Warren RobertsGeorge Kuepper
• Plants• Soil
• Nitrogen (N) • Light Green Leaves, Older Leaves• Phosphorus (P) • Purple Leaves, Stunted Plants• Potassium (K) • Yellow ...
• Micro Nutrients • Stripes • Mottling • Chlorosis • Bleached
• Nitrogen (N) • Dark Green Foliage, Poor Fruit Set• Phosphorus (P) • Iron, Zinc Deficiencies• Potassium (K) • Magnesium, ...
•Nutrient Movement • Nitrogen • Phosphorus • Potassium
•Soil Particles are Negatively Charged
• Nitrogen  • Exists as NO3 Anion     • (Negative Charge) •   Does Not Bond with Soil Particles •   Moves Rapidly in Water...
20                10                     20                          30                               40                  ...
20                   10                        15                             20                                          ...
• Phosphorus  • Bonds with Soil Iron, Aluminum  • Movement is Very Limited  • Movement is Very Slow    • Takes Months or Y...
20               20                    40                         60                              80                      ...
• Potassium  • Has a Positive Charge  • Bonds to Negatively Charged Soil  • Moves Slightly Due to Water
20               50                    100                          150                                200                ...
20               0.2                     0.4                           0.6                                 0.8            ...
20               0.05                      0.1                            0.15                                   0.2      ...
20               0.2                     0.4                           0.6                                 0.8            ...
N (pounds per acre)450400350                                             raw1                                             ...
P (lbs per acre)14001200                                                    raw11000                                      ...
K (lbs per acre)900800700                                                  raw1                                           ...
• Results are Only as Good as the Sample
• Random Variability
• Depends on Soil• Depends on Soil History• Depends on Soil Treatments• Usually 20 or more samples per field
• Root Zone• Plow Layer
• Acid pH in Soil• Add Lime
Nitrogen   Phosphorus   Potassium   ph    Organic                                          matter3          45           1...
• Don’t Guess – Soil Test• Sample thoroughly – 20 or more  samples per field• Sample root zone – normally 6 – 7  inches
Warren Roberts
Soil Testing, Soil Sampling, & Soil Fertility
Soil Testing, Soil Sampling, & Soil Fertility
Soil Testing, Soil Sampling, & Soil Fertility
Soil Testing, Soil Sampling, & Soil Fertility
Soil Testing, Soil Sampling, & Soil Fertility
Soil Testing, Soil Sampling, & Soil Fertility
Soil Testing, Soil Sampling, & Soil Fertility
Soil Testing, Soil Sampling, & Soil Fertility
Soil Testing, Soil Sampling, & Soil Fertility
Soil Testing, Soil Sampling, & Soil Fertility
Soil Testing, Soil Sampling, & Soil Fertility
Soil Testing, Soil Sampling, & Soil Fertility
Soil Testing, Soil Sampling, & Soil Fertility
Soil Testing, Soil Sampling, & Soil Fertility
Soil Testing, Soil Sampling, & Soil Fertility
Soil Testing, Soil Sampling, & Soil Fertility
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Soil Testing, Soil Sampling, & Soil Fertility

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Warren Roberts
Oklahoma Beginning Farmer & Rancher Program 2013
Horticulture #1: March 9

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Soil Testing, Soil Sampling, & Soil Fertility

