Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
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Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
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Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
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Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operati...
Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Business Architecture for Management in Larger Enterprises...
Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Business Architecture for Management in Larger Enterprises...
Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Business Architecture for Management in Larger Enterprises...
Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Business Architecture for Management in Larger Enterprises...
Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Business Architecture for Management in Larger Enterprises...
Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Business Architecture for Management in Larger Enterprises...
Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Business Architecture for Management in Larger Enterprises...
Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Business Architecture for Management in Larger Enterprises...
Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Business Architecture for Management in Larger Enterprises...
Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Business Architecture for Management in Larger Enterprises...
Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Business Architecture for Management in Larger Enterprises...
Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Business Architecture for Management in Larger Enterprises...
Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Business Architecture for Management in Larger Enterprises...
Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Business Architecture for Management in Larger Enterprises...
Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Business Architecture for Management in Larger Enterprises...
Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Business Architecture for Management in Larger Enterprises...
Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Business Architecture for Management in Larger Enterprises...
Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Business Architecture for Management in Larger Enterprises...
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Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Business Architecture for Management in Larger Enterprises: KBC Presentation

  1. 1. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels13/06/2013FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATIONEnterprise Architecture for Small andMedium-Sized EnterprisesMaxime BernaertPromoter: Prof. Dr. Geert Poels (Ghent University), Prof. Dr. Monique(K.U. Leuven) Snoeck, Prof. Dr. Manu De Backer (Antwerp University)
  2. 2. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels13/06/2013FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATIONDraw your house
  3. 3. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels13/06/2013FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
  4. 4. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels13/06/2013FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
  5. 5. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels13/06/2013FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
  6. 6. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels13/06/2013FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
  7. 7. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels13/06/2013FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
  8. 8. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels13/06/2013FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATIONDraw your company
  9. 9. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels13/06/2013FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
  10. 10. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels13/06/2013FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
  11. 11. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels13/06/2013FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
  12. 12. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels13/06/2013FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATIONEnterprise Architecture
  13. 13. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels13/06/2013FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATIONEnterprise Architecture
  14. 14. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels13/06/2013FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATIONEnterprise Architecture
  15. 15. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels15Enterprise ArchitectureEnterprise Architecture (EA)1: a holisticapproach to keep things aligned in a company(IT - business, operations - strategy)Holistic overview: Optimization of the company as a whole(essentials are more stable than specific solutions) Strategy --> Operations Understood by all those involved1Lankhorst M (2009) Enterprise Architecture at Work: Modelling, Communication and Analysis.Springer-Verlag, New York
  16. 16. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels16Enterprise Architecture
  17. 17. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels17Enterprise Architecture
  18. 18. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels18Enterprise ArchitectureSome advantages: Common architecture from multiple stakeholders Overview with different viewpoints Testing environment Analysis and optimization Change impact analysis Find best-fitted ERP system
  19. 19. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels19Enterprise Architecture for SMEsSmall and Medium-Sized Enterprises2 European definition• <= 250 employees• Annual turnover <= 50 million euros or total assets <=43 million euros2European Commission (2003) Recommendation 2003/361/EC: SME Definition. Official Journal ofthe European Union 46 (L 124) (6)
