Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: inno.com academic advisory board

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A guest lecture given for the academic advisory board of inno.com about the CHOOSE approach for Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises.

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Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: inno.com academic advisory board

  1. 1. FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Maxime Bernaert Promoter: Prof. Dr. Geert Poels (Ghent University), Prof. Dr. Monique Snoeck (K.U. Leuven), Prof. Dr. Manu De Backer (Antwerp University) Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 19/01/2014
  2. 2. FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Draw your house Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 19/01/2014
  3. 3. FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 19/01/2014
  4. 4. FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 19/01/2014
  5. 5. FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 19/01/2014
  6. 6. FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 19/01/2014
  7. 7. FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 19/01/2014
  8. 8. FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Draw your company Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 19/01/2014
  9. 9. FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 19/01/2014
  10. 10. FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 19/01/2014
  11. 11. FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 19/01/2014
  12. 12. Enterprise Architecture FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 19/01/2014
  13. 13. Enterprise Architecture FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 19/01/2014
  14. 14. Enterprise Architecture FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 19/01/2014
  15. 15. Enterprise Architecture Enterprise Architecture (EA)*: a holistic approach to keep things aligned in a company (IT - business, operations - strategy) Holistic overview:  Optimization of the company as a whole (essentials are more stable than specific solutions)  Strategy --> Operations  Understood by all those involved *Lankhorst M (2013) Enterprise Architecture at Work: Modelling, Communication and Analysis. Springer-Verlag, New York Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 15
  16. 16. Enterprise Architecture Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 16
  17. 17. Enterprise Architecture Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 17
  18. 18. Enterprise Architecture Some advantages:       Common architecture from multiple stakeholders Overview with different viewpoints Testing environment Analysis and optimization Change impact analysis Find best-fitted ERP system Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 18
  19. 19. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises*  European definition • <= 250 employees • Annual turnover <= 50 million euros or total assets <= 43 million euros *European Commission (2003) Recommendation 2003/361/EC: SME Definition. Official Journal of the European Union 46 (L 124) (6) Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 19
  20. 20. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  Important for economy* • 20.8 million SMEs in Europe (99.8% of all companies) • 19.2 million micro enterprises (<= 10 employees, turnover <= 2 million euros or total assets <= 2 million euros) • 70% of European jobs, 58.4% of gross production *European Commission (2010) Are EU SMEs Recovering from the Crisis? Annual Report on EU Small and Medium Sized Enterprises 2011 Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 20
  21. 21. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs Research steps Small and medium-sized enterprises Enterprise architecture Requirements Evaluation CHOOSE metamodel Case studies CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Tool support Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 21
  22. 22. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs Research steps Small and medium-sized enterprises Enterprise architecture Requirements Evaluation CHOOSE metamodel Case studies CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Tool support Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 22
  23. 23. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs EA for SMEs???*1,*2  Not known in SMEs  Not used in SMEs *1De Nil S, Deprost E, Bernaert M, Poels G (2012) Van Strategie tot Procesmodellering in Kleine en Middelgrote Organisaties: Een Exploratief Onderzoek. University of Ghent, Ghent *2Devos J (2011) IT Governance for SMEs. University of Ghent, Ghent Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 23
