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Putting YourSystem Together                             George Kuepper      Kerr Center for Sustainable Agriculture
This publication outlines theorigins of organic agriculture. Ithighlights the concepts, ideas,and milestones that define i...
   A Production System that…    respond(s) to site-specific conditions    by integrating cultural, biological    and mech...
A group of interacting,interrelated, orinterdependentelements forming acomplex whole.          from: Answers.com
HEALTHY SOCIETYHEALTHY PEOPLEHEALTHY FOOD HEALTHY SOIL
Evolution Of and the Influences On American Organic Farming Organizations                              F.H. King          ...
Organic Soil Management        — An Old Saying among Organic Farmers
The Soil Food Web          2005 National Center for Appropriate Technology
What the Food Web Needs                                               Sunlight Air                                        ...
Organic Soil ManagementFeeding the Soil Food Web meansproviding organic matter as food. Inorganic farming, this has been c...
Plant Nutrition           Under Natural Conditions                                                                Source o...
Conventional Management                                                          Organic                                  ...
Humus Farming/Organic Management                                                                  Organic Materials       ...
Self-Generated Fertility                                   Weed Suppression•Fixes nitrogen                                ...
Organic Farmersclaim:                  Organic Crops Resist PestsDo organically-grown plantsdevelop inducedresistance todi...
Organic Crops Resist Pests•Predisposition theory•Insect pests asnature’s garbage men•Organic as plant-positive vs. pest-ne...
Organic Crops Resist PestsMycorrhizalAssociations asan element instress reductionand inducedresistance                    ...
CANNONHORTICULTURE  PROJECT
A                  Greenhouse                                             N              Kerr Center’s                    ...
Heritage Vegetable Trials(Okra & Sweet Sorghum in 2008 shown)
Copies can be  downloaded free-of-        charge at:http://www.kerrcenter.com/publications/summer-     cover-crops.pdf  Pr...
1. Crop Rotation (the sequencing of crops   over time on a field)2. The inclusion of cover crops and/or   perennial forage...
Kerr Center’sA-1 2008 Tomatoes       Cannon Horticulture Plots    2009 *    2010 *    2011 *    2012 Tomatoes    Example o...
 Cover crops are plants you grow or  allow to grow, not for harvest, but  for purposes such as preventing  erosion, impro...
Kerr Center’sA-1 2008 Rye w/peas, clover or vetch         Cannon Horticulture Plots     2009 Rye w/peas, clover or vetch  ...
Winter          2012                      Cover        Tomatoes                      Crop         Winter        2013      ...
Kerr Center’sA-1   2011: Early Vegetables          Cannon Horticulture Plots      2012: Summer Cover Crop      2013: Late ...
One in which a significantpercentage of the land is planted toseason-long cover crops each year.
INSECT & DISEASE CONTROL Clubroot, fusarium yellows,  blackleg, & black rot in cole  crops Black rot in pumpkins Northe...
   Early blight in solanaceous crops—2 years   Black rot in cucurbits—2+ years   Blackleg in brassicas—3-to-4 years   ...
   Brassicas: cabbages,          Solanaceous:    broccoli, cauliflower,         tomatoes, potatoes,    kale, brussels sp...
WEED CONTROL   Changes in timing    of cultivation and    mowing   “Cleaning crops”   Some crop plants    are naturally...
November 1, 2007
Bermudagrass
Bermudagrass Strengths Perennial Summer season  Drought tolerant  Encouraged by mowing Many means for propagation and...
Cover crops grown for the purpose of out-competing and                  controlling weeds.                  ← Crotalaria  ...
Field A-1:  Sorghum- SudangrassSeth Stallings Student        Intern         2010
SOIL FERTILITY   Green Manures    build/recycle    organic matter   Legume crops &    cover crops fix    nitrogen
 Green manures are cover crops grown  primarily to improve the soil by adding  organic matter and nitrogen (in the case  ...
Nitrogen is the most                                   limiting crop nutrient                                   in most cr...
#1 As a winter cover crop when you can’t grow most vegetables.#2 As an option for a green fallow        #3 In rotation wit...
Buckwheat and southern peasare exceptionally good forbeneficial insect habitats.                              Beneficials ...
Prey upon, orparasitize, pest    insects
Domestic or wild
   Provides for soil fertility, especially nitrogen   Suppresses many crop diseases   Thwarts many insect pests   Redu...
Good                 Organic                  Crop        Off-Farm Inputs  F e r t i l i z e r s — Pe s t i c i d e s    C...
Good               Organic                Crop        Off-Farm Inputs  F e r t i l i z e r s — Pe s t i c i d e s    Compo...
