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Change management
Change management
Change management
Change management
Change management
Change management
Change management
Change management
Change management
Change management
Change management
Change management
Change management
Change management
Change management
Change management
Change management
Change management
Change management
Change management
Change management
Change management
Change management
Change management
Change management
Change management
Change management
Change management
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Change management

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  • 1. The change management:! ! an essential condition of a successful strategy implementation" 1"2013/07/01" Written by Maxime CROS" My PERFormance"Freelance Consulting and Facilitation in Strategic Management and Managerial Relationships/Processes"
  • 2. Introduction" 2"2013/07/01" Written by Maxime CROS"
  • 3. The presentation objective" •  The execution of a strategy is at least as important as the brilliance of the strategy itself, which means there is no successful strategy without using relevant tools to make it pragmatic and operational in the field." •  So, first of all, the successful implementation of a strategy stands on structuring and rational tools or techniques adapted to the organization." •  However implementing a strategy involves also a lot of changes for a company, as for example a part of its organization, some work methods or job descriptions, the individual and collective objectives, the management system,… that result in emotional reactions from the people impacted by these changes, which brakes or blocks the implementation process." •  These reactions may surprise some people, especially when the strategy seems obvious and understood by everyone. This is probably the reason why some managers don’t give attention enough to these emotional reactions, which finally may result in the failure of the strategy implementation." •  Therefore, the successful implementation of a strategy also stands on the management of all the changes following from this one." •  This presentation aims at understanding and analysing the reasons of these emotional reactions and sharing some principles to manage them efficiently in order to increase our chances of success for implementing a strategy." 3"2013/07/01" Written by Maxime CROS"
  • 4. The presentation summary" " Part 1: The concept of change" Part 2: The change mechanisms" Part 3: The success keys for managing a change" 4"2013/07/01" Written by Maxime CROS"
  • 5. Part 1:! The concept of change" 5"2013/07/01" Written by Maxime CROS"
  • 6. What is a change?" •  Changing, it is to be taken from a place to another place, which results in a transformation, improvement, deterioration,… of the past situation." •  This the reason why we consider that accepting or digesting a change consists in grieving the past situation." •  We can consider that there are 2 kinds of change:" –  the evolution from the past," –  the break with the past." 2013/07/01" Written by Maxime CROS" 6" Situation A" Situation B" Transformation" Improvement" Deterioration" …"
  • 7. A paradoxical and complex concept" •  Change is a reality and a constant of the life on Earth. The most part of time, this necessity of change is rationally acknowledged as an obviousness, a need or an obligation." •  However, at the same time, change develops some irrational fears, resulting in resistances to change. The simple fact to pronounce the word “change” develops these fears, that’s why when we have to communicate about a change, we advise to avoid its using and to replace it by words connoting it positively, as for example “improvement” or “development”." •  Therefore, change is a complex concept that results in a lot of questions:" –  why is it so difficult to change for people whereas the obligation of change is obvious and understood?" –  why does the change announcement develop any resistances?" –  why do all the individuals have an unequal capability to accept or digest a change?" 2013/07/01" Written by Maxime CROS" 7"
  • 8. An opposition between an emotional and a rational logic (1/2)" Why may an individual resist to a change?" •  Because change forces individuals to call into questions some of their points of reference that guarantee the internal and individual balance, as:" –  the knowledge of their environment: “Changing involves to think differently”," –  their skills at the origin of their level of performance: “Changing involves to do differently”," –  the satisfaction of their recognition need depends on their relationships with people in their environment: “Changing involves to be different”." •  Our capability to call into questions depends on our level of energy (or motivation). So, the capability of an individual to accept and digest these changes of references depends on his level of energy." •  In other words, motivating somebody to change involves to send positive messages enough to him in order to develop his level of confidence, and then balance the efforts made to call into questions." 2013/07/01" Written by Maxime CROS" 8"
  • 9. An opposition between an emotional and a rational logic (2/2)" 2013/07/01" Written by Maxime CROS" 9" •  When an individual feels his future environment breaking his current situation, then his doubts will increase, which will develop a state of psychological anxiety where emotion dominates reason." •  When we feel an individual being doubtful, we naturally have a tendency to explain the change, especially with rational arguments. However, emotion affects our capability to listen and understand because of some unconscious filters." •  Then, every individual will develop a system of defence aiming at keeping his internal balance, which indirectly threatens the change. He doesn’t refuse the change itself, he just rejects his own decline. It is like a survival instinct, that’s why the change resistance is so strong and difficult to treat." •  So, change resistance is not an own mechanism for all the individuals but rather a behaviour that depends on the association change/decline made by every individual. This is also the reason why changes are sometimes associated to progress in the mind of some individuals." •  Therefore, if the change is perceived as a risk of decline, an individual resists. If the change is perceived as an opportunity of progress, an individual is committed."
