Elements of Organic Farming: Pest, Insect, & Disease Management

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George Kuepper/Kate Atchley
Oklahoma Beginning Farmer & Rancher Program 2013
Horticulture #3: July 13

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  • Define a few terms: Pest Pesticide
  • Now we’ve not talked yet about the other aspects of organic growing, have we. If you are going to grow a good crop, there are lots of other cultural practices you will need or want to use. Composting for sure. There are some inputs you’ll probably want to buy. But you will find, with a bio-extensive system, you will need less of those. It is a very self-sufficient approach that needs less off-farm inputs.
  • Define a few terms: Pest Pesticide
  • Now we’ve not talked yet about the other aspects of organic growing, have we. If you are going to grow a good crop, there are lots of other cultural practices you will need or want to use. Composting for sure. There are some inputs you’ll probably want to buy. But you will find, with a bio-extensive system, you will need less of those. It is a very self-sufficient approach that needs less off-farm inputs.
  • Define a few terms: Pest Pesticide
  • Now we’ve not talked yet about the other aspects of organic growing, have we. If you are going to grow a good crop, there are lots of other cultural practices you will need or want to use. Composting for sure. There are some inputs you’ll probably want to buy. But you will find, with a bio-extensive system, you will need less of those. It is a very self-sufficient approach that needs less off-farm inputs.
  • You need to know your friends from your enemies
  • Tachinid fly is parasite; also a wasp
  • Tachinid fly is parasite; also a wasp
  • Here is another indirect effect of rotation and the creation of a biologically active soil. Not only are antibiotics created as I mentioned earlier, but you get interesting organisms like nematode-trapping fungi, that can put quite a dent in those pest populations.
  • Again, we need a reality check. Rotation does a lot to control plant disease, but we also need to remember that that some diseases are windborne and some are brought in by vectors. For example: Asters yellows…a phytoplasma spread by leafhoppers. Pic shows asters yellow on black-eyed susan.
  • Elements of Organic Farming: Pest, Insect, & Disease Management

