to view a video on registered dieticians. Back to Directory
Surgical Procedures surgical crushing of a gallstone in the common bile duct choledocholithotripsy surgical creation of a ...
Surgical Procedures surgical procedure to examine the abdominal organs exploratory laparotomy surgical creation of opening...
<ul><li>Figure 8.19A – The colon illustrating various –ostomy sites.  </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , F...
<ul><li>Figure 8.19B – Colostomy in the descending colon. </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Editio...
Surgical Procedures surgical removal of hemorrhoids hemorrhoidectomy removal of a fistula fistulectomy procedure to close ...
Surgical Procedures implantation of a donor liver liver transplant surgical repair of a hernia hernioplasty surgical remov...
Digestive System Pharmacology Compazine, Phenergan treats nausea and vomiting antiemetic Imodium, Lomotil used to control ...
Digestive System Pharmacology Nexium, Prilosec blocks stomach’s ability to secrete acid proton pump inhibitor Senokot, Met...
Digestive System Abbreviations bowel sounds BS bowel movement BM barium enema BE barium Ba aspartate transaminase AST alan...
Digestive System Abbreviations gastrointestinal GI gastroesophageal reflux disease GERD gallbladder GB fecal occult blood ...
Digestive System Abbreviations herpes simplex virus type 1 HSV-1 hepatitis E virus HEV hepatitis D virus HDV hepatitis C v...
Digestive System Abbreviations ova and parasites O&P nausea and vomiting n&v nothing by mouth NPO nasogastric NG intraveno...
Digestive System Abbreviations upper gastrointestinal series UGI total parenteral nutrition TPN peptic ulcer disease PUD p...
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  1. 1. Chapter 8 Digestive System
  2. 2. Multimedia Directory <ul><li>Slide 16 Digestive System Animation </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 58 Digestive System Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 79 Orthodontics Video </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 84 GERD Video </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 109 Sigmoidoscopy Video </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 113 Nasogastric Intubation Animation </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 114 Dieticians Video </li></ul>
  3. 3. Digestive System at a Glance <ul><li>Function of the Digestive System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical and chemical digestion of food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorption of nutrient molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elimination of solid wastes </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Digestive System at a Glance <ul><li>Organs of the Gastrointestinal tract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharynx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Esophagus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stomach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small intestine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colon </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Digestive System at a Glance <ul><li>Accessory Organs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pancreas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gallbladder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salivary glands </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  7. 7. Digestive System Combining Forms <ul><li>an/o anus </li></ul><ul><li>append/o appendix </li></ul><ul><li>appendic/o appendix </li></ul><ul><li>bar/o weight </li></ul><ul><li>bucc/o cheek </li></ul><ul><li>cec/o cecum </li></ul><ul><li>chol/e bile, gall </li></ul>
  8. 8. Digestive System Combining Forms <ul><li>cholangi/o bile duct </li></ul><ul><li>cholecyst/o gallbladder </li></ul><ul><li>choledoch/o common bile duct </li></ul><ul><li>col/o colon </li></ul><ul><li>colon/o colon </li></ul><ul><li>dent/o tooth </li></ul><ul><li>duoden/o duodenum </li></ul>
  9. 9. Digestive System Combining Forms <ul><li>enter/o small intestine </li></ul><ul><li>esophag/o esophagus </li></ul><ul><li>gastr/o stomach </li></ul><ul><li>gingiv/o gums </li></ul><ul><li>gloss/o tongue </li></ul><ul><li>hepat/o liver </li></ul><ul><li>ile/o ileum </li></ul>
  10. 10. Digestive System Combining Forms <ul><li>jejun/o jejunum </li></ul><ul><li>labi/o lip </li></ul><ul><li>lapar/o abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>lingu/o tongue </li></ul><ul><li>lith/o stone </li></ul><ul><li>odont/o tooth </li></ul><ul><li>or/o mouth </li></ul>
  11. 11. Digestive System Combining Forms <ul><li>palat/o palate </li></ul><ul><li>pancreat/o pancreas </li></ul><ul><li>pharyng/o throat, pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>proct/o anus and rectum </li></ul><ul><li>pylor/o pylorus </li></ul><ul><li>rect/o rectum </li></ul><ul><li>sialaden/o salivary gland </li></ul><ul><li>sigmoid/o sigmoid colon </li></ul>
  12. 12. Digestive System Suffixes <ul><li>– emesis vomit </li></ul><ul><li>– lithiasis stone </li></ul><ul><li>– orexia appetite </li></ul><ul><li>– pepsia digestion </li></ul><ul><li>– phagia eat, swallow </li></ul><ul><li>– prandial pertaining to a meal </li></ul><ul><li>– tripsy surgical crushing </li></ul>
  13. 13. Anatomy and Physiology <ul><li>Also called: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gastrointestinal system (GI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alimentary canal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Approximately 30 feet of continuous muscular tube between mouth and anus </li></ul>
