Goat Parasite WorkshopDewormers and Dewormer ResistanceIntroduction to Eye ScoresDave Sparks D.V.M.Area Extension Food-Ani...
Proper Drug Usage• Drugs must be labeled for the use and species.– Applies to both OTC and Rx drugs– Off label use is the ...
Action Families• All members of an action family share thesame mode of action despite there beingseveral members in the sa...
Benzamidoles• All kill eggs, lungworms andtapeworms• fenbendazole (Panacur, Safeguard)• oxfendazole (Synanthic)• albendazo...
Cell Depolarizers• Levamisole (Tramisol, Levasole)• Morantel/Pyrantel (Rumatel, Positive Pellet)• Basically only effective...
Avermectins/Milbemycins• Ivermectin (Ivomec)• Dormectrin (Dectomax)• Eprinomectin (Eprinex)• Moxidectin (Cydectin) long re...
Use of Dewormers• Few are approved for use in goats– Fenbendazole (Panacur or Safeguard)– Marantel (Rumatel or Positive Pe...
Use of Dewormers• Keep off pasture for 24 hours to drop eggs• Observe withdrawal period before selling• Pour-on works poor...
Use of Dewormers• Increasing effectiveness of dewormer– Hold animals off feed 16 hours and dewormand keep off feed 12 more...
Parasite Dewormer Strategies1. Salvage save animal’s lifeSevere production loss has already occurredby this time and goats...
Parasite Dewormer Strategies2. Strategic-deworming at strategic timeswhen worms are most likely to be aproblem - Prekiddin...
Parasite Dewormer Strategies3. Opportunistic- when we are working thegoats and it is convenient to deworm them.Effectivene...
Parasite Dewormer Strategies4. Tactical Deworming when weatherconditions are favorable for transmissionof parasitesBarber ...
Parasite Dewormer Strategies5. Suppressive-giving dewormer atregular intervals ie. 30 daysExpensive, effective in short te...
Dewormer Resistance• Biggest threat to the goat industry in thenear future 3-5 years• Means we will have to rely on techni...
What Is Dewormer Resistance?• An effective dewormer will reduce fecalegg counts by 95 % 7-14 days after givingthe dewormer...
Fecal Egg Count Reduction Tests• Need 10 animals per group• Need an average egg count of at least 200eggs per gram• All an...
Oklahoma Farm FECR %Farm IVM VAL LEV CYD1 12 87 982 37 88 993 7 67 994 63 85 925 55 99 1006 46 42 987 41 918 0 979 69 74 94
Dewormer Resistance• Georgia,• Resistance to Valbazen 15/15 farms(100%)• Resistance to Ivermectin 17 of 18 farms(94%)• Res...
Preventing Dewormer Resistance• Use the correct dose of dewormer• No scientific evidence that rotation of dewormerswill de...
Do Not Buy Resistant Worms• All new additions should bequarantined and aggressivelydewormed upon arrival• Deworm with 3 an...
ParentsSelection forDrug ResistanceResistantNext GenerationResistantDrug Treatment
Why Doesn’t it Seem As Bad As itSounds ???• Not all worms on farm are resistant toanthelmintics• Killing some worms may re...
• The proportion of the population that is not selectedby drug treatment– In “refuge” from drug• Worms in untreated animal...
Concept Behind SelectiveTreatment• Parasites are not equally distributed to allindividuals• Resistance of animals to the p...
040008000120001600020000FEC01000200030004000Individual GoatsFEC33% of Goats80% of EggsDistribution of FEC in Goat HerdsTre...
33% of Goats< 5% of Eggs0400800120016002000FEC100200300400FECTreating high 33% with adrug that causes a 99%FECR reduces da...
Selective TreatmentFAMACHA
How Do We Achieve SelectiveTreatment ???• The FAMACHA© system– Novel technique for the assessment ofHaemonchus contortus a...
How Does FAMACHA Work ???• Since primary impact of Barber pole wormis anemia, one can indirectly measureparasite burden (a...
FAMACHA• Use as guide to determine whichanimals to treat– Significantly reduces number of treatmentsgiven when compared wi...