Summer Squash              Root Crops                Beans    Cucurbit            beets, carrots, etc.         legume     ...
Good               Organic                Crop        Off-Farm Inputs  F e r t i l i z e r s — Pe s t i c i d e s    Compo...
Kerr’s 4-Year Bio-extensive Rotation  Winter cover crops  of grain rye with  winter annual  Legumes—all  plots.           ...
Alternate BioextensiveRotationWinter cover cropsof grain rye withwinter annualLegumes—allplots.                           ...
Alternate Green Fallow RotationWinter cover cropsof grain rye withwinter annualLegumes—allplots.                          ...
Alternate Green Fallow RotationWinter cover cropsof grain rye withwinter annualLegumes—allplots.                          ...
Theoretical Relationship Between Green Fallow and Need for Fertilizer and Pest             Control Inputs INCREASING NEED ...
Sweet-     Contracted       Summer   Sweet-     Green    corn     Cabbage          Squash   potatoes   Beans              ...
BFRDP Main Demo Plot 2012 (Field A2                              Eight-Field Rotation                       This is a sing...
Crop Rotation and Cover Cropping on the Organic Farm by Seth Kroeck.NOFA Organic Principles and Practices Handbook Series....
Anne & Eric Nordell, Beech Grove Farm, Trout Run, PA.Look for their column: The Bioextensive Market GardenIn The Small Far...
the international agrarian quarterlyMailing address             Physical address         Phone numbersPO Box 1627         ...
Contact Information:George KuepperKerr CenterP.O. Box 588Poteau, OK 74953Tel: 918-647-9123Fax: 918-647-8712gkuepper@kerrce...
Elements of Organic Farming: Putting Your System Together
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Transcript of "Elements of Organic Farming: Putting Your System Together"

  1. 1. Putting YourSystem Together George Kuepper Kerr Center for Sustainable Agriculture
  2. 2. This publication outlines theorigins of organic agriculture. Ithighlights the concepts, ideas,and milestones that define it as adistinct and sustainableapproach to farming thatinvolves more than simplyprecluding synthetic pesticidesand fertilizers. 23 pages.Copies can be downloaded free-of-charge at:http://www.kerrcenter.com/publications/organic-philosophy-report.pdfPrint copies can be requestedfrom: The Kerr Center for Sustainable Agriculture P.O. Box 588 Poteau, OK 74953 Tel: 918-647-9123
  3. 3.  A Production System that… respond(s) to site-specific conditions by integrating cultural, biological and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity. §205.2
  4. 4. A group of interacting,interrelated, orinterdependentelements forming acomplex whole. from: Answers.com
  5. 5. HEALTHY SOCIETYHEALTHY PEOPLEHEALTHY FOOD HEALTHY SOIL
  6. 6. Evolution Of and the Influences On American Organic Farming Organizations F.H. King J.I. Rodale Wm. Albrecht OFPANA/ NOP Pioneers OTA Events R. Steiner & A. Howard E. Balfour Silent Spring Standard USDA’s Anthroposophy OFPA Implemented L. Bromfield E. Pfeiffer Organic Report USDA Countercultural Influences Organic National Environmental Consciousness Certification Standard Organic By Neglect &Sustainable Practices Industry from the Asian Standards Continent Certified Organic ProductionConvertible Husbandry (America Mid-1800s) Humus Organic Eco-Agriculture High Farming Farming Farming (Europe 1800s) Integrated Production, etc. Agroecology & Permaculture Demeter Biodynamics Certified Production ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2006
  7. 7. Organic Soil Management — An Old Saying among Organic Farmers
  8. 8. The Soil Food Web 2005 National Center for Appropriate Technology
  9. 9. What the Food Web Needs Sunlight Air WaterOrganic NutrientMatter 2005 National Center for Appropriate Technology Elements
  10. 10. Organic Soil ManagementFeeding the Soil Food Web meansproviding organic matter as food. Inorganic farming, this has been calledthe Law of Return—returning mineral- richorganic material tothe soil.