  24. 24. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs Problems faced by SMEs  Lack of structure and overview in the company* 100% Survival Rate 70% 50% 33% 0 2 5 10 Year 25% 15 *O'Gorman C (2001) The Sustainability of Growth in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises. Int J Entrep Behav Res 7 (2):60-75 Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 24
  25. 25. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs Problems faced by SMEs         ERP adoption (fit with current business)? Communication (processes, strategy)? Concrete job description? Strategy and processes change (alignment?) Asses impact of changes? Different stakeholders? New CEO? Knowledge as a production factor? Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 25
  26. 26. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs Solutions provided by EA         Easier to find a suitable ERP system Processes and strategy are explicitly modeled Job descriptions can be queried Processes are explicitly linked with strategy Different domains are interrelated Stakeholders are linked with their goals Knowledge of CEO can be made explicit Entrepreneurial knowledge can be shared Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 26
  27. 27. High probability of failure for SMEs Lack of structure and overview is a decisive factor in the failure of an SME
  28. 28. Enterprise architecture as solution! Yes … but ✗ Lack of knowledge of EA in SMEs ✗ Lack of appropriate techniques CHOOSE
  29. 29. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs EA for SMEs???  Not known in SMEs  Not used in SMEs  Adoption models Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 29
  30. 30. Adoption Models Technology Acceptance Model*  Most referred model for information technology adoption  Perceived usefulness: the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performance  Perceived ease of use: the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free of effort *Davis FD (1989) Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and User Acceptance of Information Technology. MIS Q 13 (3):319-340 Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 30
  31. 31. Adoption Models Technology Acceptance Model Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 31
  32. 32. Adoption Models Method Evaluation Model*  Model for method evaluation of IS design research  TAM and Methodological Pragmatism9: “Regardless of the potential benefits of IS design methods published, unless they are used in practice, these benefits cannot be realized” *Moody DL The Method Evaluation Model: A Theoretical Model for Validating Information Systems Design Methods. In: Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Information Systems, Naples, Italy, 2003 *Rescher N (1977) Methodological Pragmatism: A Systems-Theoretic Approach to the Theory of Knowledge. Basil Blackwell, Oxford Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 32
  33. 33. Adoption Models Methodological Pragmatism Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 33
  34. 34. Adoption Models Method Evaluation Model Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 34
  35. 35. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs EA for SMEs???  Increase the perceived usefulness • Increase actual effectiveness • Advantages for SMEs in practice  Increase the perceived ease of use • Adapt methods to an SME context (in practice) • Complexity* (= 1/actual efficiency) must be decreased  From actual to perceived efficacy • Test in SMEs: feedback + EA gets better known *Rogers EM, Shoemaker FF (1971) Communication of Innovations: A Cross-Cultural Approach. The Free Press, New York Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 35
  36. 36. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs Research steps Small and medium-sized enterprises Enterprise architecture Requirements Evaluation CHOOSE metamodel Case studies CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Tool support Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 36
  37. 37. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs Research steps Small and medium-sized enterprises Enterprise architecture Requirements Evaluation CHOOSE metamodel Case studies CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Tool support Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 37
  38. 38. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 38
  39. 39. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs Five criteria for EA (derived from definition) 1. Control: “Controlling the complexity of the enterprise.” 2. Holistic Overview: “EA has to capture the essentials of the enterprise (more stable).” 3. Objectives: “Translation from corporate strategy to daily operations.” 4. Suitable for its target audience (here: SMEs): “Understood by all those involved.” 5. Enterprise: “Optimization of the company as a whole instead of doing local optimization within individual domains.” Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 39