  14. 14. Anatomy and Physiology <ul><li>Organs of the continuous gut tube in order: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharynx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Esophagus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stomach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small intestine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colon (including rectum and anus) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Anatomy and Physiology <ul><li>Accessory organs are connected to gut tube by ducts </li></ul><ul><li>Include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salivary glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pancreas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gallbladder </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Digestive System Animation Click here to view an animation of the digestive system. Back to Directory
  17. 17. Anatomy and Physiology <ul><li>Three main functions of Digestive system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digesting food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorbing nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminating waste </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Digesting Food <ul><li>Physical and chemical breakdown of large food particles </li></ul><ul><li>Produces simple nutrient molecules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triglycerides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amino acids </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Absorbing Nutrients <ul><li>Simple molecules are absorbed from intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Circulated through body by cardiovascular system </li></ul><ul><li>Used for growth and repair of cells, tissues, and organs </li></ul>
  20. 20. Eliminating Waste <ul><li>Some ingested food cannot be digested or absorbed </li></ul><ul><li>Expelled from body as solid waste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feces </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Oral Cavity <ul><li>Roof is palate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard – bony anterior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soft – flexible posterior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hanging down from soft palate is uvula </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location of gag reflex </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Oral Cavity <ul><li>Cheeks are lateral walls </li></ul><ul><li>Lips are anterior opening </li></ul><ul><li>Entire cavity lined with mucous membrane </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Figure 8.1 – Anatomy of the oral cavity. </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  24. 24. Oral Cavity <ul><li>Digestion begins when food enters mouth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanically broken up by chewing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tongue moves food within mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Mixes with saliva </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digestive enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lubricates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taste buds on tongue surface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detect bitter, sweet, salty, sour flavors </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Teeth <ul><li>Cutting teeth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incisors </li></ul><ul><li>Cuspids (canines) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Teeth <ul><li>Grinding teeth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bicuspids (premolars) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third molar is wisdom tooth </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Figure 8.3A – The name and shape of the adult teeth. </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  28. 28. <ul><li>Figure 8.3B – Color enhanced X-ray of teeth showing four wisdom teeth that have not erupted. (Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.) </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  29. 29. Tooth Structure <ul><li>Gums </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mucous membrane + connective tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seals off teeth in socket </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tooth is divided into: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crown – above gum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Root – below gum </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Tooth Structure <ul><li>Enamel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer covering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In crown only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardest substance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dentin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Under enamel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In crown and root </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulk of tooth </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Tooth Structure <ul><li>Pulp cavity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In crown and root canal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood vessels, nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cementum and periodontal ligaments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anchors root in jawbone </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Figure 8.4 – Internal structures of the crown and root. </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  33. 33. Humans Have 2 Sets of Teeth <ul><li>Deciduous teeth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First set, baby teeth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20 teeth erupt between ages 6 and 28 months </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Permanent teeth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second set, adult teeth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 6 years of age, baby teeth fall out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replaced by 32 permanent teeth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process continues until 18-20 years of age </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Pharynx <ul><li>Swallowed food enters oropharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Proceeds down pharynx into laryngopharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Epiglottis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Covers larynx and trachea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shunts food away from lungs & into esophagus </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Figure 8.2 – Structures of the oral cavity, pharynx, and esophagus. </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  36. 