  • 10. To sum up" •  Change acceptance stands on motivation and not on reason. Every individual doesn’t need a reason to change, he needs a motivation to change." •  Change is neither positive nor negative: it’s neutral. This is the feeling associated to the change that is positive or negative." •  This is the management before, while and after the change that influences the potential success of a change." 2013/07/01" Written by Maxime CROS" 10"
  • 11. Part 2:! The change mechanisms" 11"2013/07/01" Written by Maxime CROS"
  • 12. The change curve (1/2)" •  The change curve is based on the Elisabeth Kubler Ross’ works. This concept, that represents the different phases of the change acceptance, is valid in any cases of change (if the change is decided or suffered)." 2013/07/01" Written by Maxime CROS" 12" Change announce" Change fully digested" The arrow represents the time.! The curve represents the level of energy of people impacted by a change! A" B" Denial" Anger" Negotiation" Demotivation" Acceptance including some reservations" Integration" Effective change" Phase of resignation:! “I realize that the change is real and I can’t escape it ”! Phase of movement:! “I’m committed and I support the change in order to make it successful”! Phase of reject:! “I unconsciously try to avoid the change regardless the means”!
  • 13. The change curve (2/2)" Staff" Manager" Phases" Behaviours" Examples of sentences" Good practices" Bad practices" Reject" Denial" Disagreement" Refusal" “It’s not possible”" “I can not believe it”" “I’m not concerned”" To listen and acknowledge the staff point of view" To acknowledge the reality" To explain the meaning of the change" To rush" To contest the staff point of view" To argue for the change again and again" Anger" Aggressiveness" Feeling of unfairness" “It’s a shame”" “They are stupid”" “It’s not applicable in the field”" To listen and acknowledge the staff point of view" To acknowledge the difficulties" To explain the meaning of the change" To punish the unacceptable behaviours" To accept the unacceptable behaviours" Negotiation" Give the impression to make efforts for a win- win issue" “We might do it only next year”" “We might do differently”" “We might do as we did by the past”" “If I do this part, maybe I don’t have to do the rest”" To keep the right direction" To show a managerial solidarity in line with the right direction and the decisions" To accept the negotiation, even temporary" " Resignation" Demotivation" Exhaustion/ Despondency" Lack of understanding" Acts of balance (smoking excessively, …)" “I’m worthless”" “I’ll be never able to do it”" “I see no issue”" “Nobody helps me”" To valorize the positive points and the progresses" To coach the basics application" To lack of valorization" To be over-kind" To make unrealistic promises" Acceptance including some reservations" Partial involvement" Justifications" “It’s not too bad”" “I’m fine but…”" “It’s good, however…”" “I’m OK but…”" To keep the right direction" To valorize the positive points and the progresses" To coach the basics application" To believe the change acceptance as full and definitive" Movement" Integration" Full commitment" Source of proposals" Change sponsor" “It’s better than previously”" “I have everything to gain”" To put in light the improvements and the progresses thanks to a feedback or an assessment" To talk about the past" To reproach about the past" 2013/07/01" Written by Maxime CROS" 13"
  • 14. Part 3:! The success keys for managing a change" 14"2013/07/01" Written by Maxime CROS"
  • 15. •  An individual is more motivated to do something if he knows the reason why he has to do it. There is no commitment in the “how” if the “why” is not fully understood and digested." •  Changing is not an end in itself. It is a mean to reach something greater. So, it is really important to explain why we have to change in order to strengthen the commitment of the people." •  For example, a corporate strategy (and the implementation of all the changes associated) is not an end in itself. It is a mean:" –  to reach a corporate vision at long term," –  to re-align a company with its mission," –  to anchor the corporate values in the field," –  to develop new corporate values," –  …" •  Therefore, for explaining the “why” of the change, managers may:" –  explain the ambitious vision that the change will make achievable," –  explain how it will anchor or complement the corporate DNA." 2013/07/01" Written by Maxime CROS" 15" To explain the “why” of the change"
  • 16. To separate the change announcement and its effective implementation" •  As explained previously, the first reactions following the change announcement are purely emotional, which indirectly tends to brake or block the change implementation." •  For this reason, planning a period of time between the change announcement and its implementation may generally make possible a “purge” of the first emotional reactions without penalizing the change implementation. Indeed, when will come the time to start the change implementation, people might be more on a rational way, which will be therefore more efficient for the implementation." •  The duration of this period of time can change depending on the situations (context, change aims, change size, corporate culture,…)." •  However, in some particular cases, it can be more efficient to avoid the application of this managerial principle, as for example, when an organization needs an electroshock for different reasons relative to the current situation. " 2013/07/01" Written by Maxime CROS" 16"
