Learning Goals
and Scales
Foundation of the Lesson
• The starting place for all effective instruction is
designing and communicating clear learning ...
Writing Effective Learning
Goals
• State what students should learn over the course of
a unit
• Derived from the content s...
Well Written Goals Are…
• Challenging but attainable by students
• Designed at different levels of complexity
Learning Goal Example
• Students will understand the dynamics involved in
stretching specific muscles and be able to
demon...
Design Questions

Proficiency
Scale

Level 4: Utilize

DQ4

4

Level 3: Analysis

DQ3

3

Marzano’s Taxonomy

Level 2: Com...
Scales
• Scales are all about increasing Rigor
• Leveled 1-4 in a hierarchy with Level 3 being the
Target Goal
• Build in ...
Marzano’s New Taxonomy of Knowledge Utilization
Level of Difficulty

Mental Process

Level 4: Knowledge Utilization

Decis...
Goals to Scales
• Write your targeted learning goal based upon your
content standard
• Identify knowledge that is easier t...
Learning Goal Example
• Targeted Goal: Students will be able to multiply a
two-digit number by another two-digit number
• ...
Marzano’s New Taxonomy of Knowledge Utilization
Level of Difficulty

Mental Process

Level 4: Knowledge Utilization

Decis...
Level of Difficulty

Learning Goal

Level 4: Analysis and Knowledge
Utilization

Explain the relationships or interactions...
Strand:
Topic:
Grade:
Score 4.0

In addition to Score 3.0, in-depth inferences and applications
that go beyond what was ta...
Marzano Research
Laboratory Proficiency
Scale Bank
• Proficiency Scale Bank
• http://www.marzanoresearch.com/
Strand:
Topic: Color Theory

Grade: First Grade

Score 4.0

In addition to Score 3.0, in-depth inferences and applications...
Level

Learning Goal

Activity

•

I can compare and contrast how two
different artists use color to create
feeling in the...
Strand: Florida State University
Topic: Football Program
Grade:

Score
4.0

Synthesize the various methods used to develop...
Resources
•

•
•

•
•

Marzano, R.J. (2009). Designing & teaching learning goals &
objectives. Bloomington, IN: Marzano Re...
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Learning goals and scales

