6   THE ECONOMICS OF LABOR MARKETS
18 The Markets for the Factors of Production
The Markets for the Factors of Production <ul><li>Factors of production are the inputs used to produce goods and services....
The Market for the Factors of Production <ul><li>The demand for a  factor of production  is a derived demand. </li></ul><u...
THE DEMAND FOR LABOR <ul><li>Labor markets, like other markets in the economy, are governed by the forces of  supply and d...
Figure 1 The Versatility of Supply and Demand Copyright©2003  Southwestern/Thomson Learning Quantity of Apples 0 Price of ...
THE DEMAND FOR LABOR <ul><li>Most labor services, rather than being final goods ready to be enjoyed by consumers, are inpu...
The Production Function and the Marginal Product of Labor <ul><li>The  production function  illustrates the relationship b...
Table 1 How the Competitive Firm Decides How Much Labor to Hire Copyright©2004  South-Western
Figure 2 The Production Function Copyright©2003  Southwestern/Thomson Learning Quantity of Apple Pickers 0 Quantity of App...
The Production Function and the Marginal Product of Labor <ul><li>The  marginal product of labor  is the increase in the a...
The Production Function and the Marginal Product of Labor <ul><li>Diminishing Marginal Product of Labor </li></ul><ul><ul>...
The Production Function and the Marginal Product of Labor <ul><li>Diminishing marginal product refers to the property wher...
Figure 2 The Production Function Copyright©2003  Southwestern/Thomson Learning Quantity of Apple Pickers 0 Quantity of App...
The Value of the Marginal Product and the Demand for Labor <ul><li>The value of the marginal product is the marginal produ...
The Value of the Marginal Product and the Demand for Labor <ul><li>The  value of the marginal product  (also known as marg...
The Value of the Marginal Product and the Demand for Labor <ul><li>To maximize profit, the competitive, profit-maximizing ...
The Value of the Marginal Product and the Demand for Labor <ul><li>The value-of-marginal-product curve is the labor demand...
Figure 3 The Value of the Marginal Product of Labor Copyright©2003  Southwestern/Thomson Learning 0 Quantity of Apple Pick...
FYI—Input Demand and  Output Supply <ul><li>When a competitive firm hires labor up to the point at which the value of the ...
What Causes the Labor Demand Curve to Shift? <ul><li>Output Price </li></ul><ul><li>Technological Change </li></ul><ul><li...
THE SUPPLY OF LABOR <ul><li>The labor supply curve reflects how workers’ decisions about the labor-leisure tradeoff respon...
Figure 4 Equilibrium in a Labor Market Copyright©2003  Southwestern/Thomson Learning Wage (price of labor) 0 Quantity of L...
What Causes the Labor Supply Curve to Shift? <ul><li>Changes in Tastes </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in Alternative Opportunit...
EQUILIBRIUM IN THE LABOR MARKET <ul><li>The wage adjusts to balance the supply and demand for labor. </li></ul><ul><li>The...
Figure 4 Equilibrium in a Labor Market Copyright©2003  Southwestern/Thomson Learning Wage (price of labor) 0 Quantity of L...
EQUILIBRIUM IN THE LABOR MARKET <ul><li>Labor supply and labor demand determine the equilibrium wage. </li></ul><ul><li>Sh...
Figure 5 A Shift in Labor Supply Copyright©2003  Southwestern/Thomson Learning Wage (price of labor) 0 Quantity of Labor S...
Shifts in Labor Supply <ul><li>An increase in the supply of labor : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results in a surplus of labor. <...
Figure 6 A Shift in Labor Demand Copyright©2003  Southwestern/Thomson Learning Wage (price of labor) 0 Quantity of Labor S...
Shifts in Labor Demand <ul><li>An increase in the demand for labor : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes it profitable for firms t...
Table 2 Productivity and Wage Growth  in the United States. Copyright©2004  South-Western
OTHER FACTORS OF PRODUCTION: LAND AND CAPITAL <ul><li>Capital  refers to the equipment and structures used to produce good...
OTHER FACTORS OF PRODUCTION: LAND AND CAPITAL <ul><li>Prices of Land and Capital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The purchase price ...
Equilibrium in the Markets for Land and Capital <ul><li>The rental price of land and the rental price of capital are deter...
Figure 7 The Markets for Land and Capital Copyright©2003  Southwestern/Thomson Learning Quantity of Land 0 Rental Price of...
Equilibrium in the Markets for Land and Capital <ul><li>Each factor’s rental price must equal the value of its marginal pr...
Linkages among the Factors of Production <ul><li>Factors of production are used together. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The margin...