The FAMACHA© System• Eye color chart with five colorcategories• Compare chart with color ofmucous membranes of sheep orgoa...
• Examine in sunlight• Open as shown - for a short time only• Look at color inside lower eyelid
Always Use Card !!!Compare eye color to chart
Other Recommendations forProper Use• Check both eyes– Score animal based on highest eye score• No ½ scores– Assign higher ...
Other Recommendations forProper Use• Keep records !!!!– Record numbers of animals in eachcategory on the block histogram s...
General Treatment GuidelinesWhen Using FAMACHA• Treat goats and sheep in categories 4 and 5with an effective anthelmintic–...
Integrating the FAMACHA©System• If there are none in categories 4 or 5,then safe• Re-examine two weeks later if weather is...
Integrating the FAMACHA© System• If there are < 10% in categories 4 or 5,then safe but remember to treat categories4 and 5...
Integrating the FAMACHA©System• If >10% of flock/herd in categories 4 and5, consider treating 3s as well• Change pastures ...
Recommended To Treat 3sWhen:• >10% of herd or flock is in categories 4 or5• Young animals• Ewes/does around the time oflam...
Integrating the FAMACHA©System• Examine especially animals which lagbehind the flock/herd• Check for animals with “bottle ...
Other Advantage of SelectiveTreatment (FAMACHA)• Identify animals that need treatment mostoften– These are the ones contam...
Precautions• Paleness or reddening of the eyes may haveother causes– Other causes of anemia:• Other parasites• Nutritional...
Precautions• Only properly trained persons shouldapply the FAMACHA© system• The card is an AID in the control ofHaemonchus...
Precautions• Lambs/kids and pregnant or lactatingewes/does need special attention• Always score animals with the help of t...
Precautions• FAMACHA is part of a total worm controlprogram – not a replacement• Maintain standard worm control measures:–...
Precautions• System Sounds Simple• If used improperly death of animals is apossibility– Cannot be used in a vacuum• Must t...
Where Do I Get FAMACHACards ???• By request of Professor Bath in SouthAfrica, only properly trained layindividuals can pur...
Management to ReduceParasite Problems• Stocking rates < 2 hd/ acre• Grazing cattle or horses with goats• Don’t graze close...
Future prospects• New Dewormers– at least 10 years away so plan for making do with theexisting ones– not likely new deworm...
• Use of specialized crops– mainly those with tannins– not sure how they work– looking for other crops with anthelmintic a...
Near Future• Dewormer resistance will have a majorimpact on the goat industry in the next fewyears• We are going to have t...
Dewormers and Dewormer Resistance; Introduction to Eye Scores
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Dewormers and Dewormer Resistance; Introduction to Eye Scores

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Dave Sparks, D.V.M.
Oklahoma Beginning Farmer & Rancher Program 2013
Livestock #2: April 13
parasite management in meat goats; FAMACHA testing

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Dewormers and Dewormer Resistance; Introduction to Eye Scores

  1. 1. Goat Parasite WorkshopDewormers and Dewormer ResistanceIntroduction to Eye ScoresDave Sparks D.V.M.Area Extension Food-Animal Health SpecialistSpecial Thanks to:Dr. Steve HartDr. Ann Wells
  2. 2. Proper Drug Usage• Drugs must be labeled for the use and species.– Applies to both OTC and Rx drugs– Off label use is the domain of licensed veterinarianswho must address the questions of dose, route, durationand withdrawal time• FDA regulations require a valid client-patientrelationship (vet has been to your farm andknows your animals) for off-the label use ofdrugs such as dewormers.• Violations are the liability of the producer!
  3. 3. Action Families• All members of an action family share thesame mode of action despite there beingseveral members in the same family• Only 3 broad spectrum families available– Benzamidoles– Levamisole and Morantel/Pyrantel– Avermectins/Milbemycins• If a drug is not effective, other drugs in thatfamily will not be either.
