Unit 16: INFINITIVES PART VI: Gerunds and Infinitives
UnitOverview Infinitives are used as nouns in manysituations—as subjects, objects, subjectcomplements, and adjectivecomplements. Thisunitpresentsthem in a widerange of functions and forms: It+ infinitivephrase: It’sadvisable (for a student) totakegood notes in class. Too / enoughwithinfinitives: Theprojectistoocomplicatedtofinishon time. He didn’tcallquicklyenoughtogetthejob.
UnitOverview Simple and pastforms: Youseemtohaveforgotten. Active and passive: Theworkissupposedtobefinishedbytomorrow. Elliptical use of to: Steve knew he hadtogotoworkbut he didn’twantto. One of thechallengespresentedbyinfinitives and gerundsislearningwhichverbs are followedbyoneortheotherorboth, themost memorable onesbeingthosewherethereis a significantdifference in meaning.
Vocabulary Syndrome: a set of physicalor mental problemsconsideredtogether as a disease. Subconscious: feelings, desires, etc. That are hidden in yourmind, and you do notknowthatyouhavethem. Demon: anevilspirit. Tornado: anextremelyviolentstormconsisting of air thatspinsveryquickly and causes a lot of damage. Reluctant: slow and unwilling. Fiancé: themanwhom a womanisgoingtomarry.
ComprehensionQuestions Whatisthedifferencebetweenprocrastinateand postpone? Topostponemeanstoreschedulefor a later time. Toprocrastinatemeanstoavoiddoingsomething. Accordingtotheauthor, whatisthereasonforprocrastination? Fear of failure. Whatthreeprinciplesdoes Dr. Stevens recommendforhisclientswhowantto stop procrastinating? (1) Neverputthings off. (2) Don’tavoidpainfulordifficultthings. (3) Carpe diem: Don’tput off living.
DiscussionTopics Rereadthe short dialogue at thebeginning of thereading. Ifyouwere Steve, whatwouldyouhavesaid? In thediscussionaboutBlanche’sprocrastination, whichledto a “failed” party, Blanche “expectstofail” and so delayscallingherfriendsuntilfailureisassured. A dinnerpartywithfriendsshouldnotfailunlessyou try hardtomakeitfail. Whydo people cause theirownfailure? WhatdoesBlanchegetout of having a failedparty?