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Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
Chapter 4    Writing  Paragraphs
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Chapter 4 Writing Paragraphs

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10 Grade - Chapter 4

10 Grade - Chapter 4

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  • 1. Grade 10
  • 2.  Where do you want to start your day at school? One of your first stops is probably your locker. Your locker helps you organize your things for the day. Perhaps you stand at your locker and think about what you need for your first, second, third, and fourth classes.  In this Chapter, you will learn how to build a solid paragraph. You will place sentences side by side. You will organize them to tell about a topic. You will decide what needs to come first, second, and third.  First, you will write a topic sentence to express the main idea. Next you will write sentences that support this idea. Then you will write a sentence to close the paragraph. This chapter will help you with these three parts of a paragraph.
  • 3.  To understand prewriting, and to understand the parts of a paragraph  To write a topic sentence that expresses the main idea of a paragraph  To write sentences that develop and support the main idea  To end a paragraph with a conclusion or summary statement
  • 4.  Prewriting Preparing to write; the planning step of the writing process  Writing prompt The directions for a writing assignment  Audience The people who read your writing  Brainstorm To think freely about a topic and look for new, exciting ideas  Paragraph A group of sentences about one idea
  • 5.  Indent To start a sentence a certain distance from the left margin  Topic sentence A sentence that states the main idea of a paragraph; usually the first sentence of a paragraph  Body Then sentences in a paragraph that explain and support the main idea  Summary A sentence at the end of a paragraph that repeats the main idea using different words  Conclusion A logical decision or opinion based on facts or evidence; the sentence at the end of a paragraph
  • 6. Lesson 4-1
  • 7.  To follow the directions in a writing prompt  To identify the audience and purpose for your writing  To brainstorm to get ideas to write about  To write a paragraph about a topic
  • 8.  Before you write, you have some work to do. You need to answer some basic questions. Answering these questions is prewriting. Prewriting is all about preparing to write. It is the first step in the writing process.
  • 9.  Your teacher may give you a writing prompt. A writing prompt is the directions for a writing assignment. During prewriting, read the prompt carefully.Then ask yourself these questions:  What am I expected to do?  What do I write about?  Where should I start?  What do I need to know?  What is the purpose of my writing?
  • 10.  Read the prompt. Then answer the questions on your paper. (Do not actually write the paragraph.)  Prompt: Write a paragraph about your favorite type of movie. Explain why you like this type of movie. Give three reasons. Name one movie that belongs in this group. ▪ How long should this writing assignment be? ▪ What is the topic? ▪ How many reasons does the writer need to give? ▪ How many examples does the writer need to give? ▪ Will the assignment explain something the writer likes or dislikes?
  • 11.  When you write, you write for one or more readers. The reader is your audience. During prewriting, ask yourself some questions about the reader. The answers will help you decide what to write.  Who will read my writing?  What does the reader want to know about the topic?  What does the reader already know about the topic?  What will the reader expect of my writing?
  • 12.  Make a list of five or more questions that you might want to know about the person or people who will read your writing.  You can write for many reasons. Here are some of them: ▪ You can write to teach or inform. ▪ You can write to entertain or tell a story. ▪ You can write to persuade someone to agree with your ideas. ▪ You can write to describe an object, event, person, or place.
  • 13.  Read each prompt. What seems to be the purpose of each one? Write the purpose of the prompt on your paper. There may be more than one good answer.  Write a report about a book that you have just read.  Write a story about something that happened to you.  Explain why teenagers should vote in presidential elections.  Explain the steps you must follow to sew a button.  Tell about your favorite vacation spot.
  • 14.  When you need an idea to write about, try brainstorming. When you brainstorm, you write down every idea that pops into your head. You do not judge your ideas yet—you write them all. You will think of exciting ideas. You will have an amazing list of ideas to write about.
  • 15.  It is even more fun to brainstorm with a group of people. You choose a topic, and everyone in the group tells their ideas. Someone must write down the ideas. No one says an idea is good or bad. After you think of many ideas, the group can decide which one it likes best.
