Cooperative learning is group learningactivity organized so that learning isdependent on the socially structuredexchange of information betweenlearners in groups and in which eachlearner is held accountable for his orher own learning and is motivated toincrease the learning of others. (Olsenand Kagan 1992:8)
Raise of achievements of all studentsPositive relationships among studentsExperience on healthy social, psychological, and cognitive developmentReplace competition for cooperationReplace teacher-fronted lessons for student-centeredInteractive pair and group activitiesDevelopment of learning and communication strategiesReduce learner stress and create a positive affective classroom climate
Interactive and cooperative nature of languageCommunication as a primary purpose of languageMost speech is organized as conversationCommunication takes place upon certain agreed-upon set of cooperative rulesWe learn these social rules in conversational interaction
Role of social interaction in learning (Piaget and Vygotsky) Development of critical thinking skills Learning must emphasize on cooperation, not on competition Increase and variety of second language practice Cognitive development and increased language skills Integration of language with content-based areas Greater variety of materials to stimulate language and concept learning Mastering of professional skills that emphasize on communication Students act as resources of each other – a more active role
Johnson Olsen & Kagan Coelho 1992 1992Cooperative Key Elements Cooperative Olsen &Learning Learning Tasks Kagan: Three-Groups step interview, Round table, Formal Positive Team Think-pair-Informal Interdependence practice from Group share, Solve-Cooperative common input Formation pair-share,Base Groups Jig saw Individual Numbered Cooperative Accountability heads. projects Social Skills Structuring and structures
Work collaboratively on tasks with other group members.Must learn teamwork skills.Be directors of their learning (plan, monitor, and evaluate their own learning)Learning requires student’s direct and active involvement and participation.Alternate roles involve partners in the role of tutors, checkers, recorders, and information sharers. “Pair tasks”
Create a highly structured and well organized learning environment in the classroom: Setting goals, planning and structuring tasks, establishing the physical arrangement of the classroom, assigning students to groups and roles, and selecting materials and time.Be a facilitator of learning.
Move around the class and helping students and groups as needs arise: During this time the teacher interacts, teaches, refocuses, questions, clarifies, supports, expands, celebrates, and empathizes. And facilitators are giving feedback, redirecting the group with questions, encouraging the group to solve its own problems, extending activity, encouraging thinking, managing conflict, observing students, and supplying resources.
Teacher speaks less than in teacher fronted class.Provide broad questions to challenge thinking.Prepare students for the task they will carry out.Assist students with the learning tasks.Give few commands, imposing less disciplinary control.
Create opportunities for students to work cooperatively. E.g. If students are working in groups.. 1. Each student might have a set of materials. 2. Groups might have different sets of materials. 3. Or, each member might need a copy of a text. • Materials can be specially designed for CLL learning, modified from existing materials, or borrowed from other disciplines.
1. Teacher assigns work to Ss2. Ss cooperative work3. Looking for materials4. Team work, get a starting point5. Individual work6. Looking for mistakes7. Ss revise compositions8. Re read. Error - free