Linkages among the Factors of Production <ul><li>A change in the supply of one factor alters the earnings of all the facto...
Linkages among the Factors of Production <ul><li>A change in earnings of any factor can be found by analyzing the impact o...
Summary <ul><li>The economy’s income is distributed in the markets for the factors of production. </li></ul><ul><li>The th...
Summary <ul><li>Competitive, profit-maximizing firms hire each factor up to the point at which the value of the marginal p...
Summary <ul><li>The price paid to each factor adjusts to balance the supply and demand for that factor. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Summary <ul><li>Because factors of production are used together, the marginal product of any one factor depends on the qua...
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  1. 1. 6 THE ECONOMICS OF LABOR MARKETS
  2. 2. 18 The Markets for the Factors of Production
  3. 3. The Markets for the Factors of Production <ul><li>Factors of production are the inputs used to produce goods and services. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Market for the Factors of Production <ul><li>The demand for a factor of production is a derived demand. </li></ul><ul><li>A firm’s demand for a factor of production is derived from its decision to supply a good in another market. </li></ul>
  5. 5. THE DEMAND FOR LABOR <ul><li>Labor markets, like other markets in the economy, are governed by the forces of supply and demand . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Figure 1 The Versatility of Supply and Demand Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning Quantity of Apples 0 Price of Apples Quantity of Apple Pickers 0 Wage of Apple Pickers (a) The Market for Apples (b) The Market for Apple Pickers Demand Supply Demand Supply P Q L W
  7. 7. THE DEMAND FOR LABOR <ul><li>Most labor services, rather than being final goods ready to be enjoyed by consumers, are inputs into the production of other goods. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Production Function and the Marginal Product of Labor <ul><li>The production function illustrates the relationship between the quantity of inputs used and the quantity of output of a good. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Table 1 How the Competitive Firm Decides How Much Labor to Hire Copyright©2004 South-Western
  10. 10. Figure 2 The Production Function Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning Quantity of Apple Pickers 0 Quantity of Apples 300 280 240 180 100 1 2 3 4 5 Production function
  11. 11. The Production Function and the Marginal Product of Labor <ul><li>The marginal product of labor is the increase in the amount of output from an additional unit of labor. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MPL =  Q/  L </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MPL = (Q 2 – Q 1 )/(L 2 – L 1 ) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Production Function and the Marginal Product of Labor <ul><li>Diminishing Marginal Product of Labor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As the number of workers increases, the marginal product of labor declines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As more and more workers are hired, each additional worker contributes less to production than the prior one. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The production function becomes flatter as the number of workers rises. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This property is called diminishing marginal product. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Production Function and the Marginal Product of Labor <ul><li>Diminishing marginal product refers to the property whereby the marginal product of an input declines as the quantity of the input increases. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Figure 2 The Production Function Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning Quantity of Apple Pickers 0 Quantity of Apples 300 280 240 180 100 1 2 3 4 5 Production function
  15. 15. The Value of the Marginal Product and the Demand for Labor <ul><li>The value of the marginal product is the marginal product of the input multiplied by the market price of the output. </li></ul><ul><li>VMPL = MPL  P </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Value of the Marginal Product and the Demand for Labor <ul><li>The value of the marginal product (also known as marginal revenue product) is measured in dollars. </li></ul><ul><li>It diminishes as the number of workers rises because the market price of the good is constant. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Value of the Marginal Product and the Demand for Labor <ul><li>To maximize profit, the competitive, profit-maximizing firm hires workers up to the point where the value of the marginal product of labor equals the wage. </li></ul><ul><li>VMPL = Wage </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Value of the Marginal Product and the Demand for Labor <ul><li>The value-of-marginal-product curve is the labor demand curve for a competitive, profit-maximizing firm. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Figure 3 The Value of the Marginal Product of Labor Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning 0 Quantity of Apple Pickers 0 Value of the Marginal Product Value of marginal product (demand curve for labor) Market wage Profit-maximizing quantity
  20. 20. FYI—Input Demand and Output Supply <ul><li>When a competitive firm hires labor up to the point at which the value of the marginal product equals the wage, it also produces up to the point at which the price equals the marginal cost. </li></ul>
  21. 21. What Causes the Labor Demand Curve to Shift? <ul><li>Output Price </li></ul><ul><li>Technological Change </li></ul><ul><li>Supply of Other factors </li></ul>
  22. 22. THE SUPPLY OF LABOR <ul><li>The labor supply curve reflects how workers’ decisions about the labor-leisure tradeoff respond to changes in opportunity cost. </li></ul><ul><li>An upward-sloping labor supply curve means that an increase in the wages induces workers to increase the quantity of labor they supply. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Figure 4 Equilibrium in a Labor Market Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning Wage (price of labor) 0 Quantity of Labor Supply
  24. 24. What Causes the Labor Supply Curve to Shift? <ul><li>Changes in Tastes </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in Alternative Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration </li></ul>