  • 16.  By yourself, brainstorm about one of the topics below. Try to list at least five ideas that you could write about. There are no right or wrong answers.  why people like to read about movie stars  the popularity of camping  stock car racing  deciding on a career  popular fashions of the past, present, or future
  • 17.  Once you understand your assignment, know your audience and purpose, and have your idea, you have finished prewriting. Now you are ready to write.  A paragraph is a group of sentences about one idea. A paragraph has three parts:  a topic sentence  a body  a conclusion or summary  Writers must practice putting their sentences together in paragraphs. For writing assignments, you should indent the first sentence in a paragraph.
  • 18.  Notice the three parts of the paragraph in Example 1. The first sentence states the main idea. The middle sentences are the body. They give examples of ways that people use computers.The last sentence is the conclusion.  EXAMPLE 1 We use computers for many things. People play games with computers. People use computers to do math. Some people use computers to write letters. A computer is a very useful machine.
  • 19.  Read the paragraph. The answer the questions. Derek’s favorite season is spring. The weather is warm enough to play soccer outside. The oak trees in Springfield turn green again. The end of the school year is near. When the month of April arrives, Derek is happy.  Which sentence tells the main idea?  What three examples does the writer give to explain the main idea?  Which sentence is the summary sentence?
  • 20.  Read the prompt. Then answer the questions on your paper. (Do not actually write the paragraph.)  Prompt: Write a paragraph about the climate where you live. Imagine that you are explaining this to someone who just moved to the area. Give an example for each season. (Climate means the average yearly weather.) ▪ How long should this writing assignment be? ▪ What is the topic? ▪ How many examples does the writer need to give? ▪ Who is the audience? ▪ What does climate mean?
  • 21.  Choose one of the topics below. Brainstorm about this topic. Number your paper from 6 to 10. List five ideas about the topic that you could put in a paragraph.  a place in the word you would like to visit  why people like roller coasters  best ways to stay healthy  getting along with family members
  • 22. Lesson 4-2
  • 23.  To choose a topic for a paragraph  To begin a paragraph with a topic sentence
  • 24.  Begin a paragraph with a topic sentence. A topic sentence states the main idea of a paragraph. It is usually the first sentence of a paragraph.  Because you are the writer of the paragraph, only you know what its main idea should be. Think before writing the first sentence. Here are some questions to ask yourself:  What is the purpose of this paragraph?  What is the main point I want to make?  Why am I writing this paragraph?  What will this paragraph be about?
  • 25.  Read the paragraph in Example 1. The topic sentence is in blue. Think about how the topic sentence expresses the main idea.  EXAMPLE 1 Adjectives can be words of power. Writers try to choose exact adjectives that express meaning sharply and clearly. Careful writers avoid adjectives such as nice and bad, which have little meaning. The best adjective is one that paints a clear picture. An adjective with a clear meaning is a word of power.
  • 26.  Read the paragraph in Example 1 again. Write another topic sentence for it that states the main idea.
  • 27.  A topic sentence is a general statement. Examples and details appear in the rest of the paragraph. Read the paragraph in Example 2. The first sentence is the topic sentence. It states the main idea of the paragraph.  EXAMPLE 2 Springfield is a pleasant place to live. The weather is beautiful most of the year. The town has many parks, stores, museums, and restaurants. The townspeople have a friendly and helpful attitude. Springfield citizens are proud of their town.
  • 28.  Read the four facts below. Suppose you want to write a paragraph that includes these facts. Write a topic sentence for this paragraph. It should state the main idea of the paragraph. (Do not write the whole paragraph.)  Georgia O’Keeffe was an American painter.  She painted landscapes and flowers.  New Mexico was the subject of many of her paintings.  She died in 1986 at the age of 98.
  • 29.  Read the paragraph. The topic sentence is missing. Write a topic sentence that expresses the main idea. Tennis players need good forehand strokes. Right-handed players use these strokes when the ball comes to their right side. They also need good backhand strokes. Right- handers use this strokes when the ball comes to their left. Tennis players use these two strokes most often.
  • 30.  Some writing prompts give you the topic. They may even suggest the main idea. Other writing prompts are more general. You have to think of the topic and main idea. Before you write a topic sentence, you need to know the topic and main idea. Topics and main ideas come from:  your past experiences  your imagination  things you have read or heard recently
  • 31.  Read the topics in Example 3. Notice how each topic suggests a topic sentence.  EXAMPLE 3 ▪ Topic PossibleTopic Sentence (Main Idea) ▪ the police Our local police department helps the department community in many ways. ▪ hiking Before you go hiking, you will need some equipment. ▪ baseball Each of the players on a baseball team has a different role.