  11. 11. Plant Nutrition Under Natural Conditions Source of plant nutrition: Digestive - plant residues processes and - animal remains nutrient recycling - animal wastes in the Rhizosphere: The Soil Food WebParent Soluble Minerals Plant Rock 11 Organic Compounds Other “phytamins” RootsMaterial 2005 National Center for Appropriate Technology
  12. 12. Conventional Management Organic Matter Conventional ζ as Crop Soluble ζ Residues Fertilizers Digestive ζ processes and nutrient recycling in the Rhizosphere: The Soil Food WebParent Rock 12 Soluble Minerals Plant Organic CompoundsMaterial 2005 National Center for Appropriate Technology Benefits Other Roots
  13. 13. Humus Farming/Organic Management Organic Materials and Methods: Composts Crop Residues Green Manures Livestock Manures Natural Fertilizers Biological Inoculants Digestive Rotations w/ sod crops processes and nutrient recycling in the Rhizosphere: The Soil Food Web Parent Soluble Minerals Rock 13 Organic Compounds Plant Material Other Benefits 2005 National Center for Appropriate Technology Roots
  14. 14. Self-Generated Fertility Weed Suppression•Fixes nitrogen •Less weed stimulation•Releases bound nutrients •Weed seed predation•Makes nutrients available •Easier cultivation•Air/water balance Suppresses Disease Pest Insects Reduced •Natural antibiotics •More predators & parasites •Nematode predation •Natural insect disease agents •Aeration/Drainage •Induced resistance in crops •Induced resistance in crops
  15. 15. Organic Farmersclaim: Organic Crops Resist PestsDo organically-grown plantsdevelop inducedresistance todiseases andinsect pests?
  16. 16. Organic Crops Resist Pests•Predisposition theory•Insect pests asnature’s garbage men•Organic as plant-positive vs. pest-negative approach
  17. 17. Organic Crops Resist PestsMycorrhizalAssociations asan element instress reductionand inducedresistance Root from sorghum with vesicles ("little sacs") of the mycorrhizal fungus called Gigaspora rosea. http://microbezoo.commtechlab.msu.edu/zoo/zdrm0194.html
  18. 18. CANNONHORTICULTURE PROJECT
  19. 19. A Greenhouse N Kerr Center’s  B Cannon Horticulture Plots 2011 Boundaries & Dimensions   Total area: 6.67 acres Herb Bed Block Bed Dimensions: Greenhouse: 22’ x 30’ Herb Bed: 10’ x 32’ Block Bed: 5’ x 38’ Fields A-1, A-2, A-3, A-4: 90’ x 282’ Field A-1 .58 a Field U: 56’ x 308’ Buffering:Kerr Road   All fields and beds have 25 feet Field A-2 .58 a of organically managed buffer. The Greenhouse has 15 feet of organically managed buffer on the NW side. However, no doors or air intakes occur on691 ft Field A-3 .58 a that side.   Field A-4 .58 a  Denotes Hydrants/Irrigation access Field U .35 a = approx. 50 ft CD
  20. 20. Heritage Vegetable Trials(Okra & Sweet Sorghum in 2008 shown)
  21. 21. Copies can be downloaded free-of- charge at:http://www.kerrcenter.com/publications/summer- cover-crops.pdf Print copies can be requested from: The Kerr Center forSustainable Agriculture P.O. Box 588 Poteau, OK 74953 Tel: 918-647-9123
  22. 22. 1. Crop Rotation (the sequencing of crops over time on a field)2. The inclusion of cover crops and/or perennial forage crops within a crop rotation
  23. 23. Kerr Center’sA-1 2008 Tomatoes Cannon Horticulture Plots 2009 * 2010 * 2011 * 2012 Tomatoes Example of how a tomato crop mightA-2 2008 * 2009 Tomatoes be rotated 2010 * 2011 * 2012 *A-3 2008 * A-1 A-2 2009 * 2010 Tomatoes 2011 * 2012 *A-4 2008 * 2009 * A-3 2010 * A-4 2011 Tomatoes 2012 *
  24. 24.  Cover crops are plants you grow or allow to grow, not for harvest, but for purposes such as preventing erosion, improving the soil, and weed control. Can be categorized by season— winter & summer
  25. 25. Kerr Center’sA-1 2008 Rye w/peas, clover or vetch Cannon Horticulture Plots 2009 Rye w/peas, clover or vetch 2010 Rye w/peas, clover or vetch 2011 Rye w/peas, clover or vetch 2012 Rye w/peas, clover or vetch Winter Season:A-2 2008 Rye w/peas, clover or vetch 2009 Rye w/peas, clover or vetch What you’d find 2010 Rye w/peas, clover or vetch 2011 Rye w/peas, clover or vetch In the fields. 2012 Rye w/peas, clover or vetchA-3 2008 Rye w/peas, clover or vetch 2009 Rye w/peas, clover or vetch Fall-seeded winter cover crops 2010 Rye w/peas, clover or vetch 2011 Rye w/peas, clover or vetch 2012 Rye w/peas, clover or vetchA-4 2008 Rye w/peas, clover or vetch 2009 Rye w/peas, clover or vetch 2010 Rye w/peas, clover or vetch 2011 Rye w/peas, clover or vetch *
  26. 26. Winter 2012 Cover Tomatoes Crop Winter 2013 cover Tomatoes CropThis is NOT what we mean by rotation!