  40. 40. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs Five criteria for EA (derived from definition) 1. Control: “Controlling the complexity of the enterprise.” 2. Holistic Overview: “EA has to capture the essentials of the enterprise (more stable).” 3. Objectives: “Translation from corporate strategy to daily operations.” 4. Suitable for its target audience (here: SMEs): “Understood by all those involved.” (Simple) 5. Enterprise: “Optimization of the company as a whole instead of doing local optimization within individual domains.” Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 40
  41. 41. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs Existing EA techniques Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 41
  42. 42. mentioned. In the strategy-operations column, a minus indicates that a translation from strategy (business or IT) to operations (organizational or IT) is not clearly supported. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs Table 1 Analysis of EA frameworks BUSINESS IS IT STRATEGY OPERATIONS Why Motivation extension Motivation B/IS/IT + B/IS/IT + B/IS/IT - Capability Blend Capability B Event Why, goal, ... B/IS/IT + + + + When? Why? B/IS/IT + - - - IS/IT - Organization chart, ... Event, ... B/IS/IT + - Mission, vision, ... Requirements vision B/IS/IT + Event Goal Blend +- - End B + - Business objectives B/IS/IT + - Goals model B/IS + WHAT HOW WHERE WHO WHEN WHY How Process, ... Behavior Where Infrastructure extension Network, ... Who Organization unit, actor, role, ... Structure When ArchiMate What Data entity, ... Information DoDAF Resource Activity Location Performer CARP Resource Activity - Performer IAF Object Business objects, resources, ... Interaction Actor, role, ... Organization structure, actors, ... Business locations, ... Information exchange, ... Zachman TOGAF FEA: FEAF Objects, ... FEA: TEAF Information, ... Activity Business activities, ... Business process, ... Business process, ... GEAM - - - - ARIS Input, output, ... Function - (BMM) - (Business process) - Organizational unit, ... (Organization unit) DYA Product, data, ... Process Network Organization, ... E2AF With who? Enterprise Business Concepts Actors and modelling / process model resources model EKD model Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration REA Resource Event Agent - Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management SEAM LEAP Object Operation - Object Event, ... Event, ... Condition Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsGoals B 42 Strategies B/IS + OCL constraint B/IS/IT -
  43. 43. mentioned. In the strategy-operations column, a minus indicates that a translation from strategy (business or IT) to operations (organizational or IT) is not clearly supported. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs Table 1 Analysis of EA frameworks BUSINESS IS IT STRATEGY OPERATIONS Why Motivation extension Motivation B/IS/IT + B/IS/IT + B/IS/IT - Capability Blend Capability B Event Why, goal, ... B/IS/IT + + + + When? Why? B/IS/IT + - - - IS/IT - Organization chart, ... Event, ... B/IS/IT + - Mission, vision, ... Requirements vision B/IS/IT + Event Goal Blend +- - End B + - Business objectives B/IS/IT + - Goals model B/IS + WHAT HOW WHERE WHO WHEN WHY How Process, ... Behavior Where Infrastructure extension Network, ... Who Organization unit, actor, role, ... Structure When ArchiMate What Data entity, ... Information DoDAF Resource Activity Location Performer CARP Resource Activity - Performer IAF Object Business objects, resources, ... Interaction Actor, role, ... Organization structure, actors, ... Business locations, ... Information exchange, ... Zachman TOGAF FEA: FEAF Objects, ... FEA: TEAF Information, ... Activity Business activities, ... Business process, ... Business process, ... GEAM - - - - ARIS Input, output, ... Function - (BMM) - (Business process) - Organizational unit, ... (Organization unit) DYA Product, data, ... Process Network Organization, ... E2AF With who? Enterprise Business Concepts Actors and modelling / process model resources model EKD model Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration REA Resource Event Agent - Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management SEAM LEAP Object Operation - Object Event, ... Event, ... Condition Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsGoals B 43 Strategies B/IS + OCL constraint B/IS/IT -
  44. 44. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs CHOOSE metamodel Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 44
  45. 45. CHOOSE Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 45
  46. 46. CHOOSE basic concepts Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 46
  47. 47. CHOOSE Full Metamodel Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 47
  48. 48. CHOOSE Essential Metamodel Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 48