  20. 20. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels20Enterprise Architecture for SMEsSmall and Medium-Sized Enterprises Important for economy3• 20.8 million SMEs in Europe (99.8% of all companies)• 19.2 million micro enterprises (<= 10 employees,turnover <= 2 million euros or total assets <= 2 millioneuros)• 70% of European jobs, 58.4% of gross production3European Commission (2010) Are EU SMEs Recovering from the Crisis? Annual Report on EUSmall and Medium Sized Enterprises 2011
  21. 21. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels21Enterprise Architecture for SMEsResearch stepsSmall and medium-sized enterprisesEnterprise architectureCase studiesCHOOSE metamodelTool supportRequirementsCHOOSE methodCriteria for toolsEvaluation
  22. 22. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels22Enterprise Architecture for SMEsResearch stepsSmall and medium-sized enterprisesEnterprise architectureCase studiesCHOOSE metamodelTool supportRequirementsCHOOSE methodCriteria for toolsEvaluation
  23. 23. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels23Enterprise Architecture for SMEsEA for SMEs???4,5 Not known in SMEs Not used in SMEs4De Nil S, Deprost E, Bernaert M, Poels G (2012) Van Strategie tot Procesmodellering in Kleine enMiddelgrote Organisaties: Een Exploratief Onderzoek. University of Ghent, Ghent5Devos J (2011) IT Governance for SMEs. University of Ghent, Ghent
  24. 24. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels24Enterprise Architecture for SMEsProblems faced by SMEs Lack of structure and overview in the company66OGorman C (2001) The Sustainability of Growth in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises. Int JEntrep Behav Res 7 (2):60-750 2 5 10 15100%70%50%33%25%YearSurvival Rate
  25. 25. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels25Enterprise Architecture for SMEsProblems faced by SMEs ERP adoption (fit with current business)? Communication (processes, strategy)? Concrete job description? Strategy and processes change (alignment?) Asses impact of changes? Different stakeholders? New CEO? Knowledge as a production factor?
  26. 26. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels26Enterprise Architecture for SMEsSolutions provided by EA Easier to find a suitable ERP system Processes and strategy are explicitly modeled Job description can be queried Processes are explicitly linked with strategy Different domains are interrelated Stakeholders are linked with their goals Knowledge of CEO can be made explicit Entrepreneurial knowledge can be shared
  27. 27. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels27Enterprise Architecture for SMEsEA for SMEs??? Not known in SMEs Not used in SMEs Adoption models
  28. 28. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels28Adoption ModelsTechnology Acceptance Model7 Most referred model for information technologyadoption Perceived usefulness: the degree to which aperson believes that using a particular systemwould enhance his or her job performance Perceived ease of use: the degree to which aperson believes that using a particular systemwould be free of effort7Davis FD (1989) Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and User Acceptance of InformationTechnology. MIS Q 13 (3):319-340
  29. 29. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels29Adoption ModelsTechnology Acceptance Model
  30. 30. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels30Adoption ModelsMethod Evaluation Model8 Model for method evaluation of IS design research TAM and Methodological Pragmatism9:“Regardless of the potential benefits of IS designmethods published, unless they are used inpractice, these benefits cannot be realized”8Moody DL The Method Evaluation Model: A Theoretical Model for Validating InformationSystems Design Methods. In: Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on InformationSystems, Naples, Italy, 20039Rescher N (1977) Methodological Pragmatism: A Systems-Theoretic Approach to the Theory ofKnowledge. Basil Blackwell, Oxford
  31. 31. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels31Adoption ModelsMethodological Pragmatism
  32. 32. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels32Adoption ModelsMethod Evaluation Model
  33. 33. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels33Enterprise Architecture for SMEsEA for SMEs??? Increase the perceived usefulness• Increase actual effectiveness• Advantages for SMEs in practice Increase the perceived ease of use• Adapt methods to an SME context (in practice)• Complexity10 (= 1/actual efficiency) must be decreased From actual to perceived efficacy• Test in SMEs: feedback + EA gets better known10Rogers EM, Shoemaker FF (1971) Communication of Innovations: A Cross-Cultural Approach.The Free Press, New York
  34. 34. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels34Enterprise Architecture for SMEsResearch stepsSmall and medium-sized enterprisesEnterprise architectureCase studiesCHOOSE metamodelTool supportRequirementsCHOOSE methodCriteria for toolsEvaluation
  35. 35. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels35Enterprise Architecture for SMEsResearch stepsSmall and medium-sized enterprisesEnterprise architectureCase studiesCHOOSE metamodelTool supportRequirementsCHOOSE methodCriteria for toolsEvaluation
  36. 36. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels36Enterprise Architecture for SMEs
  37. 37. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels37Enterprise Architecture for SMEsFive criteria for EA (derived from definition)1. Control: “Controlling the complexity of the enterprise.”2. Holistic Overview: “EA has to capture the essentials ofthe enterprise (more stable).”3. Objectives: “Translation from corporate strategy to dailyoperations.”4. Suitable for its target audience (here: SMEs):“Understood by all those involved.”5. Enterprise: “Optimization of the company as a wholeinstead of doing local optimization within individualdomains.”
