Confenis Conference Presentation

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Presentation of an EA technique (CHOOSE) for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises.

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Confenis Conference Presentation

  1. 1. FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Maxime Bernaert Promoter: Prof. Dr. Geert PoelsGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 20/09/2012
  2. 2. Enterprise ArchitectureEnterprise Architecture (EA)1: a holistic approach to keep things aligned in a company (IT - business, operations - strategy).Holistic overview:  Optimization of the company as a whole (essentials are more stable than specific solutions)  Strategy --> Operations  Understood by all those involved1Lankhorst M (2009) Enterprise Architecture at Work: Modelling, Communication and Analysis.Springer-Verlag, New YorkGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 2
  3. 3. Enterprise ArchitectureGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 3
  4. 4. Enterprise ArchitectureGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 4
  5. 5. Enterprise ArchitectureSome advantages:  Common architecture from multiple stakeholders  Overview with different viewpoints  Testing environment  Analysis and optimization  Change impact analysis  Find best-fitted ERP systemGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 5
  6. 6. Enterprise Architecture for SMEsSmall and Medium-Sized Enterprises2  European definition • <= 250 employees • Annual turnover <= 50 million euros or total assets <= 43 million euros2European Commission (2003) Recommendation 2003/361/EC: SME Definition. Official Journal ofthe European Union 46 (L 124) (6)Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 6
  7. 7. Enterprise Architecture for SMEsSmall and Medium-Sized Enterprises  Important for economy3 • 20.8 million SMEs in Europe (99.8% of all companies) • 19.2 million micro enterprises (<= 10 employees, turnover <= 2 million euros or total assets <= 2 million euros) • 70% of European jobs, 58.4% of gross production3European Commission (2010) Are EU SMEs Recovering from the Crisis? Annual Report on EUSmall and Medium Sized Enterprises 2011Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 7
  8. 8. Enterprise Architecture for SMEsEA for SMEs???4,5  Not known in SMEs  Not used in SMEs4De Nil S, Deprost E, Bernaert M, Poels G (2012) Van Strategie tot Procesmodellering in Kleine enMiddelgrote Organisaties: Een Exploratief Onderzoek. University of Ghent, Ghent5Devos J (2011) IT Governance for SMEs. University of Ghent, GhentGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 8
  9. 9. Enterprise Architecture for SMEsProblems faced by SMEs  Lack of structure and overview in the company6 100% Survival Rate 70% 50% 33% 25% 0 2 5 10 15 Year6OGorman C (2001) The Sustainability of Growth in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises. Int JEntrep Behav Res 7 (2):60-75Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 9
  10. 10. Enterprise Architecture for SMEsProblems faced by SMEs  ERP adoption (fit with current business)?  Communication (processes, strategy)?  Concrete job description?  Strategy and processes change (alignment?)  Asses impact of changes?  Different stakeholders?  New CEO?  Knowledge as a production factor?Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 10
  11. 11. Enterprise Architecture for SMEsSolutions provided by EA  Easier to find a suitable ERP system  Processes and strategy are explicitly modeled  Job description can be queried  Processes are explicitly linked with strategy  Different domains are interrelated  Stakeholders are linked with their goals  Knowledge of CEO can be made explicit  Entrepreneurial knowledge can be sharedGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 11
  12. 12. Enterprise Architecture for SMEsEA for SMEs???  Not known in SMEs  Not used in SMEs  Adoption modelsGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 12
  13. 13. Adoption ModelsTechnology Acceptance Model7  Most referred model for information technology adoption  Perceived usefulness: the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performance  Perceived ease of use: the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free of effort7DavisFD (1989) Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and User Acceptance of InformationTechnology. MIS Q 13 (3):319-340Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 13
  14. 14. Adoption ModelsTechnology Acceptance ModelGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 14
  15. 15. Adoption ModelsMethod Evaluation Model8  Model for method evaluation of IS design research  TAM and Methodological Pragmatism9: “Regardless of the potential benefits of IS design methods published, unless they are used in practice, these benefits cannot be realized”8Moody DL The Method Evaluation Model: A Theoretical Model for Validating InformationSystems Design Methods. In: Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on InformationSystems, Naples, Italy, 20039Rescher N (1977) Methodological Pragmatism: A Systems-Theoretic Approach to the Theory ofKnowledge. Basil Blackwell, OxfordGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 15
  16. 16. Adoption ModelsMethodological PragmatismGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 16
  17. 17. Adoption ModelsMethod Evaluation ModelGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 17
  18. 18. Enterprise Architecture for SMEsEA for SMEs???  Increase the perceived usefulness • Increase actual effectiveness • Advantages for SMEs in practice  Increase the perceived ease of use • Adapt methods to an SME context (in practice) • Complexity10 (= 1/actual efficiency) must be decreased  From actual to perceived efficacy • Test in SMEs: feedback + EA gets better known10Rogers EM, Shoemaker FF (1971) Communication of Innovations: A Cross-Cultural Approach.The Free Press, New YorkGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 18