  • 17. To place the change within the continuation of the past" •  What is new and different develops our fears because we don’t master it. What is current reassures us because we master it. Then, managers have to place the change within the continuation of the past in order to reassure people with their references." •  The most part of time, changes don’t fully call into questions what we do. Changes only impact us partially:" –  The implementation of a new sales reporting tool doesn’t change the core of the job, that is to say visiting the customers and selling," –  The implementation of a new information system may obviously change some practices or processes in a customer service department but don’t fully change the job of the customer service consultants, that is to say receiving the customer calls, listening the customer needs,…" •  If managers stress the attention of the staff only on the changes, it will tend to crystalize the tensions and the fears of the staff on the changes. So before focalising on what changes, managers have to stress what remains as it is or what doesn’t change, that is to say generally the main part of the daily job." 2013/07/01" Written by Maxime CROS" 17"
  • 18. To anticipate and announce any potential difficulties coming next" •  The implementation of any project or strategy faces difficulties or unexpected events… it’s normal in the real life. However, some of these ones are sometimes identified before starting the implementation." •  Although they know these difficulties at the beginning, in situation of change, managers are sometimes afraid to announce them because they don’t want to develop the emotional reactions, which is uncomfortable to treat. Indeed they prefer to avoid the matter, to hide it, or even to embellish excessively the situation." •  But finally, when the difficulties appear, it is worse because people consider it wasn’t planed and have the feeling to have been misled. Then there is a risk to face new emotional reactions, generally more excessive, whereas we are at a strategic time of the implementation." •  So if managers know the difficulties coming next in the project, they have to announce them in order to prepare the mind of the staff to overcome them." 2013/07/01" Written by Maxime CROS" 18"
  • 19. To adapt his management depending on the stages of the change" •  As explained previously (in the table following the change curve - Part 2), the people reactions impacted by changes are not the same depending on the stages of the change implementation (and digestion). For this reason, it is really important to adapt his management depending on these stages." –  During the phase of reject:" •  to communicate and explain the meaning of the change," •  to set up collective management times with the staff, without staff involvement: only information meetings or positive feedback meetings," •  to run individual management times with every staff member: interviews based on listening in order to drain the resistances." –  During the phase of resignation:" •  to remind the meaning of the change," •  to set up collective management times with the staff, without staff involvement: only information meetings or positive feedback meetings (possibility to organize few meetings with staff involvement, only with people ready to move forward)," •  to run interviews for draining the resistances, giving positive feedback on progresses, managing the basics application at short term." –  During the phase of movement:" •  to remind the meaning of the change," •  to set up collective management times with the staff, with staff involvement, as for example workshops," •  to run interviews to treat the last individual resistances." 2013/07/01" Written by Maxime CROS" 19"
  • 20. To plan and communicate a schedule of implementation" •  Sharing a schedule of implementation is reassuring for people, mainly for 2 reasons:" –  it shows how much the implementation has been seriously anticipated and prepared," –  time is a point of reference for a lot of people, especially for those who usually need structure." •  The schedule has to be precise and detailed enough, in avoiding to make unworkable undertakings. Indeed a non- respect of the schedule might finally be disappointing and anxiety-generating." 2013/07/01" Written by Maxime CROS" 20"
  • 21. To cascade the implementation by hierarchical level" •  The role of the management line is to relay the messages of the corporate head and supports the process of change. However, managers are first of all individuals, themselves members of the staff, which means they also have emotional reactions when they are impacted by the change." •  So, if they hear the messages from the top at the same time as the members of their own staff, managers may have some difficulties to treat their reactions, especially if they are themselves concerned or emotionally fragile. Besides they may feel out of the process and therefore keep a behaviour of onlooker." •  So, as far as possible, it is really important to cascade the change implementation in involving progressively the managers by hierarchical level:" –  To let them a time to drain their own resistances," –  To make them responsible for the change implementation, which will accelerate their change acceptance and develop their commitment, their solidarity with the corporate head and their feeling of use." 2013/07/01" Written by Maxime CROS" 21"