  38. 38. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels38Enterprise Architecture for SMEsFive criteria for EA (derived from definition)1. Control: “Controlling the complexity of the enterprise.”2. Holistic Overview: “EA has to capture the essentials ofthe enterprise (more stable).”3. Objectives: “Translation from corporate strategy to dailyoperations.”4. Suitable for its target audience (here: SMEs):“Understood by all those involved.” (Simple)5. Enterprise: “Optimization of the company as a wholeinstead of doing local optimization within individualdomains.”
  39. 39. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels39Enterprise Architecture for SMEsExisting EA techniques
  40. 40. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels40mentioned. In the strategy-operations column, a minus indicates that a translation from strategy(business or IT) to operations (organizational or IT) is not clearly supported.Table 1 Analysis of EA frameworksWHAT HOW WHERE WHO WHEN WHYBUSINESSISITSTRATEGY-OPERATIONSZachman What How Where Who When Why B/IS/IT +TOGAFData entity,...Process, ...InfrastructureextensionOrganization unit,actor, role, ...Event, ...MotivationextensionB/IS/IT +ArchiMate Information Behavior Network, ... Structure Event, ... Motivation B/IS/IT +DoDAF Resource Activity Location Performer - Capability Blend +CARP Resource Activity - Performer - Capability B +IAF Object Activity Interaction Actor, role, ... Event Why, goal, ... B/IS/IT +E2AFBusinessobjects,resources, ...Businessactivities,...With who?Organizationstructure, actors,...When? Why? B/IS/IT +FEA: FEAF Objects, ...Businessprocess, ...Businesslocations, ...- - - IS/IT -FEA: TEAFInformation,...Businessprocess, ...Informationexchange, ...Organizationchart, ...Event, ...Mission, vision,...B/IS/IT +GEAM - - - - -RequirementsvisionB/IS/IT +ARISInput, output,...Function -Organizationalunit, ...Event Goal Blend +-(BMM) -(Businessprocess) -(Organizationunit) - End B +DYAProduct,data, ...Process Network Organization, ... -BusinessobjectivesB/IS/IT +Enterprisemodelling /EKDConceptsmodelBusinessprocessmodel-Actors andresources model- Goals model B/IS +REA Resource Event - Agent - Goals B -SEAM - - - - - Strategies B/IS +LEAP Object Operation - Object Condition OCL constraint B/IS/IT -Enterprise Architecture for SMEs
  41. 41. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels41Enterprise Architecture for SMEsCHOOSE metamodel
  42. 42. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels42CHOOSE
  43. 43. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels43CHOOSE basic concepts
  44. 44. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels44CHOOSE Full Metamodel
  45. 45. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels45CHOOSE Essential Metamodel
  46. 46. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels46CHOOSE Goal Model Example
  47. 47. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels47CHOOSE Actor Model Example
  48. 48. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels48CHOOSE Operation Model Example
  49. 49. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels49CHOOSE Object Model Example
  50. 50. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels51CHOOSE Model Example
  51. 51. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels52CHOOSE Metamodel Definitions
  52. 52. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels53CHOOSE Metamodel Constraints
  53. 53. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels54CHOOSE Metamodel Academics
  54. 54. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels55Enterprise Architecture for SMEsResearch stepsSmall and medium-sized enterprisesEnterprise architectureCase studiesCHOOSE metamodelTool supportRequirementsCHOOSE methodCriteria for toolsEvaluation
  55. 55. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels56Enterprise Architecture for SMEsResearch stepsSmall and medium-sized enterprisesEnterprise architectureCase studiesCHOOSE metamodelTool supportRequirementsCHOOSE methodCriteria for toolsEvaluation
  56. 56. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels57Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises
  57. 57. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels58Action Research: Profile Tyrecenter (1) Step 1: Goal tree: Balanced Scorecard:Financial, Learning & Growth, Internal Process andCustomer Goals