  4. 4. Benzamidoles• All kill eggs, lungworms andtapeworms• fenbendazole (Panacur, Safeguard)• oxfendazole (Synanthic)• albendazole (Valbazen) also kills flukes• Greatest level of dewormer resistancebecause of long history of use
  5. 5. Cell Depolarizers• Levamisole (Tramisol, Levasole)• Morantel/Pyrantel (Rumatel, Positive Pellet)• Basically only effective against roundworms• Overdose can kill!! You must know whatgoats weigh to use safely.
  6. 6. Avermectins/Milbemycins• Ivermectin (Ivomec)• Dormectrin (Dectomax)• Eprinomectin (Eprinex)• Moxidectin (Cydectin) long residual effect• Effective against roundworms, arrestedroundworms, lung worms, sucking lice
  7. 7. Use of Dewormers• Few are approved for use in goats– Fenbendazole (Panacur or Safeguard)– Marantel (Rumatel or Positive Pellet)• Use larger dose than sheep or cattle perlb. because goats have faster rate ofpassage and larger livers.• Administer orally back behind tongue sothey go to the rumen
  8. 8. Use of Dewormers• Keep off pasture for 24 hours to drop eggs• Observe withdrawal period before selling• Pour-on works poorly in goats• Dewormers should not be injected
  9. 9. Use of Dewormers• Increasing effectiveness of dewormer– Hold animals off feed 16 hours and dewormand keep off feed 12 more hours (not late preg).– Deworm twice 12 h apart-Benzamidoles– Blocks or feed-problems with each animalgetting dose– Deworming in water-suckling kids don’t drinkmuch
  10. 10. Parasite Dewormer Strategies1. Salvage save animal’s lifeSevere production loss has already occurredby this time and goats are more subject toother diseases
  11. 11. Parasite Dewormer Strategies2. Strategic-deworming at strategic timeswhen worms are most likely to be aproblem - Prekidding and weaningStrategic times neglect year to yeardifferences in the weather
  12. 12. Parasite Dewormer Strategies3. Opportunistic- when we are working thegoats and it is convenient to deworm them.Effectiveness depends on when the timehappens to fall that they get dewormed. Goatsmay need dewormed badly when we are notworking them. They may not need dewormedwhen we work them.
  13. 13. Parasite Dewormer Strategies4. Tactical Deworming when weatherconditions are favorable for transmissionof parasitesBarber pole worm requires 2 inches of rain ina month period and a mean temperaturegreater than 60F. Best to use fecal eggcounts.
  14. 14. Parasite Dewormer Strategies5. Suppressive-giving dewormer atregular intervals ie. 30 daysExpensive, effective in short term, but muchfaster development of dewormerresistance.
  15. 15. Dewormer Resistance• Biggest threat to the goat industry in thenear future 3-5 years• Means we will have to rely on techniquesother than dewormers to control worms• Animal selection• Pasture rotation• Co-species grazing• Low stocking rates, etc
  16. 16. What Is Dewormer Resistance?• An effective dewormer will reduce fecalegg counts by 95 % 7-14 days after givingthe dewormer• Fecal Egg Count before deworming 1,000eggs per gram• 10 days after deworming 200 eggs per gram= 80% fecal egg count reduction
  17. 17. Fecal Egg Count Reduction Tests• Need 10 animals per group• Need an average egg count of at least 200eggs per gram• All animals should have more than 100 eggsper gram• Take post treatment samples at least 7 daysup to 14 days after deworming• Compare post-treatment with pretreatment
  18. 18. Oklahoma Farm FECR %Farm IVM VAL LEV CYD1 12 87 982 37 88 993 7 67 994 63 85 925 55 99 1006 46 42 987 41 918 0 979 69 74 94
  19. 19. Dewormer Resistance• Georgia,• Resistance to Valbazen 15/15 farms(100%)• Resistance to Ivermectin 17 of 18 farms(94%)• Resistance to Cydectin on 4 of 18 farms(22%)
  20. 20. Preventing Dewormer Resistance• Use the correct dose of dewormer• No scientific evidence that rotation of dewormerswill delay development of resistance• Must verify that each dewormer is working bydoing a fecal egg count reduction test• If you are deworming more than 2-3 x a year youare increasing dewormer resistance• Biggest factor is using other managementpractices to reduce need for deworming
  21. 21. Do Not Buy Resistant Worms• All new additions should bequarantined and aggressivelydewormed upon arrival• Deworm with 3 anthelminticsfrom different drug classes• Should remain in quarantine for10 - 14 days– Perform FEC to confirm that noeggs are shed
  22. 22. ParentsSelection forDrug ResistanceResistantNext GenerationResistantDrug Treatment
