Unit 16: INFINITIVES<br />PART VI: Gerunds and Infinitives<br />
UnitOverview<br />Infinitives are used as nouns in manysituations—as subjects, objects, subjectcomplements, and adjectivecomplements. Thisunitpresentsthem in a widerange of functions and forms:<br />It+ infinitivephrase: It’sadvisable (for a student) totakegood notes in class.<br />Too / enoughwithinfinitives: Theprojectistoocomplicatedtofinishon time. He didn’tcallquicklyenoughtogetthejob.<br />
UnitOverview<br />Simple and pastforms: Youseemtohaveforgotten.<br />Active and passive: Theworkissupposedtobefinishedbytomorrow.<br />Elliptical use of to: Steve knew he hadtogotoworkbut he didn’twantto.<br />One of thechallengespresentedbyinfinitives and gerundsislearningwhichverbs are followedbyoneortheotherorboth, themost memorable onesbeingthosewherethereis a significantdifference in meaning.<br />
Vocabulary<br />Syndrome: a set of physicalor mental problemsconsideredtogether as a disease.<br />Subconscious: feelings, desires, etc. That are hidden in yourmind, and you do notknowthatyouhavethem.<br />Demon: anevilspirit.<br />Tornado: anextremelyviolentstormconsisting of air thatspinsveryquickly and causes a lot of damage.<br />Reluctant: slow and unwilling.<br />Fiancé: themanwhom a womanisgoingtomarry.<br />
ComprehensionQuestions<br />Whatisthedifferencebetweenprocrastinateand postpone?<br />Topostponemeanstoreschedulefor a later time. Toprocrastinatemeanstoavoiddoingsomething.<br />Accordingtotheauthor, whatisthereasonforprocrastination?<br />Fear of failure.<br />Whatthreeprinciplesdoes Dr. Stevens recommendforhisclientswhowantto stop procrastinating?<br />(1) Neverputthings off. (2) Don’tavoidpainfulordifficultthings. (3) Carpe diem: Don’tput off living.<br />
DiscussionTopics<br />Rereadthe short dialogue at thebeginning of thereading. Ifyouwere Steve, whatwouldyouhavesaid?<br />In thediscussionaboutBlanche’sprocrastination, whichledto a “failed” party, Blanche “expectstofail” and so delayscallingherfriendsuntilfailureisassured. A dinnerpartywithfriendsshouldnotfailunlessyou try hardtomakeitfail. Whydo people cause theirownfailure? WhatdoesBlanchegetout of having a failedparty?<br />
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