  58. 58. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels59Action Research: Profile Tyrecenter (2)Step 2: Adding the Actors to the CHOOSE-model based on visual inspection andinterviewsStep 3: Based on the Porter’s Value Chainframework and the job description ofActors, the Operations are added to themodelStep 4: Adding the Objects to the CHOOSE-modelStep 5: Validation
  59. 59. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels60Action Research: Profile Tyrecenter (3)Snapshot of the Goal tree
  60. 60. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels61Action Research: Profile Tyrecenter (4)The CHOOSE-method
  61. 61. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels62Case study research: academics
  62. 62. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels63Case study research: academics
  63. 63. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels65Enterprise Architecture for SMEsResearch stepsSmall and medium-sized enterprisesEnterprise architectureCase studiesCHOOSE metamodelTool supportRequirementsCHOOSE methodCriteria for toolsEvaluation
  64. 64. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels66Enterprise Architecture for SMEsResearch stepsSmall and medium-sized enterprisesEnterprise architectureCase studiesCHOOSE metamodelTool supportRequirementsCHOOSE methodCriteria for toolsEvaluation
  65. 65. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels68Tool support
  66. 66. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels69Tool supportWhy is tool support necessary? Case studies Academic sourcesTool outline Three main functionalities
  67. 67. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels70Tool support: case studiesCase study evidence of the need for tool support
  68. 68. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels71Tool support: case studiesCase study evidence of the need for toolsupport:InputStorageData retrievalData adjustmentsAnalyses
  69. 69. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels72Tool outline: PC ToolPC Tool
  70. 70. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels73Tool outline: PC ToolInputEasy interfaceNo drawing toolIntegration of all concepts and relationshipsAdjustSearch functionalityModular overviewEasy interface
  71. 71. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels74Tool outline: PC ToolOutput Automatic visualization As-is/to-be analysis RACI charts Data export to MS ExcelThe goal is to minimize effort and maximize valuethrough automation, simplification, visualization, mistake proofing, …
  72. 72. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels76Tool outline: PC Tool
  73. 73. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels79Tool outline: PC Tool
  74. 74. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels80Tool outline: Android Tablet VisualAndroid Tablet Visual
  75. 75. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels81Tool outline: Android Tablet Visual Settings  Security  Unknown sources
  76. 76. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels82Tool support: Why on mobile devices
  77. 77. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels83Tool outline: Android Tablet Visual
  78. 78. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels84Tool outline: Android Tablet Visual
  79. 79. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels85Tool outline: Android Tablet Visual
  80. 80. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels86Tool outline: Android Tablet Visual
  81. 81. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels87Tool support: Design choices
  82. 82. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels89Tool outline: Android Tablet Visual
  83. 83. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels90Tool outline: Android Tablet Visual
  84. 84. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels91Tool outline: Android Tablet Visual
  85. 85. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels92Tool outline: Android Tablet UsabilityAndroid Tablet Usability
  86. 86. are within a certain model, the user never has to switch to another screen. Even for linking the differentmodels, no screen switching is required. This will become clearer in the application presentation(section Chapter 8). All of this helps in keeping the user in hi s ‘f l ow’.Fig. 22 Two layer application hierarchy
  87. 87. f the up button, two hierarchic layers in an OSX style are shown. This makes easy navigationbetween two layers, while maintaining easy access to other layers with the clickable file path.-coded picture gives a graphical explanation of the combined design elements (see Fig. 27).
