Using Nouns in Sentences<br />Chapter 2<br />
Using Nouns in Sentences<br />Nouns are words that name people, places, things, events, and ideas. It is hard to write or ...
Goals for Learning<br />To recognize nouns in sentences, and to identify and use compound and collective nouns<br />To ide...
Key Vocabulary Words<br />Noun A word that names a person, place, thing, event, or idea<br />Collective noun The name of a...
Key Vocabulary Words<br />Proper noun The name of one particular person, place, thing, event, or idea<br />Abbreviation A ...
Key Vocabulary Words<br />Plural noun The name of more than one person, place, thing, event, or idea<br />Irregular plural...
What Is a Noun?<br />Lesson 2-1<br />
Objectives<br />To identify nouns<br />To identify collective nouns<br />To identify compound nouns<br />
What Is a Noun?<br />A noun is a word that names a person, place, thing, event, or idea.<br />EXAMPLE 1<br />Persons	teach...
What Is a Noun?<br />A noun can be the name of a part of something.<br />EXAMPLE 2<br />A hand is a part of a clock.<br />...
Collective Nouns<br />A collective noun is the name of a group of people, places, or things.<br />EXAMPLE 3<br />Groups of...
Compound Nouns<br />A compound noun is two or more words that work together to name one thing. Some compound nouns are wri...
Compound Nouns<br />Some compound nouns use a hyphen between the words. A hyphen is a short dash between parts of a word.<...
Compound Nouns<br />Some compound nouns look like two words. In these compound nouns, the words work together to name on p...
Common and Proper Nouns<br />Lesson 2-2<br />
Objectives<br />To identify and use common nouns and proper nouns<br />To capitalize proper nouns<br />To capitalize abbre...
Common and Proper Nouns<br />A common noun is the name of a general type of person, place, thing, event or idea. Most of t...
Parts of the Country or World<br />The names of parts of the country or world are proper nouns. When compass directions ar...
Languages, Courses, and Subjects<br />The name of a language is a proper noun. The name of a certain course in school is a...
Abbreviations of Proper Nouns<br />An abbreviation is a short form of a word. If the word is a proper noun, capitalize its...
Titles<br />Capitalize the first word of a title. Also capitalize each important word. Underline the title of a movie, boo...
Abstract and Concrete Nouns<br />Lesson 2-3<br />
Objectives<br />To identify and use concrete nouns<br />To identify and use abstract nouns<br />
Abstract and Concrete Nouns<br />Nouns can be abstract or concrete. A concrete noun is a word that names something you can...
Abstract and Concrete Nouns<br />EXAMPLE 1<br />Concrete Noun		Abstract Nounmoney			priceclock				minutecollege			educatio...
Singular and Plural Nouns<br />Lesson 2-4<br />
Objectives<br />To identify and use singular and plural nouns<br />To spell the plural form of nouns ending in s, z, x, ch...
Singular and Plural Nouns<br />A singular noun is the name of one person, place , thing, event, or idea. A plural noun is ...
Nouns That End with s, z, x, ch, or sh<br />Add –esto nouns that end in s, z, x, ch, or shto form the plural.<br />EXAMPLE...
Nouns That End with y<br />Some nouns that end with y become plural by changing the y to –ies.<br />Some nouns that end wi...
Nouns That End with y<br />Here are the rules for making the plural forms of nouns that end with y.<br />Rule 1 The letter...
Nouns That End with o<br />Some nouns end with a vowel and an o. Make the plural form of these nouns by adding –s.<br />EX...
Nouns That End with o<br />Some nouns end with a consonant and an o. Make the plurals of these nouns by adding      –es.<b...
Nouns That End with f, ff, or fe<br />Some nouns that end with f, ff, or fesound different in their plural forms. Say thes...
Nouns That End with f, ff, or fe<br />You form the plural of some nouns that end with f, ff, or feby adding –s. Form the p...
More About Plural Nouns<br />Lesson 2-5<br />
Objectives<br />To spell irregular plural nouns<br />To form plural proper nouns<br />To form plural numbers, dates, and l...
Irregular Plural Nouns<br />Some plural nouns do not follow the regular rules. They are called irregular plural nouns. For...
Irregular Plural Nouns<br />To make some nouns plural, you change or add letters.<br />EXAMPLE 2<br />Singular Noun	Plural...
Plural Proper Nouns<br />You form the plurals of most proper nouns by adding –s. If a proper noun end in s or z, add  –est...