  49. 49. CHOOSE Goal Model Example Increase revenues Reduction debt balance Increase sales product x Invest in current sales market Marketing campaigns Invest in new sales markets Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Adapt products to local habits Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 49
  50. 50. CHOOSE Actor Model Example Maaike CEO Jan Manager Sales & Marketing Piet Account manager Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 50
  51. 51. CHOOSE Operation Model Example Perform NPV analysis Calculate WACC Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Calculate cash flows Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 51
  52. 52. CHOOSE Object Model Example Network Computer Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 52
  53. 53. Increase revenues Maaike CEO Reduction debt balance Increase sales product x Jan Manager Sales & Marketing Invest in current sales market Marketing campaigns Invest in new sales markets Piet Account manager Adapt products to local habits Network Perform NPV analysis Control s Customer database Computer Financial reports Calculate WACC Calculate cash flows
  54. 54. Increase Custom er Base Decrease Cost s BackOff ice Christophe Bookkeeper Increase Visibility CEO Olivier Im prove Signing Increase Online Visibility Open New St ore Marketing Ex pert Autom at ic Facebook Post er License Plate Scanner Social Media Foursquare Facebook Page Hoot Suite Manage Social Media Develop Webshop IT Operat ions
  55. 55. CHOOSE Metamodel Definitions Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 55
  56. 56. CHOOSE Metamodel Constraints Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 56
  57. 57. CHOOSE Metamodel Constraints Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 57
  58. 58. CHOOSE Metamodel Academics Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 58
  59. 59. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs Research steps Small and medium-sized enterprises Enterprise architecture Requirements Evaluation CHOOSE metamodel Case studies CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Tool support Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 59
  60. 60. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs Research steps Small and medium-sized enterprises Enterprise architecture Requirements Evaluation CHOOSE metamodel Case studies CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Tool support Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 60
  61. 61. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises  Action research in 6 companies Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 61
  62. 62. CHOOSE method  6-step roadmap  + method for structured interviews  + stop criteria Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 62
  63. 63. Action Research: Profile Tyrecenter (1)  Step 1: Goal tree: Balanced Scorecard: Financial, Customer, Internal Process, and Learning & Growth Goals  Step 2: Goal tree: More Goals are found through the 'Why/How?'-questions Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 63
  64. 64. Action Research: Profile Tyrecenter (2) Step 3: Adding the Actors to the CHOOSEmodel based on secondary sources and interviews Step 4: Based on the Porter’s Value Chain framework and the job description of Actors, the Operations are added to the model Step 5: Adding the Objects and relationships based on interviews and visual inspection Step 5: Validation Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 64
  65. 65. Action Research: Profile Tyrecenter (3) Snapshot of the Goal tree Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 65
  66. 66. Action Research: Profile Tyrecenter (4) The CHOOSE-method Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 66
  67. 67. Case study research: academics Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 67
  68. 68. Case study research: academics Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 68
  69. 69. Evaluation / Case Study (CS) Method Evaluation (cf. PU1 Table 2) PU2 7-point Likert scale PU3 Strongly disagree: 1 PU4 Disagree: 2 PU5 Slightly disagree: 3 Neutral: 4 PU6 Slightly agree: 5 PEU1 Agree: 6 PEU2 Strongly agree: 7 PEU3 PEU4 PEU5 PEU6 Metamodel evaluation PEOU1 (cf. Table 3) PEOU2 7-point Likert scale PEOU3 Strongly disagree: 1 PEOU4 Disagree: 2 US1 Slightly disagree: 3 Neutral: 4 US2 Slightly agree: 5 US3 Agree: 6 US4 Strongly agree: 7 PU1 PU2 Cursive: negative statement PU3 PSQ1 PSQ2 PSQ3 PSQ4 PSQ5 General evaluation 5-point Likert scale Very bad: 1 Bad: 2 Neutral: 3 Good: 4 Very good: 5 CS 1 CS 2 CS 3 CS 4 CS 5 CS 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 6 6 6 2 6 6 6 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 6 5 4 5 7 6 4 6 5 4 5 4 4 4 3 5 4 5 6 3 6 6 7 6 6 5 5 3 5 5 6 7 6 7 7 6 6 5 4 4 6 5 5 6 5 4 6 3 6 5 7 6 5 6 6 3 6 5 5 6 4 4 6 6 6 6 6 5 6 6 5 3 5 6 5 3 6 6 4 5 5 5 6 2 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 5 3 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 4 6 6 6 6 4 6 7 7 6 6 6 5 6 4 6 2 5 5 5 3 5 6 6 6 5 5 6 3 7 6 4 5 4 4 4 4 Avg. 5,61 5,11 4,54 5,25 5,56 5,27 4,17