  19. 19. Enterprise Architecture for SMEsResearch steps Small and medium sized enterprises Enterprise architecture Validation Criteria CHOOSE metamodel Case studies CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Tool supportGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 19
  20. 20. Enterprise Architecture for SMEsDesign Science1111Hevner AR, March ST, Park J, Ram S (2004) Design Science in Information Systems Research. MISQ 28 (1):75-105Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 20
  21. 21. Enterprise Architecture for SMEsDesign Science: seven guidelines 1. A metamodel and method are created (guideline 1: creation of an artifact) 2. for SMEs (guideline 2: for a specified problem domain). 3. The approach is evaluated in case studies (guideline 3: thorough evaluation of the artifact). 4. No specific EA approach for SMEs exists (guideline 4: innovative, novelty). 5. The metamodel and method have to be formalized (guideline 5: the artifact must be rigorously defined, formally represented, coherent, and internally consistent).Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 21
  22. 22. Enterprise Architecture for SMEsDesign Science: seven guidelines 6. The case studies are used to refine the metamodel and develop and refine the method (guideline 6: search process). 7. Finally, articles have to be written about the approach, both in academic journals as in journals for practitioners. Even more important, the approach has to be implemented and tested in practice (guideline 7: communication both to a technical and managerial audience).Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 22
  23. 23. Enterprise Architecture for SMEsResearch steps Small and medium sized enterprises Enterprise architecture Validation Criteria CHOOSE metamodel Case studies CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Tool supportGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 23
  24. 24. Enterprise Architecture for SMEsResearch steps Small and medium sized enterprises Enterprise architecture Validation Criteria CHOOSE metamodel Case studies CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Tool supportGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 24
  25. 25. Enterprise Architecture for SMEsFive criteria for SMEs (derived from characteristics) 1. The approach should enable SMEs to time efficiently work on strategic issues. 2. A person with limited IT skills should be able to apply the approach. 3. It should be possible to apply the approach with little assistance of external experts. 4. The approach should enable making descriptions of how things are done in the company. 5. The CEO must be involved in the approach.Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 25
  26. 26. Enterprise Architecture for SMEsFive criteria for EA (derived from definition) 1. Control: “Controlling the complexity of the enterprise.” 2. Holistic Overview: “EA has to capture the essentials of the enterprise (more stable).” 3. Objectives: “Translation from corporate strategy to daily operations.” 4. Suitable for its target audience (here: SMEs): “Understood by all those involved.” 5. Enterprise: “Optimization of the company as a whole instead of doing local optimization within individual domains.”Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 26
  27. 27. Enterprise Architecture for SMEsResearch steps Small and medium sized enterprises Enterprise architecture Validation Criteria CHOOSE metamodel Case studies CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Tool supportGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 27
  28. 28. Enterprise Architecture for SMEsResearch steps Small and medium sized enterprises Enterprise architecture Validation Criteria CHOOSE metamodel Case studies CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Tool supportGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 28
  29. 29. Enterprise Architecture for SMEsFive criteria for EA (derived from definition) 1. Control: “Controlling the complexity of the enterprise.” 2. Holistic Overview: “EA has to capture the essentials of the enterprise (more stable).” 3. Objectives: “Translation from corporate strategy to daily operations.” 4. Suitable for its target audience (here: SMEs): “Understood by all those involved.” 5. Enterprise: “Optimization of the company as a whole instead of doing local optimization within individual domains.”Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 29
  30. 30. Enterprise Architecture for SMEsFive criteria for EA (derived from definition) 1. Control: “Controlling the complexity of the enterprise.” 2. Holistic Overview: “EA has to capture the essentials of the enterprise (more stable).” 3. Objectives: “Translation from corporate strategy to daily operations.” 4. Suitable for its target audience (here: SMEs): “Understood by all those involved.” (Simple) 5. Enterprise: “Optimization of the company as a whole instead of doing local optimization within individual domains.”Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 30
  31. 31. Enterprise Architecture for SMEsExisting EA techniquesGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 31
  32. 32. Enterprise Architecture for SMEsCHOOSE metamodelGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 32
  33. 33. Enterprise Architecture for SMEsResearch steps Small and medium sized enterprises Enterprise architecture Validation Criteria CHOOSE metamodel Case studies CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Tool supportGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 33