36. Esophagus <ul><li>10-inch long muscular tube </li></ul><ul><li>Food enters from pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Delivered to stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Propelled along by wavelike muscular movements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Called peristalsis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pushes food through entire gut tube </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. The Stomach <ul><li>J-shaped muscular organ </li></ul><ul><li>Collects & churns food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixes it with hydrochloric acid (HCl) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forms chyme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Watery mix of food and digestive juices </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. The Stomach <ul><li>Three regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundus – upper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body – main </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antrum – lower </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rugae are folds in stomach lining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stretch out to allow stomach to expand with food </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Sphincters <ul><li>Muscular valves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control flow of food </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lower esophageal (cardiac) sphincter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeps food from backing up into esophagus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pyloric sphincter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows highly acidic chyme to enter small intestine </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Figure 8.5 – The regions and internal structures of the stomach. </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  41. 41. Small Intestine <ul><li>Longest portion of alimentary canal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Averages 20 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between pyloric sphincter and colon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Site of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Completion of digestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Majority of absorption </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Three Sections of Small Intestine <ul><li>Duodenum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First section – about 10-12 inches long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starts at pyloric sphincter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jejunum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second section – about 8 feet long </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ileum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Third section – about 12 feet long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects to colon at ileocecal valve </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>Figure 8.6 – The small intestine – duodenum, jejunum, ileum – begins at the pyloric sphincter and ends at the colon. </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  44. 44. Colon <ul><li>5 feet long </li></ul><ul><li>Extends from ileocecal valve to anus </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid that remains after digestion and absorption enters colon </li></ul><ul><li>Most is water and is reabsorbed into body </li></ul><ul><li>Solid waste left over is feces </li></ul><ul><li>Evacuated in bowel movements </li></ul>
  45. 45. Regions of the Colon <ul><li>Cecum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appendix </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ascending colon </li></ul><ul><li>Transverse colon </li></ul><ul><li>Descending colon </li></ul><ul><li>Sigmoid colon </li></ul>
  46. 46. Rectum and Anus <ul><li>Rectum is area for storage of feces </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to anus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External opening of alimentary canal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feces are evacuated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Called defecation </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>Figure 8.7 – The regions of the colon. </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  48. 48. Accessory Organs <ul><li>Generally function by producing substances necessary for chemical breakdown of food </li></ul><ul><li>Salivary glands </li></ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul><ul><li>Gallbladder </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreas </li></ul>
