Writing Sentences Every day is full of experience. You experience people, places, things, and ideas. Together, they make a beautiful blend of images and voices. How do all these experiences connect? You make connections by communicating. During each day, you communicate with other people in many different ways. Sometimes, you speak what is on your mind. Other times, your face changes or you move a certain way. Still other times, you write what you are thinking.
Writing Sentences In school, you often write for teachers and other students. On a job, you may write for your boss or your coworkers. At home, you probably write notes, messages, and letters. When you do, practice writing sentences. Also, practice writing different kinds of sentences. Sentence variety makes writing more interesting. In Chapter 1, you will learn some basic rules about writing sentences.
Goals for Learning To identify and write sentences To identify the subject and predicate of a sentence To identify four types of sentences
Reading Strategy: Summarizing When readers summarize, they ask questions about what they are reading. They think about the topic. They think about main ideas. They also look for details that show the main ideas. As you read this chapter, ask yourself questions like these: What is this chapter about? What is the main idea of each lesson? What details are important to each main idea?
Key Vocabulary Words Sentence: a group of words that expresses a complete thought Sentence fragment: a group of words that does not express a complete thought Capital letter: the uppercase form of a letter such as A Endpunctuation: a mark at the end of a sentence that tells the reader where the sentence ends; there are three end punctuation marks: period (a.), question mark (?), and exclamation mark (!) Subject: the word or words in a sentence that tell who or what the sentence is about
Key Vocabulary Words Predicate: the word or words in a sentence that tell something about the subject; it always contains a verb Verb: the word or words in a sentence that express action or state of being or that link ideas Declarativesentence: a sentence that gives information Interrogativesentence: a sentence that asks a question Imperativesentence: a sentence that gives a command or makes a request Exclamatory sentence: a sentence that expresses strong feelings
What Is a Sentence? Lesson 1-1
Objectives To identify a sentence To change a sentence fragment into a sentence To write a sentence using a capital letter and end punctuation
What Is a Sentence A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. Example 1 Angela Choy is a high school student. What sport does she enjoy most? Get to practice now!
What Is a Sentence? A group of words that does not express a complete thought is called a sentence fragment. Example 2 Plays baseball in the spring. This group of words does not express a complete thought. It is a sentence fragment. You need to know who plays baseball in the spring. Armando plays baseball in the spring.
Practice A Write each group of words on your paper. Write sentence if the words form a sentence. Write fragment if the group of words is a sentence fragment. Emily Watson likes to draw. After school in the park. Since she was seven years old. Her favorite kind of paint is watercolor. For her birthday she got a set of oil paints.
Practice B Look at each group of words from Practice A that you labeled fragment. Add words to each fragment to make it a sentence. Write the sentences on your paper. Begin each one with a capital letter. Use correct end punctuation.
Beginning and Ending a Sentence When you write a sentence, there are two important rules to follow. Rule 1 Every sentence starts with a capital letter. The capital letter tells the reader that you are beginning a new idea. Example 3 Some people like to read about the past. They like history books. You might like to read a book about a president.
Beginning and Ending a Sentence Rule 2 Every sentence ends with an end punctuation mark. It can be a period, a question mark, or an exclamation mark. It tells the reader where the sentence ends. Example 4 George Washington was the first president of the United States. Do you know who the second president was? Yes, I do!
Practice C Rewrite each sentence. Use capital letters and end punctuation. for years, Cory had wanted a car how could he earn the money to buy it he got a job at the supermarket it took a long time to save enough money at last, he had enough
Practice D Find five sentences in the paragraph below. Write them on you paper. Start the first word in each sentence with a capital letter. End each sentence with an end punctuation mark. the library has many history books some people like to read about the past other people like to read about the future those books are in the science fiction section new books are added to this section every day
Subjects and Predicates Lesson 1-2
Objectives To identify the subject of a sentence To identify the predicate of a sentence To write sentences with subjects and predicates
The Subject Every sentence has a subject. The subject is the part of a sentence that tells who or what the sentence is about. Example 1 Emily enjoys oatmeal for breakfast. (Who enjoys oatmeal for breakfast? Emily does.)
Practice A Write each sentence on your paper. Underline the subject in each one. The school is on the corner. Armando attends the school. The bus goes to the school. It arrives at 8:45 a.m. School starts at 9:00 a.m.
The Subject The subject can be one word or many words. Every subject contains a word that names a person, place, or thing. Example 2 The French teacher gave the class a quiz. She returned the quiz the next day.
Practice B Write each sentence on your paper. The underline the subject. Ask yourself who or what the sentence is about. The students wrote an essay about summer. Summer is their favorite season. They handed in the essay today. The teacher will grade the papers tonight. The whole class did the assignment.
The Predicate The predicate is another part of a sentence. It tells something about the subject. It can be one word or many words. It always contains a verb. A verb does one of three things: A verb can express action. A verb can express a state of being. A verb can link ideas. Example 3 Angela swims. Angela tried out for the swimming team. She is a very fast swimmer.
Practice C Write each sentence on your paper. Underline each predicate. Swim practice begins at 3:00 p.m. Angela practices every day. She has a job at the YMCA. She is a lifeguard at the pool. The lifeguards had a picnic last week.
Practice D These sentence fragments have subjects. Write each one on your paper. Add a predicate so each group of words expresses a whole thought. Add end punctuation. Every summer I The book on the table The first football game My best friend My breakfast
Practice E Here is a list of sentence predicates. Write each one on your paper. Add a subject so each group of words expresses a complete thought. Add end punctuation. go to the beach moved here from another town went to the movies got ruined in the wash was late
Purposes of Sentences Lesson 1-3
Objectives To recognize different kinds of sentences To write sentences for different purposes
Declarative Sentences There are four kinds of sentences. A statement that gives information is called a declarative sentence. It states a fact. It ends with a period. Example 1 Nathan likes to read. He is interested in American history. John Adams was the second president of the United States.
Interrogative Sentences A question is also called an interrogative sentence. It ends with a question mark. Example 2 Who was the third president? What is Nathan reading about today? Why does Nathan like history?
Imperative Sentences A command or request in an imperative sentence. It tells someone to do something. It ends with a period. Example 3 Give me that book. Turn to page 200. Please read out loud.
Exclamatory Sentences An exclamation is also called an exclamatory sentence. It expresses strong feelings. It ends with an exclamation mark. Example 4 This book is great! That was the best story ever!
Practice A Read each sentence. Decide what kind of sentence it is. Write one of these on your paper: statement, question, command, or exclamation. Angela is on the swim team. She will swim in the state finals. I really hope she will win a medal! Will she make the Olympic team someday? Hurry up, Angela.
Practice B Read each sentence. Decide what kind of sentence it is. Write one of these on your paper: declarative, interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory. Who plays shortstop on that baseball team? He bought a new CD player. Just sign the check. What kind of computer is that! The water is too hot!
Practice C Write three declarative sentences about yourself. Begin each sentence with a different word. Capitalize the first word in each sentence. Put a punctuation mark at the end.
Interrogative + Declarative People ask questions to get information. Always put a question mark at the end of a question. The answer to a question is usually a statement. Use a period at the end of the answer. Example 5 Who was the fifth president of the United States? James Monroe was the fifth president.
Practice D Write five questions on your paper. Then write the answers. Begin every sentence with a capital letter. End every sentence with a punctuation mark.