  70. 70. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs Research steps Small and medium-sized enterprises Enterprise architecture Requirements Evaluation CHOOSE metamodel Case studies CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Tool support Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 70
  71. 71. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs Research steps Small and medium-sized enterprises Enterprise architecture Requirements Evaluation CHOOSE metamodel Case studies CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Tool support Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 71
  72. 72. Tool support Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 72
  73. 73. Tool support Why is tool support necessary?  Case studies  Academic publications Tool outline  Three main functionalities Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 73
  74. 74. Tool support: case studies Case study evidence of the need for tool support Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 74
  75. 75. Tool support: case studies Case study evidence of the need for tool support: Input Storage Data retrieval Data adjustments Analyses Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 75
  76. 76. (Kiger, 1984) · · breadth
  77. 77. Tool outline: PC Tool PC Tool Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 77
  78. 78. Tool outline: PC Tool Input Easy interface No drawing tool Integration of all concepts and relationships Adjust Search functionality Modular overview Easy interface Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 78
  79. 79. Tool outline: PC Tool Output  Automatic visualization  RACI charts  Data export to MS Excel The goal is to minimize effort and maximize value through automation, simplification, visualization, mistake proofing, … Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 79
  80. 80. Tool outline: PC Tool Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 81
  81. 81. Tool outline: PC Tool Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 82
  82. 82. Tool outline: PC Tool Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 85
  83. 83. Tool outline: Android Tablet - Visual Android Tablet - Visual Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 86
  84. 84. Tool outline: Android Tablet - Visual  Settings  Security  Unknown sources  https://www.dropbox.com/s/716ecd87jo3n167/BusinessModeller.apk Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 87
  85. 85. Tool support: Why on mobile devices Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 88
  86. 86. Tool outline: Android Tablet - Visual Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 89
  87. 87. Tool outline: Android Tablet - Visual Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 90
  88. 88. Tool outline: Android Tablet - Visual Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 91
  89. 89. Tool outline: Android Tablet - Visual Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 92
  90. 90. Tool support: Design choices Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 93
  91. 91. Tool outline: Android Tablet - Visual Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 95
  92. 92. Tool outline: Android Tablet - Visual Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 96
  93. 93. Tool outline: Android Tablet - Visual Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 97
  94. 94. Tool outline: Android Tablet - Usability Android Tablet - Usability Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 98
  95. 95. are within a certain model, the user never has to switch to another screen. Even for linking the different models, no screen switching is required. This will become clearer in the application presentation (section Chapter 8). All of this helps in keeping the user  in  hfs  ‘l ow’. i Fig. 22 Two layer application hierarchy
  96. 96. f the up button, two hierarchic layers in an OSX style are shown. This makes easy navigation between two layers, while maintaining easy access to other layers with the clickable file path. -coded picture gives a graphical explanation of the combined design elements (see Fig. 27).
  97. 97. Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6
  98. 98. Fig. 73 Add a lower goal: Final step and end result
  99. 99. Tool outline: iPad - Warnings iPad - Warnings Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 106
  100. 100. Tool outline: iPad - Warnings Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management · Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 107
  101. 101. FIGURE)54:)RACI)CHART,)AS)SEEN)IN)THE)APPLICATION) ) FIGURE)54:)RACI)CHART,)AS)SEEN)IN)THE)APPLICATION)
  102. 102. Tool outline: iPad - Structured iPad - Structured Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 115