  49. 49. Salivary Glands <ul><li>Produce saliva </li></ul><ul><li>Allows food to be swallowed without choking </li></ul><ul><li>Saliva + food = bolus </li></ul><ul><li>Contains amylase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Begins digestion of carbohydrates </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Salivary Glands <ul><li>Three pairs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parotid glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sublingual glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Submandibular glands </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>Figure 8.8 – The salivary glands, parotid, sublingual, and submandibular. </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  52. 52. Liver <ul><li>Located in right upper quadrant of abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>Processes nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Detoxifies harmful substances </li></ul><ul><li>Produces bile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emulsification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaks up large fat globules into smaller droplets </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>Figure 8.9 – The accessory organs of the digestive system: the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  54. 54. Gallbladder <ul><li>Lies under liver </li></ul><ul><li>Stores bile produced by liver </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hepatic duct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cystic duct </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common bile duct carries bile to duodenum </li></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><li>Figure 8.9 – The accessory organs of the digestive system: the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  56. 56. Pancreas <ul><li>Digestive juices include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffers – neutralize acidic chyme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes – digest carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. <ul><li>Figure 8.9 – The accessory organs of the digestive system: the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  58. 58. Digestive System Exercise Click here to review digestive system anatomy in a labeling activity. Back to Directory
  59. 59. Word Building with an/o & bucc/o pertaining to lips and cheeks labiobuccal labi/o –al pertaining to cheek buccal – al pertaining to anus anal – al
  60. 60. Word Building with append/o & appendic/o inflammation of appendix appendicitis – itis surgical removal of appendix appendectomy – ectomy
  61. 61. Word Building with cholecyst/o & dent/o tooth pain dentalgia – algia pertaining to teeth dental – al gallbladder pain cholecystalgia – algia pertaining to gallbladder cholecystic – ic X-ray record of gallbladder cholecystogram – gram removal of gallbladder cholecystectomy – ectomy
  62. 62. Word Building with col/o & colon/o pertaining to colon colonic – ic instrument to view colon colonoscope – scope pertaining to colon & rectum colorectal rect/o –al new opening into colon colostomy – ostomy removal of colon colectomy – ectomy
  63. 63. Word Building with duoden/o, enter/o, & esophag/o pertaining to duodenum duodenal – al inflammation of intestine enteritis – itis pertaining to intestine enteric – ic dilation of esophagus esophagectasis – ectasis pertaining to esophagus esophageal – eal
  64. 64. Word Building with gastr/o stomach softening gastromalacia – malacia stomach specialist gastroenterologist enter/o – ologist inflammation of stomach gastroenteritis enter/o – itis pertaining to stomach gastric – ic stomach pain gastralgia – algia
  65. 65. Word Building with gastr/o surgical removal of stomach gastrectomy – ectomy inflammation of stomach gastritis – itis instrument to view stomach gastroscope – scope new opening into stomach gastrostomy – ostomy pertaining to nose & stomach nasogastric nas/o –ic
  66. 66. Word Building with gingiv/o & gloss/o pertaining to under tongue hypoglossal hypo– –al pertaining to tongue glossal – al gum inflammation gingivitis – itis pertaining to gums gingival – al
  67. 67. Word Building with hepat/o & ile/o new opening into ileum ileostomy – ostomy pertaining to ileum ileal – al pertaining to liver hepatic – ic liver tumor hepatoma – oma inflammation of liver hepatitis – itis
  68. 68. Word Building with jejun/o, lapar/o, & lingu/o pertaining to jejunum jejunal – al instrument to view inside colon laparoscope – scope incision into abdomen laparotomy – otomy pertaining to under the tongue sublingual sub– –al
  69. 69. Word Building with odont/o, or/o, & palat/o pertaining to straight teeth orthodontic orth/o –ic pertaining to mouth oral – al surgical repair of palate palatoplasty – plasty
  70. 70. Word Building with pancreat/o & pharyng/o surgical repair of pharynx pharyngoplasty – plasty pharynx paralysis pharyngoplegia – plegia pertaining to pharynx pharyngeal – eal pertaining to pancreas pancreatic – ic inflammation of pancreas pancreatitis – itis
  71. 71. Word Building with proct/o & pylor/o pertaining to pylorus pyloric – ic surgical fixation of rectum & anus proctopexy – pexy rectum & anus specialist proctologist – logist drooping rectum & anus proctoptosis – ptosis
  72. 72. Word Building with rect/o, sialaden/o, & sigmoid/o pertaining to rectum rectal – al pertaining to sigmoid colon sigmoidal – al instrument to view inside sigmoid colon sigmoidoscope – scope inflammation of salivary glands sialadenitis – itis
  73. 73. Word Building with –emesis, –orexia, & –prandial excessive vomiting hyperemesis hyper– vomit blood hematemesis hemat/o abnormal appetite dysorexia dys– lack of appetite anorexia an– pertaining to after a meal postprandial post–
  74. 74. Word Building with –pepsia & –phagia too much eating polyphagia poly– abnormal eating dysphagia dys– lack of eating aphagia a– painful digestion dyspepsia dys– slow digestion bradypepsia brady–
  75. 75. Digestive System Vocabulary loss of weight and wasting occurring during chronic disease cachexia loss of appetite with other conditions; different from anorexia nervosa anorexia dental appliance attached to adjacent teeth to replace missing teeth bridge inability to control defecation bowel incontinence collection of fluid in peritoneal cavity ascites
  76. 76. Digestive System Vocabulary partial or complete set of artificial teeth denture frequent, watery bowel movements diarrhea difficult or infrequent defecation constipation prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of conditions involving teeth, jaw, and mouth dentistry decay of tooth due to bacterial infection; tooth cavity dental caries artificial tooth to replace original crown crown