    1. 1. Elements of Organic Farming George Kuepper & Kate Atchley Kerr Center for Sustainable Agriculture Pest Insect, & Disease Management OKBFRP Horticulture Program, July 2013
    2. 2. Regarding Weeds Pest Insects & Diseases Well-designed organic systems have higher ecological stability and lower pest pressure overall. “1000 tiny hammers”
    3. 3. Organic System Effects On Pests • Systemic Practices: rotation, cover cropping, organic fertilization, adapted and resistant cultivars, composting and basic sanitation practices. “Nurturing the soil food web plus…” • Systemic Effects: innate and induced resistance/tolerance biocontrol of pests and diseases in the soil biocontrol of above ground pests life cycles of weeds and pests disrupted weed seedbank reduced beneficial shift in weed populations
    4. 4. Putting It Together: Setting the Foundation B i o l o g i c a l l y H e a l t h y S o i l A S o u n d O r g a n i c S y s t e m R o t a t i o n s , C o v e r C ro p s C o m p o s t , M a n u re O r g a n i c C u l t u r a l P r a c t i c e s O f f - F a r m I n p u t s F e r t i l i z e r s — P e s t i c i d e s G o o d O r g a n i c C ro p
    5. 5. Well-designed organic systems have higher ecological stability and lower pest pressure overall. However, many pests require additional management (i.e. cultural practices) to ensure that they don’t get out of control. “More tiny hammers…” Regarding Weeds Pest Insects & Diseases
    6. 6. Traditional Organic Pest Control Practices Weeds cultivation organic mulches mowing grazing weeder geese handweeding flame weeding plastic mulch Insects & Disease beneficial habitats augmentation of beneficials physical barriers nonsynthetic lures, traps, repellents adjusting timing trap crops Hand-picking
    7. 7. Putting It Together: Second Level of Mgt. B i o l o g i c a l l y H e a l t h y S o i l A S o u n d O r g a n i c S y s t e m R o t a t i o n s , C o v e r C ro p s C o m p o s t , M a n u re O r g a n i c C u l t u r a l P r a c t i c e s O f f - F a r m I n p u t s F e r t i l i z e r s — P e s t i c i d e s G o o d O r g a n i c C ro p
    8. 8. Well-designed organic systems have higher ecological stability and lower pest pressure overall. However, many pests require additional management (i.e. cultural practices) to ensure that they don’t get out of control. While organic management precludes most pesticides, many allowable materials are available. Regarding Weeds Pest Insects & Diseases
    9. 9. Organic-Allowed Pesticides (Insecticides, Miticides, Fungicides, Herbicides, etc.) Mineral-based  Coppers  Sulfur  DE  Baking soda Biologicals  Bt (Dipel®, etc.)  B. bassiana (Mycotrol®, etc.)  Bacillus subtilis (Serenade®, etc.)  Spinosad (Fire Ant bait, etc.) Botanicals  Pyrethrum (Pyganic®, etc.)  Neem (Bioneem®, neem oil, etc.)  Garlic Refined oils  Dormant oil  Superior oil Soaps  Insecticidal soap  Herbicidal soap
    10. 10. Putting It Together: Third Level of Mgt. B i o l o g i c a l l y H e a l t h y S o i l A S o u n d O r g a n i c S y s t e m R o t a t i o n s , C o v e r C ro p s C o m p o s t , M a n u re O r g a n i c C u l t u r a l P r a c t i c e s O f f - F a r m I n p u t s P e s t i c i d e s G o o d O r g a n i c C ro p
    11. 11. Organic Strategy For Weed & Pest Management I. Organic System Effects II. Traditional Organic Practices III. Allowed Pesticides
    12. 12. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) IPM is a systematic strategy for managing pests which considers prevention, avoidance, monitoring and suppression. Where chemical pesticides are necessary, a preference is given to materials and methods which maximize public safety and reduce environmental risk. MASSACHUSETTS IPM COUNCIL'S DEFINITION OF IPM http://massnrc.org/ipm/what-is-ipm.html
    13. 13. Insect/Arthropod Pests
    14. 14. Traditional Organic Insect/Arthropod Control Practices beneficial habitats augmentation of beneficials physical barriers traps adjusting timing trap crops hand-picking/ vacuums flaming/fire
    15. 15. Pest I.D. is Critical
    16. 16. Cue in Kate
    17. 17. Flea Beatles Ringo Paul
    18. 18. Phytophthora
    19. 19. Septoria Blight
    20. 20. A Face Only a Mother Could Love! A tomato hornworm—very pleased with itself!
    21. 21. Tomato Hornworm Handpicking Fall cultivation Bacillus thuringiensis Biological control
    22. 22. Bio-control for Hornworm Polistes wasps -predatory- Braconid wasp -parasitic-
    23. 23. Squash Bug Timed planting Sanitation Barriers Resistance/tolerance Allowed chemicals?? Biological control
    24. 24. Squash Bug Parasite Tachinid fly Trichopoda pennipes
    25. 25. Stink Bugs as tomato pests Sanitation Trap cropping Allowed chemicals Biological control
    26. 26. Buckwheat as a Trap Crop
    27. 27. Stink Bugs as tomato pests Sanitation Trap cropping Allowed chemicals Biological control
    28. 28. Trissolcus basalis: a parasitic wasp
    29. 29. Corn Earworm/ Tomato Fruitworm Resistant varieties Natural oil ear treatment Bt sprays Biological control
    30. 30. Zea-Later Used to inject natural oils with or without allowed pesticides
    31. 31. Corn Earworm/ Tomato Fruitworm Resistant varieties Natural oil ear treatment Bt sprays Biological control
    32. 32. Trichogramma spp: parasitic wasps
    33. 33. Aphids aka: plant lice Avoid excess nitrogen fertilization Allowed pesticides Biological control
    34. 34. Aphid Predators Ladybird Beetle Ladybird Beetle larva Lacewing
    35. 35. Generalist Predators Assassin Bug Preying Mantis Robber Fly Garden Spider
    36. 36. Striped Blister Beetle Pest on damn-near everything
    37. 37. Two tools for blister beetle management
    38. 38. Plant Diseases
    39. 39. Plant Disease Triangle
    40. 40. Nematode-Trapping Fungi
    41. 41. Reality Check! • Some diseases are wind-borne or carried by mobile insect vectors. Rotation has little-to-no effect on such diseases. Asters yellows, on Black-eyed susan. Vectored by leaf- hoppers.
    42. 42. Early blight of tomato Serenade® Bacillus subtilis
    43. 43. Powdery Mildew Problem on many crops “Use of Baking Soda as a Fungicide” https://attra.ncat.org/attra- pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=126
    44. 44. Useful Resource http://web.pppmb.cals.cornell.edu/resourceguide/
    45. 45. Useful Resource
    46. 46. George Kuepper The Kerr Center P.O. Box 588 Poteau, OK 74953 918-647-9123 gkuepper@kerrcenter.com

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