  27. 27. Kerr Center’sA-1 2011: Early Vegetables Cannon Horticulture Plots 2012: Summer Cover Crop 2013: Late Vegetables Crops and Cover Crops 2014: Summer Cover Crop DURING THE GROWING SEASON 2011: Summer Cover CropA-2 2012: Early Vegetables 2011-2014 2013: Summer Cover Crop 2014: Late vegetables Summer Late Cover 2011: Late Vegetables VegetablesA-3 Crop 2012: Summer Cover Crop 2013: Early Vegetables 2014: Summer Cover Crop 2011: Summer Cover Crop Summer EarlyA-4 2012: Late Vegetables Cover Vegetables 2013: Summer Cover Crop Crop 2014: Early vegetables
  28. 28. One in which a significantpercentage of the land is planted toseason-long cover crops each year.
  29. 29. INSECT & DISEASE CONTROL Clubroot, fusarium yellows, blackleg, & black rot in cole crops Black rot in pumpkins Northern & Western Corn Rootworm in sweetcorn, popcorn and decorative corn Root rots in beans & peas Gummy stem blight in Photo: Gummy Stem Blight cucurbits
  30. 30.  Early blight in solanaceous crops—2 years Black rot in cucurbits—2+ years Blackleg in brassicas—3-to-4 years Fusarium wilt in peas—4-to-5 years Clubroot in brassicas—7 years White rot on alliums—20 years
  31. 31.  Brassicas: cabbages,  Solanaceous: broccoli, cauliflower, tomatoes, potatoes, kale, brussels sprouts peppers, eggplant, Cucurbits: melons, tomatillo squashes, pumpkins,  Umbels: carrots, dill, cucumbers, gourds fennel, parsley, celery, Legumes: English  Composites: peas, southern peas, sunflower, lettuce, peanuts, beans, faba artichoke, jerusalem beans, soybeans artichoke Alliums: onions, garlic,  Grasses: popcorn, chives sweetcorn, sorghum
  32. 32. WEED CONTROL Changes in timing of cultivation and mowing “Cleaning crops” Some crop plants are naturally more competitive with weeds
  33. 33. November 1, 2007
  34. 34. Bermudagrass
  35. 35. Bermudagrass Strengths Perennial Summer season  Drought tolerant  Encouraged by mowing Many means for propagation and spreading Weaknesses  Winter tillage  Shade
  36. 36. Cover crops grown for the purpose of out-competing and controlling weeds. ← Crotalaria Pearl Millet→ ← Buckwheat Southern Peas→
  37. 37. Field A-1: Sorghum- SudangrassSeth Stallings Student Intern 2010
  38. 38. SOIL FERTILITY Green Manures build/recycle organic matter Legume crops & cover crops fix nitrogen
  39. 39.  Green manures are cover crops grown primarily to improve the soil by adding organic matter and nitrogen (in the case of legumes), and making nutrients more available Summer green manure crops include annual sorghums, millets, buckwheat, soybeans, southern peas, sesbania, crotalaria, sweetclover
  40. 40. Nitrogen is the most limiting crop nutrient in most crop and garden soils.Legumes include: English peas,southern peas, peanuts, beans,faba beans, soybeans, alsoclovers, sweet clovers, alfalfa,vetch, and lespedeza.
  41. 41. #1 As a winter cover crop when you can’t grow most vegetables.#2 As an option for a green fallow #3 In rotation with other vegetablesplanting. Peas, Late Cowpeas Beans, Green Sweetcorn Vegetables edamame fallow soybeans Tomatoes, Soybeans Early Sweet peppers, Green Vegetables potatoes eggplant Fallow
  42. 42. Buckwheat and southern peasare exceptionally good forbeneficial insect habitats. Beneficials include pollinators, predatory and parasitic insects, predatory mites and spiders.