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Learning goals and scales

  1. 1. Learning Goals and Scales
  2. 2. Foundation of the Lesson • The starting place for all effective instruction is designing and communicating clear learning goals • Scales provide a clear direction for students • Scales set the stage for assessments and provide students with effective feedback • When created and implemented correctly, Learning Goals and Scales can provide a 34% increase in student achievement
  3. 3. Writing Effective Learning Goals • State what students should learn over the course of a unit • Derived from the content standards • Broken down into Declarative and Procedural Knowledge • Students will understand X • Students will be able to Y
  4. 4. Well Written Goals Are… • Challenging but attainable by students • Designed at different levels of complexity
  5. 5. Learning Goal Example • Students will understand the dynamics involved in stretching specific muscles and be able to demonstrate proper form
  6. 6. Design Questions Proficiency Scale Level 4: Utilize DQ4 4 Level 3: Analysis DQ3 3 Marzano’s Taxonomy Level 2: Comprehension Level 1: Retrieval DQ2 DQ2 2 1
  7. 7. Scales • Scales are all about increasing Rigor • Leveled 1-4 in a hierarchy with Level 3 being the Target Goal • Build in complexity utilizing Marzano’s New Taxonomy of Knowledge Utilization • Scales should last between1 and 3 weeks
  8. 8. Marzano’s New Taxonomy of Knowledge Utilization Level of Difficulty Mental Process Level 4: Knowledge Utilization Decision making Problem solving Experimenting Investigating Level 3: Analysis Matching Classifying Analyzing errors Generalizing Specifying Level 2: Comprehension Integrating Symbolizing Level 1: Retrieval Recognizing Recalling Executing Adapted from: Marzano, R.J. (2009). Designing & teaching learning goals & objectives. Bloomington, IN: Marzano Research Laboratory
  9. 9. Goals to Scales • Write your targeted learning goal based upon your content standard • Identify knowledge that is easier than the targeted learning goal • Identify knowledge that is more complex than the targeted learning goal
  10. 10. Learning Goal Example • Targeted Goal: Students will be able to multiply a two-digit number by another two-digit number • Easier Goal: Students will be able to multiply a twodigit number by a one-digit number • Complex Goal: Students will be able to multiply a number with three or more digits by a two-digit number
  11. 11. Marzano’s New Taxonomy of Knowledge Utilization Level of Difficulty Mental Process Level 4: Knowledge Utilization Decision making Problem solving Experimenting Investigating Level 3: Analysis Matching Classifying Analyzing errors Generalizing Specifying Level 2: Comprehension Integrating Symbolizing Level 1: Retrieval Recognizing Recalling Executing Adapted from: Marzano, R.J. (2009). Designing & teaching learning goals & objectives. Bloomington, IN: Marzano Research Laboratory
  12. 12. Level of Difficulty Learning Goal Level 4: Analysis and Knowledge Utilization Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text and compare and contrast these individuals, events, ideas or concepts. Level 3: Comprehension Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text. (RI.5.3) Level 2: Retrieval Describe an individual, event, idea, or concept in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text. Level 1: With help, a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes and some of the more complex ideas and processes. Adapted from: Schmidt, R. (2012). 5 steps to creating successful common core scales for student learning. Marzano Research Laboratory. Retrieved from http://www.marzanoevaluation.com/FLDOE/article/5-steps-to-creating-successful-common-core-scales-for-student-learning. Sample Activities
  13. 13. Strand: Topic: Grade: Score 4.0 In addition to Score 3.0, in-depth inferences and applications that go beyond what was taught. 3.5 Score 3.0 In addition to score 3.0 performance, in-depth inferences and applications with partial success. The student: The student exhibits no major errors or omissions. 2.5 Score 2.0 No major errors or omissions regarding 2.0 content and partial knowledge of the 3.0 content. There are no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes as the student: recognizes or recalls specific terminology, such as: o performs basic processes, such as: o However, the student exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes. 1.5 Score 1.0 With help, a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes and some of the more complex ideas and processes. 0.5 Score 0.0 Partial knowledge of the 2.0 content, but major errors or omissions regarding the 3.0 content. With help, a partial understanding of the 2.0 content, but not the 3.0 content. Even with help, no understanding or skill demonstrated. Sample Activities
  14. 14. Marzano Research Laboratory Proficiency Scale Bank • Proficiency Scale Bank • http://www.marzanoresearch.com/
  15. 15. Strand: Topic: Color Theory Grade: First Grade Score 4.0 In addition to Score 3.0, in-depth inferences and applications that go beyond what was taught. Identify and describe work(s) of major artists who employ color theory as part of the overall design of their artwork and utilize it for a specific purpose. (VA.1.H.1.3, SS.1.A.2.1) 3.5 Score 3.0 Score 2.0 In addition to score 3.0 performance, in-depth inferences and applications with partial success. The student will understand basic color theory and be able to describe and correctly employ color relationships in a personal work of art. Create and define the characteristics of a monochromatic work of art (VA.1.S.1.1; VA.1.C.2.2; VA.1.0.3.1) Create and define the characteristics of a work of art utilizing complementary colors Create and define the characteristics of a work of art utilizing analogous colors The student exhibits no major errors or omissions. 