  • 22. To involve the staff in the practical and operational details in the field" •  In every change, there are different things that are very strategic and therefore non-negotiable, as the change itself or the timing of the change. However, there are also a lot operational and pragmatic details without strategic aim that are not decided by the corporate head, and that may be thought, decided and implemented by people working in the field." •  “More I’m imposed to do something, more I’m opposed. More I’m involved, more I apply.” It means that the involvement of people for thinking or expressing an opinion before the decision-making will develop their commitment in the implementation of this decision." •  So managers have to involve the staff in the reflexion and the organization of the practical details in the field (what is aligned with their responsibility), in order to develop their motivation and their commitment during the implementation. However, there are some very important precautions to take:" –  involving the staff on a reflexion whereas everything is already decided will develop their feeling to have been misled and therefore their frustration during the implementation," –  involving the staff in any reflexion may tend to an excessive participatory democracy slowing down the implementation, and that would become impossible to manage." 2013/07/01" Written by Maxime CROS" 22"
  • 23. To set up meetings regularly in order to communicate and inform" •  A period of change is a moment where there are a lot of rumours and people lack of confidence or are very suspicious. So it is really important to limit these potential rumours as far as possible in order to keep the level of confidence of the staff." •  So managers have to organize a communication plan, including recurrent information meetings, in order to inform regularly the staff, even if there is nothing new since the last communication." •  Organizing and implementing a communication plan aligned with the change implementation presents different advantages:" –  managers master the flow of information," –  employees trust the managers who show some transparency (as far as possible)." 2013/07/01" Written by Maxime CROS" 23"
  • 24. To assess the improvements and give positive feedbacks regularly" •  In the general case, several organizations have a tendency to focus always on the future, with its difficulties and challenges coming next, and so also with the efforts associated to these exigencies. Even if this permanent race to the future is motivating for some people, it is also very energy-hungry for the staff with a risk to reach a point of exhaustion." •  In a period of change, the energy reserves of the staff are lower than usually because of the doubts associated to the change. So the risk to reach quickly the point of exhaustion is increased." •  For this reason, it is really important to take the time for regularly measuring and assessing the progresses made since the beginning of the change implementation. It keeps the best mean to input an energy in order to balance the efforts demanded for the future exigencies." •  As it is difficult for people to take an overview from their daily work, especially when they are stressed or under pressure, this is the role of the management line to assess and communicate regularly the progresses made." 2013/07/01" Written by Maxime CROS" 24"
  • 25. To sum up: the success keys for managing a change" •  To explain the “why” of the change" •  To separate the change announcement and its effective implementation" •  To place the change within the continuation of the past" •  To anticipate and announce any potential difficulties coming next" •  To adapt his management depending on the stages of the change" •  To plan and communicate a schedule of implementation" •  To cascade the implementation by hierarchical level" •  To involve the staff in the practical and operational details in the field" •  To set up meetings regularly in order to communicate and inform" •  To assess the improvements and give positive feedbacks regularly" 2013/07/01" Written by Maxime CROS" 25"
  • 26. Conclusion" 26"2013/07/01" Written by Maxime CROS"
  • 27. Conclusion" •  In a situation of change, resistances are normal reactions for everyone. They are a stage of an adaptation process, as Darwin explained it in his theory. After all, these resistances are a necessary evil." •  Indeed, the concerns are not these resistances, but rather our capability to manage them, in finding the good balance between our level of exigency that involves some efforts for the team, and our input of energy in order to offset the efforts." •  Finally, the potential success of a project or a strategy depends on the management of the changes inherent in its implementation at least as much as its technical implementation itself." 2013/07/01" Written by Maxime CROS" 27"
  • 28. Contact us" I want to enhance" Contact details" •  Senior Consultant: Maxime CROS" •  Email: maximecros.ct@myperf.org" •  Location: Cape Town (South Africa)" My PERFormance" 2013/07/01" Written by Maxime CROS" 28"

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