  1. 1. Warren RobertsGeorge Kuepper
  2. 2. • Plants• Soil
  3. 3. • Nitrogen (N) • Light Green Leaves, Older Leaves• Phosphorus (P) • Purple Leaves, Stunted Plants• Potassium (K) • Yellow Margins on Older Leaves
  4. 4. • Micro Nutrients • Stripes • Mottling • Chlorosis • Bleached
  5. 5. • Nitrogen (N) • Dark Green Foliage, Poor Fruit Set• Phosphorus (P) • Iron, Zinc Deficiencies• Potassium (K) • Magnesium, Calcium Deficiencies
  6. 6. •Nutrient Movement • Nitrogen • Phosphorus • Potassium
  7. 7. •Soil Particles are Negatively Charged
  8. 8. • Nitrogen • Exists as NO3 Anion • (Negative Charge) • Does Not Bond with Soil Particles • Moves Rapidly in Water • Leaches Readily in Sandy Soils • Leaches More Slowly in Clay • Can be Lost in One Heavy Rain• Sulfur Behaves Similarly to Nitrogen
  9. 9. 20 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 02 20 02 20 02 20 02 20 02 Before 20 02Av er ag e 20 07 N (lbs / acre) 20 07 20 07 20 07 20 After 07 20 07Av er ag e
  10. 10. 20 10 15 20 25 0 5 02 20 02 20 02 20 02 20 02 Before 20 02Av er ag e 20 07 S (lbs / acre) 20 Desired Range 07 20 07 20 07 20 After 07 20 0Av 7 er ag e
  11. 11. • Phosphorus • Bonds with Soil Iron, Aluminum • Movement is Very Limited • Movement is Very Slow • Takes Months or Years to Move
  12. 12. 20 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 02 20 02 20 02 20 02 20 02 Before 20 0Av 2 er ag e 20 P Index 07 20 Desired Range 07 20 07 20 07 20 After 07 20 07Av er ag e
  13. 13. • Potassium • Has a Positive Charge • Bonds to Negatively Charged Soil • Moves Slightly Due to Water
  14. 14. 20 50 100 150 200 250 0 02 20 02 20 02 20 02 20 02 Before 20 0Av 2 er ag e 20 K Index 07 20 Desired Range 07 20 07 20 07 20 After 07 20 07Av er ag e
  15. 15. 20 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.2 0 1 02 20 02 20 02 20 02 20 02 Before 20 02Av er ag e 20 07 Zn (ppm) 20 Desired Range 07 20 07 20 07 20 After 07 20 07Av er ag e
  16. 16. 20 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0 02 20 02 20 02 20 02 20 02 Before 20 0Av 2 er ag e 20 B (ppm) 07 20 Desired Range 07 20 07 20 07 20 After 07 20 07Av er ag e
  17. 17. 20 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.2 0 1 02 20 02 20 02 20 02 20 02 Before 20 02Av er ag e 20 07 Copper (ppm) 20 Desired Range 07 20 07 20 07 20 After 07 20 07Av er ag e
  18. 18. N (pounds per acre)450400350 raw1 raw2300 raw3 raw4 syn1250 syn2 Poly. (raw1)200 Poly. (raw2) Poly. (raw3)150 Poly. (raw4) Poly. (syn1) Linear (syn2)10050 0 0 5 10 15 Sample Date 20 25 30
  19. 19. P (lbs per acre)14001200 raw11000 raw2 raw3 raw4800 syn1 syn2 Poly. (raw1)600 Poly. (raw2) Poly. (raw3) Poly. (raw4)400 Poly. (syn1) Poly. (syn2)200 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Samples Date
  20. 20. K (lbs per acre)900800700 raw1 raw2600 raw3 raw4 syn1500 syn2 Poly. (raw1)400 Poly. (raw2) Poly. (raw3)300 Poly. (raw4) Poly. (syn1) Poly. (syn2)200100 0 0 5 10 15 Sample Date 20 25 30
  21. 21. • Results are Only as Good as the Sample
  22. 22. • Random Variability
  23. 23. • Depends on Soil• Depends on Soil History• Depends on Soil Treatments• Usually 20 or more samples per field
  24. 24. • Root Zone• Plow Layer
  25. 25. • Acid pH in Soil• Add Lime
  26. 26. Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium ph Organic matter3 45 174 5.5 1.142 27 147 5.4 0.762 13 176 5.2 1.013 20 130 5.5 0.984 17 171 5.7 1.489 15 417 4.8 1.34
  27. 27. • Don’t Guess – Soil Test• Sample thoroughly – 20 or more samples per field• Sample root zone – normally 6 – 7 inches
  28. 28. Warren Roberts

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