  23. 23. Why Doesn’t it Seem As Bad As itSounds ???• Not all worms on farm are resistant toanthelmintics• Killing some worms may relieve diseasesymptoms– Removing 50% of worms will result in clinicalimprovement– It appears that the treatment was effective– Animals require treatment again very soon• Eventually most worms become resistant andtreatment fails – animals may die
  24. 24. • The proportion of the population that is not selectedby drug treatment– In “refuge” from drug• Worms in untreated animals• Eggs and larvae on pasture• Provides a pool of genes sensitive to dewormer– Dilutes genes resistant to dewormer• Until recently, overlooked as the most importantcomponent of drug resistance selectionRefugia
  25. 25. Concept Behind SelectiveTreatment• Parasites are not equally distributed to allindividuals• Resistance of animals to the parasite– 20-30 % of animals harbor most of worms• responsible for most of egg output
  26. 26. 040008000120001600020000FEC01000200030004000Individual GoatsFEC33% of Goats80% of EggsDistribution of FEC in Goat HerdsTreating high 33%Greatly ReducesDaily PastureContamination WithEggsTreating 1/3 ofgoats gives justas good controlas treating theentire herd230 M33%46 Million66%
  27. 27. 33% of Goats< 5% of Eggs0400800120016002000FEC100200300400FECTreating high 33% with adrug that causes a 99%FECR reduces dailypasture contaminationwith eggs by 80%Following treatment> 95% of eggs are beingshed by untreated goats= REFUGIAWhat Happens If We Treat Only the High 33% ???
  28. 28. Selective TreatmentFAMACHA
  29. 29. How Do We Achieve SelectiveTreatment ???• The FAMACHA© system– Novel technique for the assessment ofHaemonchus contortus and need for Tx.– Developed in response to emergence of severedewormer resistance in South Africa– Method of selective chemotherapy which leadsto a large reduction in the number ofdeworming treatments given• significantly decreases the rate of development ofanthelmintic resistance
  30. 30. How Does FAMACHA Work ???• Since primary impact of Barber pole wormis anemia, one can indirectly measureparasite burden (and need for treatment)by measuring anemia• Only useful where the Barber pole worm isthe primary parasite species
  31. 31. FAMACHA• Use as guide to determine whichanimals to treat– Significantly reduces number of treatmentsgiven when compared with conventionaldrenching practices– Should significantly decrease the rate ofdevelopment of anthelmintic resistance
  32. 32. The FAMACHA© System• Eye color chart with five colorcategories• Compare chart with color ofmucous membranes of sheep orgoat• Classification into one of fivecolor categories:• 1 – not anemic• 5 -- severely anemic
  33. 33. • Examine in sunlight• Open as shown - for a short time only• Look at color inside lower eyelid
  34. 34. Always Use Card !!!Compare eye color to chart
  35. 35. Other Recommendations forProper Use• Check both eyes– Score animal based on highest eye score• No ½ scores– Assign higher whole number score if unsure• Do not hold eye open more than few seconds– Wait and retry in other eye
  36. 36. Other Recommendations forProper Use• Keep records !!!!– Record numbers of animals in eachcategory on the block histogram scoresheet provided• An easy visual record of situation inherd/flock– On large farms animals can be tagged in avariety of ways
  37. 37. General Treatment GuidelinesWhen Using FAMACHA• Treat goats and sheep in categories 4 and 5with an effective anthelmintic– You must know what drugs are effective onyour farm.• If in doubt, score at paler category• Do not use in isolation – use FECs,rotational grazing, strategic or tacticaltreatments
  38. 38. Integrating the FAMACHA©System• If there are none in categories 4 or 5,then safe• Re-examine two weeks later if weather iswarm• In dry or cool times of year every 4 -6weeks may be sufficient– Gain experience– Be careful
  39. 39. Integrating the FAMACHA© System• If there are < 10% in categories 4 or 5,then safe but remember to treat categories4 and 5• Re-examine two weeks later
  40. 40. Integrating the FAMACHA©System• If >10% of flock/herd in categories 4 and5, consider treating 3s as well• Change pastures if possible– Do not treat all animals before move• Consider checking more frequently– 1X per week
  41. 41. Recommended To Treat 3sWhen:• >10% of herd or flock is in categories 4 or5• Young animals• Ewes/does around the time oflambing/kidding• Thin poorly conditioned animals• If down to 1 effective drug, consider usingless effective drugs in these animals
  42. 42. Integrating the FAMACHA©System• Examine especially animals which lagbehind the flock/herd• Check for animals with “bottle jaw” andtreat these, regardless of whether theylook anemic or not– This may indicate large numbers of otherroundworms that do not consume blood.