Plural Forms of Numbers, Dates, and Letters<br />Make a number, date, or letter plural by adding –s. No apostrophe is need...
Possessive Nouns<br />Lesson 2-6<br />
Objectives<br />To make possessive nouns using apostrophes<br />To tell the difference between plural nouns and possessive...
Possessive Nouns<br />A possessive noun is a noun that shows ownership or a relationship between two things. A possessive ...
Possessive Nouns<br />To make a noun possessive, follow these rules:<br />Rule 1 Make a singular noun possessive by adding...
Possessive Nouns<br />Rule 3 Make a plural noun possessive by adding only an apostrophe (‘).<br />EXAMPLE 4<br />the train...
Possessive Nouns<br />Use an apostrophe in phrases such as one dollar’s worth or a week’s vacation. If the word is plural ...
Possessive Nouns<br />To decide whether to use a plural or possessive noun, think about what each one means. Look at the b...
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Chapter 2 using nouns in sentences

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Chapter 2 using nouns in sentences

  1. 1. Using Nouns in Sentences<br />Chapter 2<br />
  2. 2. Using Nouns in Sentences<br />Nouns are words that name people, places, things, events, and ideas. It is hard to write or talk about anything without using a noun. Look around and you will see thousands of nouns.<br />In Chapter 2, you will learn about nouns. Each lesson tells about different kinds of nouns. You will learn how they are used in everyday speech and writing.<br />
  3. 3. Goals for Learning<br />To recognize nouns in sentences, and to identify and use compound and collective nouns<br />To identify and use common and proper nouns, and to capitalize proper nouns<br />To identify and use abstract and concrete nouns<br />To identify nouns as singular or plural, and to spell plural nouns<br />To spell plural nouns that have irregular forms, and to spell the plural form of proper nouns, numbers, dates, and letters<br />To tell the difference between plural nouns and possessive nouns<br />
  4. 4. Key Vocabulary Words<br />Noun A word that names a person, place, thing, event, or idea<br />Collective noun The name of a group of people, places, or things<br />Compound noun Two or more words that work together to name one thing<br />Common noun The name of any person, place, thing, event, or idea<br />
  5. 5. Key Vocabulary Words<br />Proper noun The name of one particular person, place, thing, event, or idea<br />Abbreviation A short form of a word<br />Concrete noun A word that names something you can see or touch<br />Abstract noun A word that names something you cannot see or touch<br />Singular noun The name of one person, place, thing, event, or idea<br />
  6. 6. Key Vocabulary Words<br />Plural noun The name of more than one person, place, thing, event, or idea<br />Irregular plural noun A plural that does not follow the normal rules<br />Possessive noun A word that shows ownership or a relationship between the two things<br />Apostrophe (‘) A punctuation mark that you use to show that a noun is possessive<br />
  7. 7. What Is a Noun?<br />Lesson 2-1<br />
  8. 8. Objectives<br />To identify nouns<br />To identify collective nouns<br />To identify compound nouns<br />
  9. 9. What Is a Noun?<br />A noun is a word that names a person, place, thing, event, or idea.<br />EXAMPLE 1<br />Persons teacher, agent, aunt, worker, Carmela<br />Places state, theater, town, Washington<br />Things book, dish, apple, PlayStation<br />Ideas choice, thought, belief, happiness<br />
  10. 10. What Is a Noun?<br />A noun can be the name of a part of something.<br />EXAMPLE 2<br />A hand is a part of a clock.<br />A mane is a part of a horse.<br />
  11. 11. Collective Nouns<br />A collective noun is the name of a group of people, places, or things.<br />EXAMPLE 3<br />Groups of People group, audience, crowd, team<br />Groups of Places nation, United States, country<br />Groups of Animals herd, flock, swarm, pack<br />Group of Things collection, set, series<br />
  12. 12. Compound Nouns<br />A compound noun is two or more words that work together to name one thing. Some compound nouns are written as one word.<br />EXAMPLE 4<br />fire + fighter = firefighter<br />back + yard = backyard<br />
  13. 13. Compound Nouns<br />Some compound nouns use a hyphen between the words. A hyphen is a short dash between parts of a word.<br />EXAMPLE 5<br />mid-July<br />mother-in-law<br />