  77. 77. Digestive System Vocabulary diagnosis and treatment of diseases of internal organs internal medicine vomiting emesis prosthetic device in jaw to anchor a tooth implant passing bright red blood in stools hematochezia diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the digestive system gastroenterology
  78. 78. Digestive System Vocabulary correction of problems of tooth alignment orthodontics yellow cast to skin; caused by deposit of bile pigment; often caused by liver disease jaundice weight above healthy levels obesity urge to vomit nausea passage of dark tarry stool, due to digested blood melena
  79. 79. Orthodontics Video Click here to view a video on orthodontics. Back to Directory
  80. 80. Digestive System Vocabulary backflow of stomach contents into mouth regurgitation treating conditions of the gums and area around teeth periodontics stomach acid splashing into esophagus; heartburn pyrosis diagnosis and treatment of diseases of anus and rectum proctology tumor with a pedicle (stem) attachment; found on mucous membranes polyp
  81. 81. Oral Cavity Pathology ulcers in the mouth; commonly called canker sores aphthous ulcers congenital anomaly where hard palate fails to fuse in the midline, leaving an opening into nasal cavity cleft palate congenital anomaly where upper lip and jaw fail to fuse in the midline, leaving a gap cleft lip
  82. 82. Oral Cavity Pathology herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection; fever blisters or cold sores herpes labialis disease of supporting structures around the teeth; especially the gums; most common cause of tooth loss periodontal disease
  83. 83. Esophageal Pathology varicose veins in the esophagus; hemorrhaging occurs if rupture esophageal varices acid from stomach flows backward up into esophagus causing inflammation and pain gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  84. 84. GERD Video Click here to view a video on gastroesophageal reflux disease. Back to Directory
  85. 85. Stomach Pathology ulcer in the lower portion of esophagus, stomach, and/or duodenum; caused by high acid of stomach juices; may be a result of Helicobacter pylori infection peptic ulcer disease (PUD) protrusion of stomach through diaphragm into thoracic cavity; also called diaphragmatocele hiatal hernia malignant tumor in stomach gastric carcinoma
  86. 86. <ul><li>Figure 8.10 – A hiatal hernia or diaphragmatocele. </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  87. 87. <ul><li>Figure 8.11A – The location and appearance of a peptic ulcer in both the stomach and the duodenum. </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  88. 88. <ul><li>Figure 8.11B – Photomicrograph of a gastric ulcer. </li></ul><ul><li>(Dr. E. Walker/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.) </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  89. 89. Small Intestine & Colon Pathology abnormal passageway from surface directly into rectum; around anal opening anal fistula chronic inflammatory bowel disease, primarily in ileum and/or colon; results in scarring; also called regional ileitis Crohn’s disease malignant tumor in the colon or rectum colorectal carcinoma
  90. 90. Small Intestine & Colon Pathology inflammation of a diverticulum, an outpouching off the colon; results from food being trapped inside diverticulitis diarrhea with mucus and blood, severe abdominal pain, and fever; caused by contaminated food or water dysentery condition of having diverticula, may lead to diverticulitis diverticulosis
  91. 91. <ul><li>Figure 8.12 – Diverticulosis. </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  92. 92. Small Intestine & Colon Pathology varicose veins in the anal region hemorrhoids protrusion of a loop of bowel through abdominal muscle and into groin region; may become incarcerated or strangulated if muscle pinches the loop of bowel inguinal hernia severe abdominal pain, inability to defecate, abdominal distension; caused by intestinal blockage ileus
  93. 93. <ul><li>Figure 8.13 – An inguinal hernia. </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  94. 94. Small Intestine & Colon Pathology one part of intestine slips or telescopes into another section intussusception disturbance in function of intestine for unknown reason; causes abdominal cramping and alternating diarrhea and constipation; also called functional bowel syndrome irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
  95. 95. <ul><li>Figure 8.14 – Intussusception. </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  96. 96. Small Intestine & Colon Pathology having polyps growing on the mucous membrane of the colon; may become cancerous polyposis bowel twists upon itself causing an obstruction volvulus chronic inflammatory condition with numerous small ulcers on the lining of the colon; also called inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) ulcerative colitis
  97. 97. <ul><li>Figure 8.15 – Photograph showing a polyp in the colon. </li></ul><ul><li>(ISM/Phototake NYC) </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  98. 98. <ul><li>Figure 8.16 – Volvulus. </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  99. 99. Accessory Organ Pathology presence of gallstones; may or may not cause symptoms cholelithiasis inflammation of gallbladder; commonly caused by gallstones cholecystitis inflammation of liver; usually due to a viral infection hepatitis chronic liver disease due to liver failure cirrhosis
  100. 100. <ul><li>Figure 8.17A – Common sites for cholelithiasis. </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  101. 101. <ul><li>Figure 8.17B – A gallbladder specimen with multiple gallstones. </li></ul><ul><li>(Martin Rotker/Phototake NYC) </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  102. 102. Clinical Laboratory Tests normal enzyme in the bloodstream; increased levels indicate liver disease alanine transaminase (ALT) examines feces for microscopic amounts of blood; also called hemoccult fecal occult blood (FOBT) normal enzyme in the bloodstream; increased levels indicate liver disease aspartate transaminase (AST)