  103. 103. Tool outline: iPad - Structured Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 116
  104. 104. Tool outline: iPhone iPhone Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 121
  105. 105. Tool outline: iPhone Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 122
  106. 106. 2 1 3
  107. 107. 1 2 4 3
  108. 108. Tool outline: Eclipse GMF Eclipse GMF Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 127
  109. 109. Tool outline: Eclipse GMF Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 128
  110. 110. Tool outline: Eclipse GMF Demo Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 134
  111. 111. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 135
  112. 112. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs Research steps Small and medium-sized enterprises Enterprise architecture Requirements Evaluation CHOOSE metamodel Case studies CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Tool support Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 136
  113. 113. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs Research steps Large enterprises Enterprise architecture Requirements Evaluation CHOOSE metamodel Case studies CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Tool support Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 137
  114. 114. CHOOSE - ArchiMate Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 138
  115. 115. CHOOSE - ArchiMate Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 139
  116. 116. Increase Custom er Base Decrease Cost s BackOff ice Christophe Bookkeeper Increase Visibility CEO Olivier Im prove Signing Increase Online Visibility Open New St ore Marketing Ex pert Autom at ic Facebook Post er License Plate Scanner Social Media Foursquare Facebook Page Hoot Suite Manage Social Media Develop Webshop IT Operat ions
  117. 117. Past Work  Integrating the Semantics of Events, Processes and Tasks across Requirements Engineering Layers Bernaert M, Poels G, PhD Day FEB UGent 2010, May 28th, Ghent  A Consolidated Enterprise Reference Model: Integrating McCarthy's and Hruby's ResourceEvent-Agent Reference Models Laurier W, Bernaert M, Poels G, 2010. ICEIS (3), pp. 159-164  Integrating the Semantics of Events, Processes and Tasks across Requirements Engineering Layers Bernaert M, Poels G, 2010. Proceedings of the CAiSE Doctoral Consortium, Hammamet, Tunisia, 2010, pp. 11-19  The Quest for Know-How, Know-Why, Know-What and Know-Who: Using KAOS for Enterprise Modelling Bernaert M, Poels G, PhD Day FEB UGent 2011, May 24th, Ghent  Het Realiseren van een Globaal Procesoverzicht bij Gedecentraliseerde Procesarchitecturen Vancaeneghem T, Bernaert M, Poels G (2011), Thesis Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 142
  118. 118. Past Work  The Quest for Know-How, Know-Why, Know-What and Know-Who: Using KAOS for Enterprise Modeling Bernaert M, Poels G, 2011. 6th International Workshop on Business/IT Alignment and Interoperability (BUSITAL), London, UK, 2011. In: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing 83: 29-40  The Quest for Know-How, Know-Why, Know-What and Know-Who: Using KAOS for Enterprise Modelling Bernaert M, Poels G, 2011, Proceedings of the 6th SIKS Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, pp. 15 - 16, Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (EIS2011) (Delft (The Netherlands))  De Zoektocht naar Know-How, Know-Why, Know-What en Know-Who: Architectuur voor Kleinere Bedrijven in Vier Dimensies Bernaert M, 2011, Informatie (Amsterdam), November nummer, 34-41  Review: A How-To Guide to Successful Enterprise Architecture: The Strategic Fit between Business and IT Bentham Science Publishers, 2012  Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Bernaert M, Poels G, PhD Day FEB UGent 2012, May 25th, Ghent Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 143
  119. 119. Past Work  Keuzes Maken binnen Processen: Het Vermijden van een Russische Roulette voor de Organisaties Heyse M, Bernaert M, Poels G (2012), Thesis  Van Strategie tot Procesmodellering in Kleine en Middelgrote Organisaties: Een Exploratief Onderzoek De Nil S, Deprost E, Bernaert M, Poels G (2012), Thesis  Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Bernaert M, 2012, In: Poels G, Gailly F, De Backer M (eds) Doctoral Consortium of the 6th International Conference on Research and Practical Issues of Enterprise Information Systems (CONFENIS 2012), Ghent, Belgium  Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Bernaert M, Poels G, 2011, Proceedings of the 7th SIKS Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (EIS2012) (Nieuwegein (The Netherlands))  Development of a Common Base for Enterprise Architecture: Building the Bridge Between CHOOSE and ArchiMate Roose D, Vansteenlandt J, Bernaert M, Poels G (2012), Thesis Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 144