  14. 14. Compound Nouns<br />Some compound nouns look like two words. In these compound nouns, the words work together to name on person, place, thing, event, or idea.<br />EXAMPLE 6<br />White House<br />ice cream<br />Thomas Jefferson<br />swim team<br />
  15. 15. Common and Proper Nouns<br />Lesson 2-2<br />
  16. 16. Objectives<br />To identify and use common nouns and proper nouns<br />To capitalize proper nouns<br />To capitalize abbreviations of proper nouns<br />To capitalize and punctuate titles<br />
  17. 17. Common and Proper Nouns<br />A common noun is the name of a general type of person, place, thing, event or idea. Most of the nouns you use are common nouns. Common nouns begin with lower case letters. A proper noun is the name of one particular person, place, thing, event, or idea. When you write, always begin proper nouns with capital letters.<br />EXAMPLE 1<br />Common Noun Proper Noun<br />mountain Mount Everest<br />holiday Thanksgiving<br />magazine Garden Design<br />
  18. 18. Parts of the Country or World<br />The names of parts of the country or world are proper nouns. When compass directions are used as nouns they are common nouns.<br />EXAMPLE 2<br />Part of the Country Darnell visited the East with his family.<br />Direction The plane flew toward the east.<br />
  19. 19. Languages, Courses, and Subjects<br />The name of a language is a proper noun. The name of a certain course in school is a proper noun. The name of a subject is a common noun.<br />EXAMPLE 3<br />Proper Noun Common Noun<br />Spanish language<br />Algebra II math<br />
  20. 20. Abbreviations of Proper Nouns<br />An abbreviation is a short form of a word. If the word is a proper noun, capitalize its abbreviation. Titles like Doctor and Mister are proper nouns. They are usually abbreviated.<br />EXAMPLE 4<br />Proper Noun Abbreviation<br />Maryland MD<br />Doctor Turner Dr. Turner<br />Franklin Street Franklin St.<br />Most of the words in an address are proper nouns.<br />
  21. 21. Titles<br />Capitalize the first word of a title. Also capitalize each important word. Underline the title of a movie, book, magazine, opera, or play. If you are using a computer to write, use italics instead of underlining. Put quotation marks around the title of a song, poem, or short story.<br />EXAMPLE 5<br />Song “America, the Beautiful”<br />Book The Red Pony or The Red Pony<br />Short Story “To Build a Fire”<br />
  22. 22. Abstract and Concrete Nouns<br />Lesson 2-3<br />
  23. 23. Objectives<br />To identify and use concrete nouns<br />To identify and use abstract nouns<br />
  24. 24. Abstract and Concrete Nouns<br />Nouns can be abstract or concrete. A concrete noun is a word that names something you can see or touch. An abstract noun is a word that names something you cannot see or touch. You can think about it or talk about it.<br />
  25. 25. Abstract and Concrete Nouns<br />EXAMPLE 1<br />Concrete Noun Abstract Nounmoney priceclock minutecollege educationsports car typepaper assignment<br />Abstract nouns can be difficult to identify. If a noun names something you cannot see or touch, it is an abstract noun.<br />
  26. 26. Singular and Plural Nouns<br />Lesson 2-4<br />
  27. 27. Objectives<br />To identify and use singular and plural nouns<br />To spell the plural form of nouns ending in s, z, x, ch, sh, y, o, f, and fe<br />
  28. 28. Singular and Plural Nouns<br />A singular noun is the name of one person, place , thing, event, or idea. A plural noun is the name of more than one person, place, thing, event, or idea. Most plural nouns end in –s.<br />EXAMPLE 1<br />Singular Noun Plural Nounflower flowerstree treesmouth mouths<br />
  29. 29. Nouns That End with s, z, x, ch, or sh<br />Add –esto nouns that end in s, z, x, ch, or shto form the plural.<br />EXAMPLE 2<br />Singular Noun Plural Nounpass passesquiz quizzeswish wishes<br />
  30. 30. Nouns That End with y<br />Some nouns that end with y become plural by changing the y to –ies.<br />Some nouns that end with y become plural by adding –s. Study the two examples. What is the difference between the two groups of words? Say the plural forms in both groups our loud.<br />EXAMPLE 3<br />Change y to –iesAdd –scity cities key keyslady ladies alley alleysspy spies boy boys<br />