2.5 Score 0.0 Create a Monochromatic self-portrait based upon the style of Pablo Picasso. Create a Pop Art painting with complementary colors in the style Andy Warhol. Create an underwater landscape diorama utilizing analogous colors. No major errors or omissions regarding 2.0 content and partial knowledge of the 3.0 content. There are no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes as the student: recognizes or recalls specific terminology, such as: o Primary Colors, Secondary Colors, Tertiary Colors, Analogous Colors, Complementary Colors, Tint, Tone, Shade (VA.1.S.2.2; VA.1.C.3.1) performs basic processes, such as: o Create secondary colors by mixing the primary colors (VA.1.O.1.1 o Create shades, tints and tones of the primary colors o Identify primary, secondary and tertiary colors on a color wheel (VA.1.S.3.1; However, the student exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes. 1.5 Score 1.0 Sample Activities Research at least two different artists or art movements and compare and contrast their use of color. Partial knowledge of the 2.0 content, but major errors or omissions regarding the 3.0 content. With help, a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes and some of the more complex ideas and processes. Student recognizes color names but is unable to correctly classify them independently. Student is unable to correctly describe color combinations that lead to the creation of new colors independently. Student is unable to identify or correctly arrange color relationships on a color wheel independently. 0.5 With help, a partial understanding of the 2.0 content, but not the 3.0 content. Even with help, no understanding or skill demonstrated. Read the book “Mouse Paint” and create secondary colors from primary colors. Create a tertiary color wheel. Create a shading chart. Read the book “Good Night Moon” and create a drawing of an object that casts a shadow.
  16. 16. Level Learning Goal Activity • I can compare and contrast how two different artists use color to create feeling in their artwork 1. Compare two different works of art and infer with evidence why the artist used different colors • I can use analogous and complementary colors to create a monochromatic picture with different shades and tones of color 1. Create a monochromatic self-portrait in the style of Pablo Picasso • I can group analogous colors and complementary colors I can make different tones and shades of colors 1. Draw an object that casts a shadow 2. Draw a design that uses complementary and analogous colors I know the primary, secondary and tertiary colors I know what analogous, complementary, tone, and monochromatic mean I know how to mix colors 1. Make a color wheel 2. Mix two colors to make a third 4 3 2 • • 1 • •
  17. 17. Strand: Florida State University Topic: Football Program Grade: Score 4.0 Synthesize the various methods used to develop and sustain success of the FSU football program and be able to apply those concepts to other sports. 3.5 Score 3.0 There are no major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes as the student: recognizes or recalls specific terminology, such as: o Bobby Bowden; Mark Richt, Mickey Andrews, Jimbo Fisher, Wide Right, Charlie Ward, Chief Osceola, Seminole, Puntrooskie, Garnet and Gold, Sod Cemetery performs basic processes, such as: o Correctly demonstrate the Tomahawk Chop and War Chant o Identify the traditional in-state and out-of-state rivalries o Summarize the seasons of the two national championship teams However, the student exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes. Partial knowledge of the 2.0 content, but major errors or omissions regarding the 3.0 content. With help, a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes and some of the more complex ideas and processes. 0.5 Score 0.0 Even with help, no understanding or skill demonstrated. Select one game each from the 1980’s, 1990’s and 2000’s that you feel to be the most significant of each decade. Assess and explain the effect that each of your selected games had on the football program as well as the University overall making sure to defend your assessment with specific evidence including coaching moves, changes in national opinions, and changes in strength of schedule. No major errors or omissions regarding 2.0 content and partial knowledge of the 3.0 content. 1.5 Score 1.0 Utilizing your knowledge of what lead to a successful football program, create a 5 year plan to improve the FSU basketball program. In addition to score 3.0 performance, in-depth inferences and applications with partial success. The student will: Compare and contrast the contributing factors that led to the rise of the FSU football program in the 1980’s. Cite specific examples of evidence related to the University’s and Athletic Department’s decisions including funding, staff choices and recruiting during the 1990’s and early 2000’s and be able to explain how each decision lead to the sustained success of the football program during that time period. Analyze the effect of traditional and non-traditional rivalries have had on the football program in terms of national exposure and prominence. The student exhibits no major errors or omissions. 2.5 Score 2.0 Sample Activities The student will: With help, a partial understanding of the 2.0 content, but not the 3.0 content. Label a map of Doak Campbell Stadium. List the head coaches from 1947 to the present. Draw a picture of the traditional home and away uniforms.
  18. 18. Resources • • • • • Marzano, R.J. (2009). Designing & teaching learning goals & objectives. Bloomington, IN: Marzano Research Laboratory Marzano, R.J., Brown, J.L. (2009). A handbook for the art and science of teaching. Alexandria, VA: ASCD Marzano, R.J., Yanoski, D. C., Hoegh, J.K, & Simms, J.A. (2013). Using common core standards to enhance classroom instruction & assessment. Bloomington, IN: Marzano Research Laboratory Marzano Research Laboratory. (2013). [Proficiency Scales Data Bank] Retrieved from http://itembank.marzanoresearch.com/search.aspx Shmidt, R. (2012). 5 steps to creating successful common core scales for student learning. Marzano Research Laboratory. Retrieved from http://www.marzanoevaluation.com/FLDOE/article/5-stepsto-creating-successful-common-core-scales-for-studentlearning

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