  34. 34. Enterprise Architecture for SMEsResearch steps Small and medium sized enterprises Enterprise architecture Validation Criteria CHOOSE metamodel Case studies CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Tool supportGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 34
  35. 35. Enterprise Architecture for SMEsGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 35
  36. 36. Enterprise Architecture for SMEsResearch steps Small and medium sized enterprises Enterprise architecture Validation Criteria CHOOSE metamodel Case studies CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Tool supportGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 36
  37. 37. Enterprise Architecture for SMEsResearch steps Small and medium sized enterprises Enterprise architecture Validation Criteria CHOOSE metamodel Case studies CHOOSE method Criteria for tools Tool supportGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 37
  38. 38. Enterprise Architecture for SMEsGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 38
  39. 39. Past Work Integrating the semantics of events, processes and tasks across requirements engineering layers Bernaert M, Poels G, PhD Day FEB UGent 2010, May 28th, Ghent A Consolidated Enterprise Reference Model - Integrating McCarthys and Hrubys Resource- Event-Agent Reference Models Laurier W., Bernaert M., Poels G. 2010. ICEIS (3), pp. 159-164 Integrating the semantics of events, processes and tasks across requirements engineering layers Bernaert M, Poels G, 2010. Proceedings of the Doctoral Consortium of the 22nd International Conference on Advanced Information Systems Engineering (CAiSE10), Hammamet, Tunisia, 2010, pp. 11-19. The Quest for Know-How, Know-Why, Know-What and Know-Who: Using KAOS for Enterprise Modelling Bernaert M, Poels G, PhD Day FEB UGent 2011, May 24th, Ghent Het Realiseren van een Globaal Procesoverzicht bij Gedecentraliseerde Procesarchitecturen Vancaeneghem T., Bernaert M., Poels G., 2011, ThesisGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 39
  40. 40. Past Work The quest for know-how, know-why, know-what and know-who: using KAOS for enterprise modeling Bernaert M, Poels G, 2011. 6th International Workshop on Business/IT Alignment and Interoperability (BUSITAL), London, UK, 2011. In: LECTURE NOTES IN BUSINESS INFORMATION PROCESSING 83: 29-40. The Quest for Know-How, Know-Why, Know-What and Know-Who: Using KAOS for Enterprise Modelling Bernaert M, Poels G, 2011, Proceedings of the 6th SIKS Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, pp. 15 - 16, Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (EIS2011) (Delft (The Netherlands)). De zoektocht naar Know-How, Know-Why, Know-What en Know-Who: architectuur voor kleinere bedrijven in vier dimensies Bernaert M, 2011, Informatie, November nummer, 34-41. Enterprise architecture for small and medium sized enterprises Bernaert M, Poels G, PhD Day FEB UGent 2012, May 25th, Ghent Keuzes Maken binnen Processen: Het Vermijden van een Russische Roulette voor de Organisaties Heyse M., Bernaert M., Poels G. (2012), ThesisGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 40
  41. 41. Past Work Van Strategie tot Procesmodellering in Kleine en Middelgrote Organisaties: Een Exploratief Onderzoek De Nil S., Deprost E., Bernaert M., Poels G. (2012), ThesisSubmitted Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Bernaert M, Poels G, 2012, Submitted for Information Systems and Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs): State of art of IS research in SMEsIn progress Mapping the CHOOSE metamodel on ArchiMate Roose D., Vansteenlandt J., Bernaert M., Poels G. (2012), Thesis Softwareondersteuning voor een business architectuur in Access en Java Ingelbeen D., Bernaert M., Poels G. (2013), Thesis Business architecture modelling in CHOOSE: an internationalized application for Android tablets Maes J., Bernaert M., Poels G. (2013), ThesisGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 41
  42. 42. Past Work Next generation media: a user-friendly Android tablet application for business architecture modelling Dumeez J., Bernaert M., Poels G. (2013), Thesis Business architectuur modellering in CHOOSE: een gebruiksvriendelijke applicatie aangepast aan de user interface van de iPad Verhulst P., Bernaert M., Poels G. (2013), Thesis Business architectuur modellering in KMO’s: case study onderzoek ter verfijning en validatie van de CHOOSE-methode Callaert M., Bernaert M., Poels G. (2013), Thesis Business architectuur modellering in CHOOSE: een gebruiksvriendelijke applicatie voor de iPhone Puylaert O., Bernaert M., Poels G. (2013), Thesis Softwareondersteuning voor een business architectuur in Eclipse Zutterman S., Bernaert M., Poels G. (2013), Thesis Next generation media: a user-friendly iPad application for business architecture modelling Otte M., Bernaert M., Poels G. (2013), ThesisGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 42
  43. 43. Future Work More case studies (started)  Effective in examining application in real-world scenarios, particularly in emerging research domains12 Formalize metamodel (ConceptBase & OCL) (planned) Develop method (started) Finish tool support (half way) Link with ArchiMate (planned)12Yin RK (2003) Case Study Research: Design and Methods, vol 5. Applied Social ResearchMethods Series. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, USAGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 43
  44. 44. QuestionsGhent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Maxime Bernaert and Geert PoelsDepartment of Management Information Science and Operations Management 44

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