  120. 120. Past Work  Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Starting Point for Bringing EA to SMEs, Based on Adoption Models Bernaert M, Poels G, Snoeck M, De Backer M, 2013, Information Systems and Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs): State of art of IS research in SMEs  Software Tool Support voor Enterprise Architectuur in Kleine en Middelgrote Ondernemingen: EASE Ingelbeen D, Bernaert M, 2013, Informatie (Amsterdam)  Development of Software Tool Support for Enterprise Architecture in Small and MediumSized Enterprises Dumeez J, Bernaert M, Poels G, 2013. 8th International Workshop on Business/IT Alignment and Interoperability (BUSITAL), Valencia, Spain, 2013. In: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing  Enterprise Architecture Software Tool Support for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: EASE Ingelbeen D, Bernaert M, 2013. 19th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Chicago, USA Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 145
  121. 121. Past Work  CHOOSE: Towards a Metamodel for Enterprise Architecture in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Bernaert M, Poels G, Snoeck M, De Backer M, 2013, Submitted to Information Systems Frontiers  Enterprise Architecture Modelling for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Case Study Research to Refine and Evaluate the CHOOSE Method and Metamodel Bernaert M, Callaert M, Poels G, Snoeck M, De Backer M, 2013, Submitted to Enterprise Information Systems  Softwareondersteuning voor een Enterprise Architectuur in Access en Java Ingelbeen D, Bernaert M, Poels G (2013), Thesis  Business Architecture Modelling in CHOOSE: A Visual Application for Android Tablets Maes J, Bernaert M, Poels G (2013), Thesis  Next Generation Media: A User-Friendly Android Tablet Application for Business Architecture Modelling Dumeez J, Bernaert M, Poels G (2013), Thesis  Business Architectuur Modellering in KMO’s: Case Study Onderzoek ter Verfijning en Validatie van de CHOOSE Methode en Metamodel Callaert M, Bernaert M, Poels G (2013), Thesis Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 146
  122. 122. Past Work  Business Architectuur Modellering in CHOOSE: Een Gebruiksvriendelijke Applicatie voor de iPhone Puylaert O, Bernaert M, Poels G (2013), Thesis  Development of a Tool for Business Architecture Modeling in Eclipse Zutterman S, Bernaert M, Poels G (2013), Thesis  Next Generation Media: A User-Friendly iPad Application for Business Architecture Modelling Otte M, Bernaert M, Poels G (2013), Thesis  Business Architectuur Modellering in CHOOSE: Een Gebruiksvriendelijke Applicatie Aangepast aan de User Interface van de iPad Verhulst P, Bernaert M, Poels G (2013), Thesis Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 147
  123. 123. In Progress  Bridging EA for SMEs to EA for Large Enterprises: Mapping CHOOSE on the ArchiMate Standard Bernaert M, Poels G, Snoeck M, De Backer M, 2014, To be submitted  The Development of an Optimal Visualisation for Enterprise Architecture (ArchiMate) Paesschesoone J, Bernaert M, Poels G (2014), Thesis  The Development of an Optimal Visualisation for Enterprise Architecture (CHOOSE) Boone S, Bernaert M, Poels G (2014), Thesis  Evaluating Enterprise Architecture Techniques Based on the Rule of 7 Morina A, Bernaert M, Poels G (2014), Thesis  A Performance Management System for the CHOOSE Method for Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Moons L, Bernaert M, Poels G (2014), Thesis  The Development of a Domain Ontology for Enterprise Architecture Carron S, Bernaert M, Poels G (2014), Thesis  From Strategy to Process Modeling in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Flanders: A Large Scale Quantitative Research Piens S, Bernaert M, Poels G (2014), Thesis Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 148
  124. 124. In Progress  Simplicity is not Simple: How Business Architecture in one of Belgium's biggest companies can be simple and easy-to-use De Clercq D, Bernaert M, Poels G (2015), Thesis  Een theoretische en praktische analyse van de bestaande CHOOSE tools Rosez G, Bernaert M, Poels G (2015), Thesis  Ontwikkeling van een multiplatform software tool voor Enterprise Architecture in KMO’s Machtelinckx N, Bernaert M, Poels G (2015), Thesis Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 149
  125. 125. FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 19/01/2014
  126. 126. Questions Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 151
  127. 127. Enterprise Architecture for SMEs Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises2 2European Commission (2003) Recommendation 2003/361/EC: SME Definition. Official Journal of the European Union 46 (L 124) (6) Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Department of Management Information Science and Operations Management Maxime Bernaert and Geert Poels 152

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