  88. 88. Step 1Step 3Step 4Step 5Step 6Step 2
  89. 89. Fig. 73 Add a lower goal: Final step and end result
  90. 90. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels100Tool outline: iPadiPad
  91. 91. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels101Tool outline: iPad·
  92. 92. )FIGURE)54:)RACI)CHART,)AS)SEEN)IN)THE)APPLICATION)FIGURE)54:)RACI)CHART,)AS)SEEN)IN)THE)APPLICATION)
  93. 93. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels109Tool outline: iPhoneiPhone
  94. 94. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels110Tool outline: iPhone
  95. 95. 123
  96. 96. 12 34
  97. 97. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels115Enterprise Architecture for SMEs
  98. 98. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels116Past Work Integrating the Semantics of Events, Processes and Tasks across Requirements EngineeringLayersBernaert M, Poels G, PhD Day FEB UGent 2010, May 28th, Ghent A Consolidated Enterprise Reference Model: Integrating McCarthys and Hrubys Resource-Event-Agent Reference ModelsLaurier W, Bernaert M, Poels G, 2010. ICEIS (3), pp. 159-164 Integrating the Semantics of Events, Processes and Tasks across Requirements EngineeringLayersBernaert M, Poels G, 2010. Proceedings of the CAiSE DoctoralConsortium, Hammamet, Tunisia, 2010, pp. 11-19 The Quest for Know-How, Know-Why, Know-What and Know-Who: Using KAOS for EnterpriseModellingBernaert M, Poels G, PhD Day FEB UGent 2011, May 24th, Ghent Het Realiseren van een Globaal Procesoverzicht bij Gedecentraliseerde ProcesarchitecturenVancaeneghem T, Bernaert M, Poels G (2011), Thesis
  99. 99. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels117Past Work The Quest for Know-How, Know-Why, Know-What and Know-Who: Using KAOS for EnterpriseModelingBernaert M, Poels G, 2011. 6th International Workshop on Business/IT Alignment andInteroperability (BUSITAL), London, UK, 2011. In: Lecture Notes in Business InformationProcessing 83: 29-40 The Quest for Know-How, Know-Why, Know-What and Know-Who: Using KAOS for EnterpriseModellingBernaert M, Poels G, 2011, Proceedings of the 6th SIKS Conference on Enterprise InformationSystems, pp. 15 - 16, Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (EIS2011) (Delft (TheNetherlands)) De Zoektocht naar Know-How, Know-Why, Know-What en Know-Who: Architectuur voorKleinere Bedrijven in Vier DimensiesBernaert M, 2011, Informatie (Amsterdam), November nummer, 34-41 Review: A How-To Guide to Successful Enterprise Architecture: The Strategic Fit betweenBusiness and ITBentham Science Publishers, 2012 Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium Sized EnterprisesBernaert M, Poels G, PhD Day FEB UGent 2012, May 25th, Ghent
  100. 100. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels118Past Work Keuzes Maken binnen Processen: Het Vermijden van een Russische Roulette voor deOrganisatiesHeyse M, Bernaert M, Poels G (2012), Thesis Van Strategie tot Procesmodellering in Kleine en Middelgrote Organisaties: Een ExploratiefOnderzoekDe Nil S, Deprost E, Bernaert M, Poels G (2012), Thesis Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium Sized EnterprisesBernaert M, 2012, In: Poels G, Gailly F, De Backer M (eds) Doctoral Consortium of the 6thInternational Conference on Research and Practical Issues of Enterprise Information Systems(CONFENIS 2012), Ghent, Belgium Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized EnterprisesBernaert M, Poels G, 2011, Proceedings of the 7th SIKS Conference on Enterprise InformationSystems (EIS2012) (Nieuwegein (The Netherlands)) Development of a Common Base for Enterprise Architecture: Building the Bridge BetweenCHOOSE and ArchiMateRoose D, Vansteenlandt J, Bernaert M, Poels G (2012), Thesis