  • 32.  Write a topic sentence for each topic. Use Example 3 as a guide.  a sports team you like  a person in your family  the first hobby you ever had  someplace you enjoy going  a popular tv show
  • 33.  Think of a topic sentence for each set of details. Write the topic sentence on your paper.  Car owners should change their oil. They should check the hoses for leaks. They should also check the air pressure in the tires.  First, set the oven temperature. Next, gather all the ingredients. Finally, follow the steps in the recipe.  The wind blew down several trees. The electricity was out for two hours. The streets were flooded.
  • 34.  Think of a main idea for each topic. Then write a topic sentence that states this main idea.  music I like  if I were a millionaire
  • 35. Lesson 4-3
  • 36.  To write details to support a main idea  To combine short paragraphs into one longer one
  • 37.  What do you do after you have stated your main idea in a topic sentence? The next step is to develop that main idea. The sentences that tell more about the main idea make up the body of a paragraph. These sentences explain and support the main idea. In the body, you make the main idea clear to your reader.  Support the main idea with these details:  facts  quotations  explanations  reasons  examples
  • 38.  Write the topic sentence below. Then use the details that follow to write sentences. Each sentence must support the main idea stated in the topic sentence.  Topic Sentence: Springfield is a city with many places for recreation.  Recreational Places in Springfield: ▪ four city parks two golf courses ▪ nine public tennis courts a sports arena ▪ two public swimming pools a museum ▪ three recreational centers an amusement park ▪ a concert hall five movie theaters
  • 39.  The sentences in the body of a paragraph must support the main idea. Remove any sentences that are not related to the topic sentence. You can also rewrite those sentences so that they support the main idea.
  • 40.  Read the paragraph. Find one sentence that does not belong.Write this sentence on your paper. Summer is the best time of year for vacations. Children do not go to school. Freedom from classes allows time for sleeping late. Usually the weather is suitable for outdoor hobbies: tennis, running, gardening, or just lying lazily in the yard. Sometimes, spring is also a good time for a vacation. In summer, the beaches and the mountains have many activities for tourists. Vacationers can surf, swim, hike, or explore. It is no wonder that vacation spots do big business in the summer.
  • 41.  Read the paragraph. Find one sentence that does not belong. Write this sentence on your paper. Regular exercise keeps a person fit. People who exercise may feel better and live longer that those who do not exercise. Exercise also helps people maintain a healthy weight. It stimulates the heart and lungs. After people exercise, they will probably be sore and tired. Everyone should try to exercise every day.
  • 42.  Read the paragraph. Find one sentence that does not belong. Write this sentence on your paper. Our camping trip was simply awful! We froze at night and chased away bugs all day. No one caught a single fish! We enjoyed hiking through the woods. It took us an hour to start a fire, and the dinner burned. The strong winds overturned one canoe and blew down two tents. On top of it all, it rained. I am sure that we will never plan another camping trip.
  • 43.  The number of sentences in the body of a paragraph will vary. Sometimes you may find that you have written two or three short paragraphs about the same main idea. Combine those paragraphs into one longer paragraph.
  • 44.  Read the two short paragraphs. Both are about the same topic. Follow the directions below to combine the two paragraphs into one paragraph. Write the new paragraph on your paper. Springfield used to be a small town. The population is growing. Springfield is now a larger than some cities. Many people are moving to Springfield. Older people find that it is a quiet and pleasant place to live. Many recreational activities attract young, active families. Jobs are plentiful. Large, older homes are affordable. Someday, Springfield may become a city. ▪ Write a topic sentence. It should express the main idea for the new paragraph. Remember to indent this sentence. ▪ Use details and facts from both paragraph to write the body. These new sentences should support and explain the topic sentence.
  • 45.  In each paragraph, find one sentence that does not support the main idea. Write the sentence on your paper. Amber’s mother likes to read. She also goes to dance class with Amber. Her favorite books are mysteries. She enjoys hunting for clues. Sometimes she likes to read short stories. They allow her to visit other times and places without leaving her house. She says that reading is relaxing, informative, and fun. Brandon’s father is a great fisherman. He knows the best places to fish. He also enjoys hunting. Mr. Tucker has a large collection of fishing rods. He uses the rods that help him catch the biggest fish.
