Writing Correct Sentences Do you carry around a backpack? It should contain pens and pencils, notebooks, folders of assignments, and a planner—everything the student needs for a successful day at school. When you have the right tools, your day moves ahead smoothly.
Writing Correct Sentences In this Chapter, you will get the tools you need to write correct sentences. You will learn some rules for using words correctly in your sentences. You will learn how to use verb forms correctly. You will also learn ways to join related sentences. These tools will help you build sentences that express your ideas clearly.
Goals for Learning To make the subject of each sentence agree with the verb To use regular and irregular verbs correctly To understand verbs, verb phrases, and verb tenses To use conjunctions to combine related sentences and to connect related words and phrases To improve sentences with subordinating clauses
Key Vocabulary Words Singular Referring to one person, place, thing, or idea Plural Referring to more than one person, place, thing, or idea Indefinite pronoun A pronoun that refers to people, places, things, or ideas in a general way Regular verb A verb that forms its past tense and past participle by adding –edor –d to the present tense
Key Vocabulary Words Past participle The verb form that you use to form the perfect tenses Irregular verb A verb that does not form its past tense and past participle by adding –edor –d to the present tense Perfect tense The present perfect, past perfect, or future perfect tense of a verb; a verb form that is made from a past participle and a form of have Action verb A verb that tells what the subject of a sentence did, does, or will do State-of-being verb A verb that tells about the condition or the subject of a sentence
Key Vocabulary Words Simple tense The present, past, or future tense of a verb Independent clause A group of words with a subject and a predicate that expresses a complete thought; a sentence Dependent clause A group of words with a subject and a predicate that does not express a complete thought Subordinating conjunction A conjunction that joins a dependent clause to an independent clause
Objectives To make the subject of a sentence agree with the verb To identify the tense of a verb To decide if a subject is singular or plural To identify the number and gender of a pronoun
Making the Subject and Verb Agree The subject of the sentence can be singular or plural. A singular subject refers to one person, place, thing, or idea. A plural subject refers to more than one person, place, thing, or idea. The verb is the main word in the predicate of a sentence. The verb must agree with the subject in number (singular or plural). The present tense of a verb has two forms. You use one form with a singular subject. You use the other form with a plural subject.
Making the Subject and Verb Agree Rule 1 When a subject is singular, add –s or -esto the present tense of the verb. EXAMPLE 1 The snow falls gently. (Snow is a singular noun.) Sonia takes her violin to school. (Sonia is a singular noun.)
Making the Subject and Verb Agree Rule 2 When a subject is plural, do not add –s or –esto the present tense of the verb. EXAMPLE 2 The students run. (Students is a plural noun.) The dancers whirl around the floor. (Dancers is a plural noun.) Sonia and Brandon enjoy music. (Sonia and Brandon is a plural noun.)
Making the Subject and Verb Agree Rule 3 The past tense of a verb has only one form. All regular past-tense verbs end in –ed. EXAMPLE 3 Brandon played baseball yesterday. (Brandon is a singular noun.) Several friends played baseball together. (Friends is a plural noun.)
Making the Subject and Verb Agree The subject of a sentence can be a noun or a pronoun. A pronoun is a word that replaces a noun. Rule 4 A singular pronoun replaces a singular noun. A plural pronoun replaces a plural noun. Rule 5 The verb must agree in number with the pronoun subject. Sonia crossed the street. (Sonia is a singular noun.) She crossed the street. (She is a singular pronoun.) The band members gather here. (Members is plural.) They gather here. (They is plural.)
Making the Subject and Verb Agree Indefinite pronouns refer in a general way to people, places, things, and ideas. Some indefinite pronouns are singular. Some are plural. Some can be either, depending on how you use them.
Making the Subject and Verb Agree EXAMPLE 5 Everybody works. (Everybody is a singular pronoun.) Both need help. (Both is a plural noun.) Most of the group walks to school. (Most is singular here.) Most of the students want lunch. (Most is plural here.)
Objectives To form the past tense and past participle of a regular verb To write the perfect tenses of a regular verb To use the forms of have correctly To identify the correct forms of an irregular verb
Using Irregular Verbs Most of the verbs in English are regular verbs. To form the past tense or the past participle of a regular verb, you add –edor –d. A past participle is a verb form. The past tense and past participle of an irregular verb are created in a different way. EXAMPLE 1
Using Irregular Verbs Use has with a singular subject. Use have with a plural subject. EXAMPLE 2 Derek has a job. The workers have a new schedule.
Using Irregular Verbs When you use have as a helping verb with a past participle, you form a perfect tense of the verb. The perfect tenses are present perfect, past perfect, and future perfect. EXAMPLE 3
Using Irregular Verbs There are many irregular verbs. Although there are more regular verbs than irregular ones, you use some irregular verbs very often. For some irregular verbs, the past tense is the same as the past participle. EXAMPLE 4
Using Irregular Verbs For some irregular verbs, the past tense is different from the past participle. EXAMPLE 5
Using Irregular Verbs A few verbs are extremely irregular. The present, past, and past participle forms are all different. EXAMPLE 6
Objectives To use action verbs in sentences To identify state-of-being verbs To write verb phrases correctly To use logical verb tense
Using Verbs and Verb Phrases Every sentence must have a verb. A verb expresses an action or a state of being. An action verb tells what the subject did, does, or will do. EXAMPLE 1 Derek runs five miles almost every day. (action verb) Amber met Sonia at the corner. (action verb)
Using Verbs and Verb Phrases A verb can also express state of being. A state-of-being verb tells you something about the condition of the subject of a sentence. State-of-being verbs do not suggest action. EXAMPLE 2 Amber and Sonia arefriends. (state-of-being verb) Derek seems friendly, too. (state-of-being verb)
Using Verbs and Verb Phrases A verb can be more than one word. A main verb often has a helping verb. A helping verb combines with a main verb to form a verb phrase. EXAMPLE 3 Brandon will jog in the morning. Brandon and Derek have been friends for a long time.