  31. 31. Nouns That End with y<br />Here are the rules for making the plural forms of nouns that end with y.<br />Rule 1 The letter before the y in key, alley, and boy is a vowel. You make these nouns plural by adding –s.<br />Rule 2 The letter before y in city, lady, and spy is a consonant. You make these nouns plural by changing the y to –ies.<br />
  32. 32. Nouns That End with o<br />Some nouns end with a vowel and an o. Make the plural form of these nouns by adding –s.<br />EXAMPLE 4<br />Singular Noun Plural Nounradio radiosstudio studiostrio trios<br />
  33. 33. Nouns That End with o<br />Some nouns end with a consonant and an o. Make the plurals of these nouns by adding –es.<br />EXAMPLE 5<br />Singular Noun Plural Nounpotato potatoesecho echoes<br />
  34. 34. Nouns That End with f, ff, or fe<br />Some nouns that end with f, ff, or fesound different in their plural forms. Say these words out loud. Listen to how they sound.<br /> cliff cliffs<br /> roof roofs<br />
  35. 35. Nouns That End with f, ff, or fe<br />You form the plural of some nouns that end with f, ff, or feby adding –s. Form the plural of others by changing the f to v and adding –es.<br />EXAMPLE 7<br />Singular Noun Plural Nounsafe safeslife livesbelief beliefsleaf leaves<br />
  36. 36. More About Plural Nouns<br />Lesson 2-5<br />
  37. 37. Objectives<br />To spell irregular plural nouns<br />To form plural proper nouns<br />To form plural numbers, dates, and letters<br />
  38. 38. Irregular Plural Nouns<br />Some plural nouns do not follow the regular rules. They are called irregular plural nouns. For example, in very few cases the singular and plural forms of a noun are the same.<br />EXAMPLE 1<br />Singular Noun Plural Nounone deer a herd of deerone sheep many sheepa trout a school of trout<br />
  39. 39. Irregular Plural Nouns<br />To make some nouns plural, you change or add letters.<br />EXAMPLE 2<br />Singular Noun Plural Nounchild childrenfoot feetox oxenmouse miceman men<br />
  40. 40. Plural Proper Nouns<br />You form the plurals of most proper nouns by adding –s. If a proper noun end in s or z, add –esto make it plural.<br />EXAMPLE 3<br />Singular Proper Noun Plural Proper Nounthe Jones family the Jonesesthe Hernandez family the Hernandezes<br />
  41. 41. Plural Forms of Numbers, Dates, and Letters<br />Make a number, date, or letter plural by adding –s. No apostrophe is needed.<br />EXAMPLE 4<br />The 1990s were years of great changes in technology.<br />Inez got two As on her report card.<br />Several papers got scores in the 90s.<br />
  42. 42. Possessive Nouns<br />Lesson 2-6<br />
  43. 43. Objectives<br />To make possessive nouns using apostrophes<br />To tell the difference between plural nouns and possessive nouns<br />
  44. 44. Possessive Nouns<br />A possessive noun is a noun that shows ownership or a relationship between two things. A possessive noun uses an apostrophe (‘). An apostrophe is a punctuation mark.<br />EXAMPLE 1<br />Where are Dante’s shoes? (The shoes belong to Dante.)<br />Dante’s swim team won. (Dante is part of the team.)<br />The team’s score is 2. (The team has a score of 2.)<br />
  45. 45. Possessive Nouns<br />To make a noun possessive, follow these rules:<br />Rule 1 Make a singular noun possessive by adding an apostrophe and –s (‘s).<br />EXAMPLE 2<br />Dante’s team the computer’s keyboard<br />Rule 2 When a singular noun ends in s, add an apostrophe and –s (‘s).<br />EXAMPLE 3<br />the boss’s day off Gail Russ’s book<br />
  46. 46. Possessive Nouns<br />Rule 3 Make a plural noun possessive by adding only an apostrophe (‘).<br />EXAMPLE 4<br />the trains’ routes the trumpets’ sounds<br />Rule 4 If a plural noun does not end in s, add an apostrophe and –s (‘s).<br />EXAMPLE 5<br />the children’s toys the men’s locker room<br />
  47. 47. Possessive Nouns<br />Use an apostrophe in phrases such as one dollar’s worth or a week’s vacation. If the word is plural and ends in s, add only an apostrophe.<br />EXAMPLE 6<br />Singular Pluralone cent’s worth ten cents’ wortha month’s vacation two months’ vacation<br />
  48. 48. Possessive Nouns<br />To decide whether to use a plural or possessive noun, think about what each one means. Look at the blue words in Example 7. How are they different? What does each word mean?<br />EXAMPLE 7<br />Plural There were six teams at the meet.<br />Possessive The team’s prize was a trophy.<br />

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