  101. 101. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels119Past Work Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Starting Point for BringingEA to SMEs, Based on Adoption ModelsBernaert M, Poels G, Snoeck M, De Backer M, 2013, Information Systems and Small andMedium-sized Enterprises (SMEs): State of art of IS research in SMEs Software Tool Support voor Enterprise Architectuur in Kleine en MiddelgroteOndernemingen: EASEIngelbeen D, Bernaert M, 2013, Informatie (Amsterdam) Development of Software Tool Support for Enterprise Architecture in Small and Medium-Sized EnterprisesDumeez J, Bernaert M, Poels G, 2013. 8th International Workshop on Business/IT Alignmentand Interoperability (BUSITAL), Valencia, Spain, 2013. In: Lecture Notes in BusinessInformation Processing Enterprise Architecture Software Tool Support for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: EASEIngelbeen D, Bernaert M, 2013. 19th Americas Conference on Information Systems(AMCIS), Chicago, USA
  102. 102. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels120Past Work CHOOSE: Towards a Metamodel for Enterprise Architecture in Small and Medium-SizedEnterprisesBernaert M, Poels G, Snoeck M, De Backer M, 2013, Submitted to Information SystemsFrontiers Enterprise Architecture Modelling for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Case StudyResearch to Refine and Evaluate the CHOOSE Method and MetamodelBernaert M, Callaert M, Poels G, Snoeck M, De Backer M, 2013, Submitted to EnterpriseInformation Systems Softwareondersteuning voor een Enterprise Architectuur in Access en JavaIngelbeen D, Bernaert M, Poels G (2013), Thesis Business Architecture Modelling in CHOOSE: A Visual Application for Android TabletsMaes J, Bernaert M, Poels G (2013), Thesis Next Generation Media: A User-Friendly Android Tablet Application for Business ArchitectureModellingDumeez J, Bernaert M, Poels G (2013), Thesis Business Architectuur Modellering in KMO’s: Case Study Onderzoek ter Verfijning en Validatievan de CHOOSE Methode en MetamodelCallaert M, Bernaert M, Poels G (2013), Thesis
  103. 103. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels121Past Work Business Architectuur Modellering in CHOOSE: Een Gebruiksvriendelijke Applicatie voor deiPhonePuylaert O, Bernaert M, Poels G (2013), Thesis Development of a Tool for Business Architecture Modeling in EclipseZutterman S, Bernaert M, Poels G (2013), Thesis Next Generation Media: A User-Friendly iPad Application for Business Architecture ModellingOtte M, Bernaert M, Poels G (2013), Thesis
  104. 104. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels122In Progress Business Architectuur Modellering in CHOOSE: Een Gebruiksvriendelijke Applicatie Aangepastaan de User Interface van de iPadVerhulst P, Bernaert M, Poels G (2013), Thesis The Development of an Optimal Visualisation for Enterprise Architecture (ArchiMate)Paesschesoone J, Bernaert M, Poels G (2014), Thesis The Development of an Optimal Visualisation for Enterprise Architecture (CHOOSE)Boone S, Bernaert M, Poels G (2014), Thesis Evaluating Enterprise Architecture Techniques Based on the Rule of 7Morina A, Bernaert M, Poels G (2014), Thesis A Performance Management System for the CHOOSE Method for Enterprise Architecture forSmall and Medium-Sized EnterprisesMoons L, Bernaert M, Poels G (2014), Thesis The Development of a Domain Ontology for Enterprise ArchitectureCarron S, Bernaert M, Poels G (2014), Thesis From Strategy to Process Modeling in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Flanders: ALarge Scale Quantitative ResearchPiens S, Bernaert M, Poels G (2014), Thesis
  105. 105. Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations ManagementMaxime Bernaert and Geert Poels123Questions

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