  103. 103. Clinical Laboratory Tests examination of feces for presence of parasites or their eggs ova and parasites (O&P) culture of feces to look for presence of pathogenic bacteria stool culture determines amount of bilirubin in bloodstream; indicates liver disease serum bilirubin
  104. 104. Diagnostic Imaging X-ray of teeth with film holder held in the teeth bite-wing X-ray X-ray of colon and rectum after barium dye injected via an enema; also called a barium enema (BE) lower gastrointestinal series (lower GI) X-ray of gallbladder and bile ducts after intravenous injection of dye intravenous cholecystography
  105. 105. <ul><li>Figure 8.18 – Color enhanced X-ray of the colon taken during a barium enema. </li></ul><ul><li>(CNRI/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.) </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  106. 106. Diagnostic Imaging X-ray of liver and bile duct after dye is injected directly into liver percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) X-ray of esophagus, stomach, and duodenum after swallowing barium; also called barium swallow upper gastrointestinal series (upper GI)
  107. 107. Endoscopic Procedures using a scope to view inside the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum esophagogastro-duodenoscopy (EGD) visual examine inside hepatic duct, common bile duct, and pancreatic duct; scope is inserted through anus and worked backwards through gut endoscopic retrograde cholangiopan-creatography (ERCP)
  108. 108. Endoscopic Procedures visual examination inside of stomach using a gastroscope gastroscopy visual examination inside of colon and rectum using a colonoscope colonoscopy visual examination inside of sigmoid colon using a sigmoidoscope sigmoidoscopy visual examination inside of abdominal cavity using a laparoscope laparoscopy
  109. 109. Sigmoidoscopy Video Click here to view a video on sigmoidoscopy. Back to Directory
  110. 110. Additional Diagnostic Procedures insertion of needle into abdominal cavity to withdraw fluid paracentesis
  111. 111. Dental Procedures removing teeth extraction drilling out of pulp cavity of a tooth; used to save a tooth that is badly infected root canal
  112. 112. Medical Procedures flexible catheter inserted into nose and down esophagus into the stomach nasogastric intubation (NG tube) placing liquid nourishment directly into stomach via a nasogastric tube gavage providing 100% of patient nutrition; used when patient is unable to eat total parenteral nutrition (TPN) washing out stomach using a nasogastric tube lavage
  113. 113. Nasogastric Intubation Animation Click here to view an animation on nasogastric intubation. Back to Directory
  114. 114. Dieticians Video Click here to view a video on registered dieticians. Back to Directory
  115. 115. Surgical Procedures surgical crushing of a gallstone in the common bile duct choledocholithotripsy surgical creation of a connection between two organs; like joining together two sections of colon anastomosis surgical procedures to treat morbid obesity; like stomach stapling bariatric surgery
  116. 116. Surgical Procedures surgical procedure to examine the abdominal organs exploratory laparotomy surgical creation of opening into some portion of colon through abdominal wall colostomy surgical removal of diverticula diverticulectomy
  117. 117. <ul><li>Figure 8.19A – The colon illustrating various –ostomy sites. </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  118. 118. <ul><li>Figure 8.19B – Colostomy in the descending colon. </li></ul>Medical Terminology: A Living Language , Fourth Edition Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  119. 119. Surgical Procedures surgical removal of hemorrhoids hemorrhoidectomy removal of a fistula fistulectomy procedure to close off large section of stomach with rows of staples; results in much smaller stomach gastric stapling
  120. 120. Surgical Procedures implantation of a donor liver liver transplant surgical repair of a hernia hernioplasty surgical removal of gallbladder through a laparoscopic incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy
  121. 121. Digestive System Pharmacology Compazine, Phenergan treats nausea and vomiting antiemetic Imodium, Lomotil used to control diarrhea antidiarrheal Tums, Maalox, Mylanta neutralizes stomach acid antacid Adipost, Obezine suppresses appetite to treat obesity anorexiant
  122. 122. Digestive System Pharmacology Nexium, Prilosec blocks stomach’s ability to secrete acid proton pump inhibitor Senokot, Metamucil stimulates a bowel movement laxative Zantac, Pepcid, Tagament blocks the production of stomach acid H 2 -receptor antagonist Ipecac syrup induces vomiting emetic
  123. 123. Digestive System Abbreviations bowel sounds BS bowel movement BM barium enema BE barium Ba aspartate transaminase AST alanine transaminase ALT before meals ac
  124. 124. Digestive System Abbreviations gastrointestinal GI gastroesophageal reflux disease GERD gallbladder GB fecal occult blood test FOBT endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography ERCP esophagogastroduodenoscopy EGD common bile duct CBD
  125. 125. Digestive System Abbreviations herpes simplex virus type 1 HSV-1 hepatitis E virus HEV hepatitis D virus HDV hepatitis C virus HCV hydrochloric acid HCl hepatitis B virus HBV hepatitis A virus HAV
  126. 126. Digestive System Abbreviations ova and parasites O&P nausea and vomiting n&v nothing by mouth NPO nasogastric NG intravenous cholangiography IVC irritable bowel syndrome IBS inflammatory bowel disease IBD
  127. 127. Digestive System Abbreviations upper gastrointestinal series UGI total parenteral nutrition TPN peptic ulcer disease PUD percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography PTC postprandial pp by mouth PO after meals pc

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