  • 46.  Combine the two paragraphs into one paragraph. Write the new paragraph on your paper. A piñata is a colorful decoration filled with toys or treats. A piñata is a fun thing to bring to a party. Party guests enjoy taking turns hitting the piñata with a stick. Each person swings at the piñata while blindfolded. When the piñata breaks, everyone rushes to grab the toys and treats that fall to the ground.
  • 47.  Combine the two paragraphs into one paragraph. Write the new paragraph on your paper. Last night, Springfield had the biggest Snowstorm of the year. The snow began falling at midnight and did not stop until late this morning. Springfield’s last blizzard was not nearly as severe. Snowplows were unable to get into some of the neighborhoods. Most of the schools were cancelled today, and several businesses were closed. No cars were allowed downtown.
  • 48. Lesson 4-4
  • 49.  To write a summary or conclusion  To choose facts that support a conclusion
  • 50.  How do you end a paragraph?  One way is to write a sentence that gives a summary. A summary sentence repeats the main idea in slightly different words. It is the last sentence of a paragraph. A summary sentence adds no new information to the paragraph. A summary is to a paragraph what a period is to a sentence. Both announce, “The end.”
  • 51.  Read the paragraph in Example 1. The last sentence repeats the topic sentence using different words.  EXAMPLE 1 Track is Derek Anderson’s favorite activity. He runs five miles every day and practices regularly. He has won three races already. Derek will continue to improve his time, according to his coach. Derek works hard at track and enjoys it, too.
  • 52.  Write a summary sentence for the paragraph. In today’s world, education must never stop. New scientific discoveries appear daily. The jobs that people do keep changing. The amount of new information that people need to know is increasing rapidly!
  • 53.  Another way to end a paragraph is with a conclusion. A conclusion is a decision that you make after thinking about facts or evidence. It is often an opinion. A conclusion must be logical—it must make sense to the reader. The facts in a paragraph must support the conclusion.
  • 54.  In Example 2, the last sentence of the paragraph is a logical conclusion.  EXAMPLE 2 Track is Derek Anderson’s favorite activity. He runs five miles every day and practices regularly. He has won three races already. Derek will continue to improve his time, according to his coach. Derek has a good chance to win a scholarship in track.
  • 55.  Read the paragraph and study the last sentence. Rewrite this conclusion so the details in the paragraph support it. Last year, Amber’s mother bought a computer. Amber and her mother enjoy playing computer games. Amber’s mother uses the computer to keep track of spending. Amber uses it to learn Spanish. The computer was a waste of money.
  • 56.  Write a conclusion for the paragraph. Sonia loves music. Every day, she listens to her favorite CDs. She also practices her violin and plays it in the school orchestra.
  • 57.  Decide whether the last sentence of the paragraph is a summary or a conclusion. Write summary or conclusion. Every day, Ms. Lentz listens to the weather report. Then she looks outside. One day the report called for sunny skies. The chance of rain was only 10 percent. When Ms. Lentz looked outside, she saw that it was raining. She decided that the weather report was wrong.
  • 58.  Write a conclusion or summary sentence for the paragraph. The Summer Olympic Games include a contest called the decathlon. The decathlon is 10 events. Athletes from all over the world run in 100-meter, 400-meter, and 1,500-meter races. They run a high hurdle race. They throw the discus, the javelin, and the shot put. They leap the high jump, the long jump, and the pole vault.
  • 59.  Write a conclusion or summary sentence for the paragraph. Have you ever found a writer who makes you laugh aloud? I read everything I can find by Dave Barry. Every week, I read his column in the newspaper. If it is especially funny, I cut it out and save it. I have also bought two of Dave Barry’s books.
  • 60.  Write a conclusion or summary sentence for the paragraph. Last month, Derek met a girl on the track team. She runs the mile. She told him that she has played sports all her life. She also teaches and exercise class. She and Derek share many interests. Her name is Sarah.
  • 61.  Write a conclusion or summary sentence for the paragraph. Amber and Sonia are worried about their friend Derek. Now that he has met Sarah, he looks dreamy all the time. He has stopped doing his homework. His old friends hardly ever see him.

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