  25. 25. EQUILIBRIUM IN THE LABOR MARKET <ul><li>The wage adjusts to balance the supply and demand for labor. </li></ul><ul><li>The wage equals the value of the marginal product of labor. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Figure 4 Equilibrium in a Labor Market Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning Wage (price of labor) 0 Quantity of Labor Supply Demand Equilibrium wage, W Equilibrium employment, L
  27. 27. EQUILIBRIUM IN THE LABOR MARKET <ul><li>Labor supply and labor demand determine the equilibrium wage. </li></ul><ul><li>Shifts in the supply or demand curve for labor cause the equilibrium wage to change. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Figure 5 A Shift in Labor Supply Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning Wage (price of labor) 0 Quantity of Labor Supply, S Demand 2. . . . reduces the wage . . . 3. . . . and raises employment. 1. An increase in labor supply . . . S W L W L
  29. 29. Shifts in Labor Supply <ul><li>An increase in the supply of labor : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results in a surplus of labor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Puts downward pressure on wages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes it profitable for firms to hire more workers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results in diminishing marginal product. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowers the value of the marginal product. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives a new equilibrium. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Figure 6 A Shift in Labor Demand Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning Wage (price of labor) 0 Quantity of Labor Supply Demand, D 2. . . . increases the wage . . . 3. . . . and increases employment. D W L W L 1. An increase in labor demand . . .
  31. 31. Shifts in Labor Demand <ul><li>An increase in the demand for labor : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes it profitable for firms to hire more workers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Puts upward pressure on wages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raises the value of the marginal product. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives a new equilibrium. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Table 2 Productivity and Wage Growth in the United States. Copyright©2004 South-Western
  33. 33. OTHER FACTORS OF PRODUCTION: LAND AND CAPITAL <ul><li>Capital refers to the equipment and structures used to produce goods and services. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The economy’s capital represents the accumulation of goods produced in the past that are being used in the present to produce new goods and services. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. OTHER FACTORS OF PRODUCTION: LAND AND CAPITAL <ul><li>Prices of Land and Capital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The purchase price is what a person pays to own a factor of production indefinitely. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The rental price is what a person pays to use a factor of production for a limited period of time. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Equilibrium in the Markets for Land and Capital <ul><li>The rental price of land and the rental price of capital are determined by supply and demand. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The firm increases the quantity hired until the value of the factor’s marginal product equals the factor’s price. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Figure 7 The Markets for Land and Capital Copyright©2003 Southwestern/Thomson Learning Quantity of Land 0 Rental Price of Land Quantity of Capital 0 Rental Price of Capital (a) The Market for Land (b) The Market for Capital Demand Supply Demand Supply Q P P Q
  37. 37. Equilibrium in the Markets for Land and Capital <ul><li>Each factor’s rental price must equal the value of its marginal product. </li></ul><ul><li>They each earn the value of their marginal contribution to the production process. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Linkages among the Factors of Production <ul><li>Factors of production are used together. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The marginal product of any one factor depends on the quantities of all factors that are available. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Linkages among the Factors of Production <ul><li>A change in the supply of one factor alters the earnings of all the factors. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Linkages among the Factors of Production <ul><li>A change in earnings of any factor can be found by analyzing the impact of the event on the value of the marginal product of that factor. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Summary <ul><li>The economy’s income is distributed in the markets for the factors of production. </li></ul><ul><li>The three most important factors of production are labor, land, and capital. </li></ul><ul><li>The demand for a factor, such as labor, is a derived demand that comes from firms that use the factors to produce goods and services. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Summary <ul><li>Competitive, profit-maximizing firms hire each factor up to the point at which the value of the marginal product of the factor equals its price. </li></ul><ul><li>The supply of labor arises from individuals’ tradeoff between work and leisure. </li></ul><ul><li>An upward-sloping labor supply curve means that people respond to an increase in the wage by enjoying less leisure and working more hours. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Summary <ul><li>The price paid to each factor adjusts to balance the supply and demand for that factor. </li></ul><ul><li>Because factor demand reflects the value of the marginal product of that factor, in equilibrium each factor is compensated according to its marginal contribution to the production of goods and services. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Summary <ul><li>Because factors of production are used together, the marginal product of any one factor depends on the quantities of all factors that are available. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, a change in the supply of one factor alters the equilibrium earnings of all the factors. </li></ul>

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