Using Verbs and Verb Phrases A verb phrase includes a helping verb and a main verb. The main verb expresses action or state of being. The helping verb helps express tense.
Using Verbs and Verb Phrases A verb phrase has only one main verb. It may have one, two, or three helping verbs. The main verb is always last. EXAMPLE 4 By 1:00 in the afternoon, Derek had trained for two hours. He has been runningon the trail every morning.
Using Verbs and Verb Phrases People take and write about events that happen at different times. In a sentence, the verb expresses tense. A verb tense tells the time when an action takes place. The three simple tenses are present, past, and future. The three perfect tenses are present perfect, past perfect, and future perfect. EXAMPLE 5 Present Derek starts his job today. Past Derek started his job last week. Future Derek will start his job on Monday. Present Perfect Derek has started his job. Past Perfect Derek had started his job earlier. Future Perfect Derek will have started his job by April.
Logical Verb Tense As a writer, you must decide whether the tense of each verb is logical. Some sentences include more than one main verb. In general, all verbs should be the same tense if the actions occur at the same time. Use different tenses to show that actions happen at different times.
Logical Verb Tense EXAMPLE 6 Since Derek wanted to win, he practiced often. (Both verbs are past tense.) Every morning Amber gets up and feeds the cat. (Both verbs are present tense.) Brandon hopes that Derek will win the race. (The tenses are different.) In the last sentence above, the verb hopes is present tense. The verb phrase will win is future tense. The tenses tell you that right now, Brandon hopes that Derek will win in the future.
Using Conjunctions to Combine Ideas Lesson 2-4
Objectives To combine two sentences using a comma and a conjunction To punctuate a series of three or more items To use the conjunctions and andbut correctly To use conjunctions that work in pairs
Using Conjunctions to Combine Ideas You can combine short, choppy sentences about related ideas with a conjunction. A conjunction is a word that connects related words or groups of words. The most common conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so.
The Conjunction And You can use the conjunction and to join words, phrases, and sentences. EXAMPLE 1 Joining Words I enjoy swimming and jogging. Joining Phrases She looked at work and at home. Joining Sentences Write well, and the world is yours!
The Conjunction And Here are some rules for using conjunctions. Rule 1 Connect only related ideas. Incorrect Brandon plays tennisandeats lunch. Correct Brandon plays tennis andjogs.
The Conjunction And When you connect two words or phrases with a conjunction, no comma is needed. When you connect three or more words or phrases, commas are needed. Rule 2 Use commas to separate three or more words or phrases in a series. Incorrect We like tennis swimming and golf. Correct We like tennis,swimming,and golf.
The Conjunction And Rule 3 Place the last comma in a series before the conjunction. Incorrect The children were lost, tired and, hungry. Correct The children were lost, tired, and hungry.
The Conjunction And When you connect two or more related sentences, you create a compound sentence. Rule 4 Use a comma before the conjunction when you combine two or more sentences. Incorrect Amber had a French test on Monday and she studied very hard. Correct Amber had a French test on Monday, and she studied very hard.
The Conjunction But You have learned that the conjunction and connects related ideas. You use the conjunction but to point out an exception to a statement. EXAMPLE 2 I like apples and pears. I like apples but not pears. I enjoy reading, and I have many books. I enjoy reading, but I read only magazines.
The Conjunctions Or, So, and Yet You have seen how the words and andbut connect ideas in sentences. You can also use conjunctions or, so, and yet to connect ideas. You can use conjunctions to connect two or more words or phrases. You can also use them to connect two sentences. EXAMPLE 3 I would like milk or juice. Will he travel by plane, or will he take the train? He said he would come by plane, yet he arrived by train. The play had begun, so everyone hurried.
Conjunctions That Work in Pairs Some conjunctions work in pairs: either. . . or neither. . . nor not only. . . but also EXAMPLE 4 You may choose to read either a novel or a play. Neither Amber nor Brandon has arrived. The kitten was not only tired but also wet and muddy.
Objectives To recognize independent and dependent clauses To identify a subordinating conjunction in a sentence To write a sentence using a subordinating conjunction
Using Other Kinds of Conjunctions A sentence is also called an independent clause. It has a subject and a predicate. It also expresses a complete thought. You can also use a dependent clause in writing and speaking. A dependent clause has a subject and a predicate, but it does not express a complete thought. EXAMPLE 1 Independent Clause Derek walked home. Dependent Clause Because he needed exercise.
Using Other Kinds of Conjunctions A dependent clause begins with a subordinating conjunction. Here are some common subordinating conjunctions.
Using Other Kinds of Conjunctions A dependent clause begins with a subordinating conjunction. It has a subject and a predicate. A dependent clause can be at the beginning or end of a sentence. It is not a complete sentence by itself, however.
Using Other Kinds of Conjunctions Follow these rules for punctuating sentences with subordinating conjunctions. Rule 1 If the sentence begins with a dependent clause, put a comma after the clause. Rule 2 Do not use a comma if the dependent clause comes after the independent clause. EXAMPLE 2 When we arrived, the play had already begun. (comma) The play had already begun when we arrived. (no comma)