Presentación fulbright final microfinanzas y migración internacional
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Presentación fulbright final microfinanzas y migración internacional

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Final presentation of my Fulbright-García Robles grant to Zacatecas, Mexico. With support from the Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Estudios del Desarrollo, this project investigated financial ...

Final presentation of my Fulbright-García Robles grant to Zacatecas, Mexico. With support from the Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Estudios del Desarrollo, this project investigated financial inclusion, microfinance, migration, and development issues during 2010-2011. Presented the 13 of May, 2011. The results will be published in a forthcoming book, "Perspectives on Development in Zacatecas".

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  • Zacatecas tiene el quinto peor cobertura geográfica Zacatecas ocupa el 10o lugar peor en términos de cobertura demográfica. Zacatecas es uno de sólo cuatro entidades federativas que aparece en los diez peores de las dos listas.
  • Los municipios urbanos cuentan por 62% de todas las cuentas de ahorro en ZacatecasEn Zacatecas, 74% de las tarjetas de crédito y 70% de las tarjetas de débito están en los municipios urbanos.
  • 41% de la población estatal vive en localidades con menos de 2,500 habitantesSin embargo, 85% de los pueblos son accesibles por carretera
  • Sumando todos los municipios con ‘alta’ o ‘media’ marginación, hay solamente 0.52 sucursales por cada 10,000 adultos.Desde este punto de vista, podemos concluir que cuando se promueve la inclusión financiera, especialmente a localidades rurales en Zacatecas, están llegando a poblaciones marginalizadas.
  • To COMEXUS and the Fulbright-García Robles scholarship programTo Dr. García Zamora and the Development Studies department, UAZTo FEDZAC and migrant leadersTo AMUCSS and the microfinance institutionsTo the Government Directors and Delegates of Zacatecas

Presentación fulbright final microfinanzas y migración internacional Presentación fulbright final microfinanzas y migración internacional Presentation Transcript

  • Microfinanceand International Migration
    StrengtheningFinancialInclusion in Zacatecas, Mexico
    Matt Rolland
    Fulbright-García RoblesScholar, 2010-2011
  • Project Overview
    Objectives
    Activities
    • Evaluate the level of financial inclusion in Zacatecas, focusing on access and use of financial services in marginalized areas;
    • Investigateadaptationsofmicrofiannceinstitutionsinhighmigrationregionsof Mexico;
    • Analyzeexistinggovernmentprogramsthatprovidefinancialandtechinalassistanceto migrant-owned businesses.
    • Interviews with microfinance institutions in four states: México state, Puebla, Guanajuato, Zacatecas;
    • SurveyofmigrantfinancialneedsinmigrantclubsintheUnited States;
    • Semi-structuredinterviewswiththesixgovernmentprogramsencouragingmigrant entrepreunership
    2
  • Financial Inclusion and Development
    “Theaccessand use of a rangeofproductsandservices by a population, underanadequateregulatoryframeworkthatprotectstheinterestsofconsumersanddevelopstheirfinancialopportunities.”
    -NationalBankingandSecuritiesCommisssion (CNBV)
    Promotethewell-beingandeconomicdevelopmentof a groupofpeoplethroughbetterfinancialservices.
    Become more productive
    Accessible Credit
    Financial Education
    Business Assistance
    Become less vulnerable
    Savings accounts
    Insurance
    Utilities payments
  • Composition oftheFinancialSectorin Zacatecas
    Credit Unions (Cooperativas) nationwide: 8%
    Total Bank Branches: 136
    Important role of pawn shops: 30% all points of access to credit
    4
  • Geographic Coverage
    • 52% of all counties in Zacatecas do not have a bank branch
    • 18% of the state population, compared to 10% nationwide, live in counties without bank branches
    5
  • Indicators of Access
    Nationally
    • 2.87 bank branches per 1,000 km2
    • 1.77 bank branches per 10,000 adults
    6
  • Indicators ofBank Use
    Checking accountsperevery1,000 adults
    Loans providedbyCredit Unions
    7
    Microfinance InstitutionsservingmoretosmoothconsumpioninZacatecasthanexpand business
    Very fewcheckingandsavings accounts
  • Business Use ofCredit
    Businesses in Zacatecas with loans, by number of employees
    Percentage of Businesses with Loans
    8
    Only 27% ofbusinesses in Zacatecas obtained a loan
    Low use ofcreditreflectsbarriersforsmallbusinessestoaccesscredit
  • Geographic Dispersion
    51ofevery100Zacatecanslive in townswith a populationof 5000 orless
    34%ofthestatepopulationlives in threecounties: Fresnillo (14.3%), Guadalupe (10.7%) y Zacatecas (9.3%)
    9
  • Marginalization and Finance
    • Onlyoneofthe 9 countieswith a ‘high’ grade ofmarginalization, Pinos, has a bankbranch
    • OneofeveryfourZacatecanslives in a countywithhighormedium grade ofmarginalizationwherethereisonlyonebankbranchperevery 20,000 adults.
    10
  • Small Businesses and Finance
    Extremely high dependence on small and micro businesses
    Employ 70% of the economically active population
    98% of all businesses are small or micro (up to 10 employees)
    11
    Only 20% of micro-businessessoughtfundingtobeginoperating (ENAMIN survey)
  • MigrationandFinancialInclusion
    12
  • Towards aTransnational Microbank
    Survey of Migrant Financial Needs
    Interviews and Comparison of Microfinance Institutions operating in high-migration areas
    Analysis of government programs supporting migrant entrepreneurship
    Motivation:OfMexican states, Zacatecashasthehighestnumberofbusinessfundedbyfamilymembersorfriendslivinginaforeign country
  • Conclusions
    Recommendations
    Observations
    High concentration of financial infrastructure in urban areas
    Challenge: bring financial services to rural areas
    Further, very low business use of credit, especially among micro-businesses
    There is a large opportunity for microfinance institutions to meet these needs in rural areas
    There exists a new space for collaboration between social development programs and microfinance institutions
    New government program to promote financial inclusion
    Open new channels of funding to support rural financing efforts (savings and credit services)
    Explore new programs to equip microfinance institutions to bring remittance payment services to rural areas
    14
  • 15
    ManyThanks
    • To COMEXUS and the Fulbright-García Robles scholarship program
    • Dr. García Zamora and the Development Studies department, UAZ
    • FEDZAC and migrant leaders
    • AMUCSS and the
    Microfinance institutions
    • To the Government Directors and
    Delegates of Zacatecas
    migrant programs
    Matt Rolland
    Matt.Rolland@fulbrightmail.org