  43. 43. Other Advantage of SelectiveTreatment (FAMACHA)• Identify animals that need treatment mostoften– These are the ones contaminating the pasture forothers in the herd/flock– Cull all animals that were treated, along withtheir offspring– Improves genetics of resistance of the herd/flock– Significantly cuts down on need of anthelminticsin subsequent years
  44. 44. Precautions• Paleness or reddening of the eyes may haveother causes– Other causes of anemia:• Other parasites• Nutritional deficiencies• Other diseases– Other causes of redness:• Environmental conditions• Other diseases• Infectious eye diseases
  45. 45. Precautions• Only properly trained persons shouldapply the FAMACHA© system• The card is an AID in the control ofHaemonchus ONLY• Maintain an integrated management-based worm control program• The system is best used by producerswhere back-up assistance is availablefrom a veterinarian
  46. 46. Precautions• Lambs/kids and pregnant or lactatingewes/does need special attention• Always score animals with the help of thechart, not from memory• Replace card after 12 months’ use
  47. 47. Precautions• FAMACHA is part of a total worm controlprogram – not a replacement• Maintain standard worm control measures:– Monitoring of fecal egg counts– Rotational grazing– Resting pastures (2 or more months)– Alternation of goats with cattle or horses
  48. 48. Precautions• System Sounds Simple• If used improperly death of animals is apossibility– Cannot be used in a vacuum• Must take other factors into consideration inmaking treatment decisions– Must know if anthelmintic used is effective
  49. 49. Where Do I Get FAMACHACards ???• By request of Professor Bath in SouthAfrica, only properly trained layindividuals can purchase the cards– Sanctioned Training Workshop• Through a veterinarian– Vets expected to train themselves before trainingothers• Through extension agents who havereceived training• Information at famacha@vet.uga.edu
  50. 50. Management to ReduceParasite Problems• Stocking rates < 2 hd/ acre• Grazing cattle or horses with goats• Don’t graze close to ground• Haymaking or tillage• Pasture rotation with 6 or more weeksrest• Browse or animals eating off ground
  51. 51. Future prospects• New Dewormers– at least 10 years away so plan for making do with theexisting ones– not likely new dewormers will be licensed for use ingoats?• Vaccines– at least 5-10 years away– first one likely to be only for Haemonchus– won’t be 100% effective like drenches• Fungi– currently being researched– feed spores to stock  fungi grow in faeces  fungikill worm larvae in faeces– no slow delivery system at present
  52. 52. • Use of specialized crops– mainly those with tannins– not sure how they work– looking for other crops with anthelmintic activity– would be worth investigating with goats• Breeding for enhanced immunity– possible but slow - similar heritability of about0.3 as in sheep– some research in Scotland has shown progressover some years (5-6 generations) at a similar rateto improvements in sheep– are differences in mature immunity betweenbreeds ?– Angoras < Boer< Spanish? Kiko?
  53. 53. Near Future• Dewormer resistance will have a majorimpact on the goat industry in the next fewyears• We are going to have to use moremanagement and a minimum of dewormer• We are going to have to monitor parasiteswhether by FAMACHA or FEC

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