  43. 43. Prey upon, orparasitize, pest insects
  44. 44. Domestic or wild
  45. 45.  Provides for soil fertility, especially nitrogen Suppresses many crop diseases Thwarts many insect pests Reduces weed pressure Creates a biologically healthy soil which in turn:  Self-generates soil fertility  Suppresses Disease  Reduces insect pests  Suppresses weeds
  46. 46. Good Organic Crop Off-Farm Inputs F e r t i l i z e r s — Pe s t i c i d e s Compost, ManureOrganic Cultural PracticesA Sound Organic SystemRotations—Cover Crops Biologically Healthy Soil
  47. 47. Good Organic Crop Off-Farm Inputs F e r t i l i z e r s — Pe s t i c i d e s Compost, ManureOrganic Cultural Practices A Sound Organic System Rotations—Cover Crops Biologically Healthy Soil
  48. 48. Summer Squash Root Crops Beans Cucurbit beets, carrots, etc. legume 8-Year Rotation Proposed TomatoesIrish Potatoes by Eliot Coleman Solanaceous Solanaceous Described in The New Organic Grower English Peas Sweet Corn Cabbage Family + winter-killed Graminae + hardy cover crop cover crop (grass) Brassicas Legume
  49. 49. Good Organic Crop Off-Farm Inputs F e r t i l i z e r s — Pe s t i c i d e s Compost, ManureOrganic Cultural PracticesA Sound Organic SystemRotations—Cover CropsBiologically Healthy Soil
  50. 50. Kerr’s 4-Year Bio-extensive Rotation Winter cover crops of grain rye with winter annual Legumes—all plots. Typically a Green Vegetables warm season Fallow smother crop of sudangrass Green Vegetables Fallow
  51. 51. Alternate BioextensiveRotationWinter cover cropsof grain rye withwinter annualLegumes—allplots. Green Vegetables Fallow Vegetables Vegetables Green Fallow
  52. 52. Alternate Green Fallow RotationWinter cover cropsof grain rye withwinter annualLegumes—allplots. Green Vegetables Fallow Vegetables Vegetables Green Vegetables Fallow
  53. 53. Alternate Green Fallow RotationWinter cover cropsof grain rye withwinter annualLegumes—allplots. Green Vegetables Fallow Vegetables Vegetables
  54. 54. Theoretical Relationship Between Green Fallow and Need for Fertilizer and Pest Control Inputs INCREASING NEED FOR OFF-FARM INPUTS INCREASING PERCENT OF LAND IN GREEN FALLOW
  55. 55. Sweet- Contracted Summer Sweet- Green corn Cabbage Squash potatoes Beans Tomatoes & Peppers SouthernContracted U-Pick Sudangrass PeasCanning Peas Pumpkins Green fallow Okra
  56. 56. BFRDP Main Demo Plot 2012 (Field A2 Eight-Field Rotation This is a single long raised bed, 10 ft X 280 ft. Plots shown are about 10 ft X 30 ft. (This allows about 5 ft buffer between plots for turning tillers and other equip around.)← ← ←Kerr Road → → → Okra 1 Green Fallow Sweet potatoes 1 row Peanuts Buckwheat Dbl Crop: Eng. peas Dbl Crop: Spring-planted Proso Millet Southern Peas Broccoli, Cabbage, Cucumber Chinese Cabbage White Potatoes 1 row Beans Dbl Crop: Greens & radishes Sweetcorn 3 rows Green Fallow Dbl Crop: Buckwheat Caged Tomatoes 1 row Squash Dbl Crop: Greens & radishes 2 or 3 rows Iron & Clay Eggplant & Peppers 1 row Dbl Crop: Beans Cowpeas 280 ft
  57. 57. Crop Rotation and Cover Cropping on the Organic Farm by Seth Kroeck.NOFA Organic Principles and Practices Handbook Series. 95 p.Gaining Ground by Canadian Organic Growers, Inc. 2005.COG, 323 Chapel St., Ottawa, ON KIN 7Z2. 311 p.Organic Crop Production Overview by G. Kuepper & L. Gegner. 2004.http://www.attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/organiccrop.htmlCrop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual (NRAES-177)by C. L. Mohler & S. E. Johnson. 2009. NRAES/Cornell CooperativeExtension , Ithaca, NY. 156 p.Cover Crops on the Intensive Market Farm by John Hendrickson. 2003.CIAS, University of Wisconsin–Madison. 20 p.
  58. 58. Anne & Eric Nordell, Beech Grove Farm, Trout Run, PA.Look for their column: The Bioextensive Market GardenIn The Small Farmers Journal
  59. 59. the international agrarian quarterlyMailing address Physical address Phone numbersPO Box 1627 192 west Barclay Drive 800-876-2893Sisters, Oregon Sisters, Oregon 541-549-206497759 97759 541-549-4403 fax agrarian@smallfarmersjournal.com www.smallfarmersjournal.com
  60. 60. Contact Information:George KuepperKerr CenterP.O. Box 588Poteau, OK 74953Tel: 918-647-9123Fax: 918-647-8712gkuepper@kerrcenter.com
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