Presentación fulbright final microfinanzas y migración internacional

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Final presentation of my Fulbright-García Robles grant to Zacatecas, Mexico. With support from the Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Estudios del Desarrollo, this project investigated financial inclusion, microfinance, migration, and development issues during 2010-2011. Presented the 13 of May, 2011. The results will be published in a forthcoming book, "Perspectives on Development in Zacatecas".

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  • Zacatecas tiene el quinto peor cobertura geográfica Zacatecas ocupa el 10o lugar peor en términos de cobertura demográfica. Zacatecas es uno de sólo cuatro entidades federativas que aparece en los diez peores de las dos listas.
  • Los municipios urbanos cuentan por 62% de todas las cuentas de ahorro en ZacatecasEn Zacatecas, 74% de las tarjetas de crédito y 70% de las tarjetas de débito están en los municipios urbanos.
  • 41% de la población estatal vive en localidades con menos de 2,500 habitantesSin embargo, 85% de los pueblos son accesibles por carretera
  • Sumando todos los municipios con ‘alta’ o ‘media’ marginación, hay solamente 0.52 sucursales por cada 10,000 adultos.Desde este punto de vista, podemos concluir que cuando se promueve la inclusión financiera, especialmente a localidades rurales en Zacatecas, están llegando a poblaciones marginalizadas.
  • To COMEXUS and the Fulbright-García Robles scholarship programTo Dr. García Zamora and the Development Studies department, UAZTo FEDZAC and migrant leadersTo AMUCSS and the microfinance institutionsTo the Government Directors and Delegates of Zacatecas
  • Presentación fulbright final microfinanzas y migración internacional

    1. 1. Microfinanceand International Migration<br />StrengtheningFinancialInclusion in Zacatecas, Mexico<br />Matt Rolland <br />Fulbright-García RoblesScholar, 2010-2011 <br />
    2. 2. Project Overview<br />Objectives<br />Activities<br /><ul><li>Evaluate the level of financial inclusion in Zacatecas, focusing on access and use of financial services in marginalized areas;
    3. 3. Investigateadaptationsofmicrofiannceinstitutionsinhighmigrationregionsof Mexico;
    4. 4. Analyzeexistinggovernmentprogramsthatprovidefinancialandtechinalassistanceto migrant-owned businesses.
    5. 5. Interviews with microfinance institutions in four states: México state, Puebla, Guanajuato, Zacatecas;
    6. 6. SurveyofmigrantfinancialneedsinmigrantclubsintheUnited States;
    7. 7. Semi-structuredinterviewswiththesixgovernmentprogramsencouragingmigrant entrepreunership</li></ul>2<br />
    8. 8. Financial Inclusion and Development<br />“Theaccessand use of a rangeofproductsandservices by a population, underanadequateregulatoryframeworkthatprotectstheinterestsofconsumersanddevelopstheirfinancialopportunities.”<br />-NationalBankingandSecuritiesCommisssion (CNBV)<br />Promotethewell-beingandeconomicdevelopmentof a groupofpeoplethroughbetterfinancialservices. <br />Become more productive<br />Accessible Credit<br />Financial Education<br />Business Assistance<br />Become less vulnerable<br />Savings accounts<br />Insurance<br />Utilities payments<br />
    9. 9. Composition oftheFinancialSectorin Zacatecas<br />Credit Unions (Cooperativas) nationwide: 8%<br />Total Bank Branches: 136<br />Important role of pawn shops: 30% all points of access to credit<br />4<br />
    10. 10. Geographic Coverage<br /><ul><li>52% of all counties in Zacatecas do not have a bank branch
    11. 11. 18% of the state population, compared to 10% nationwide, live in counties without bank branches</li></ul>5<br />
    12. 12. Indicators of Access<br />Nationally<br /><ul><li>2.87 bank branches per 1,000 km2
    13. 13. 1.77 bank branches per 10,000 adults</li></ul>6<br />
    14. 14. Indicators ofBank Use<br />Checking accountsperevery1,000 adults<br />Loans providedbyCredit Unions<br />7<br />Microfinance InstitutionsservingmoretosmoothconsumpioninZacatecasthanexpand business<br />Very fewcheckingandsavings accounts<br />
    15. 15. Business Use ofCredit<br />Businesses in Zacatecas with loans, by number of employees<br />Percentage of Businesses with Loans<br />8<br />Only 27% ofbusinesses in Zacatecas obtained a loan<br />Low use ofcreditreflectsbarriersforsmallbusinessestoaccesscredit<br />
    16. 16. Geographic Dispersion<br />51ofevery100Zacatecanslive in townswith a populationof 5000 orless<br />34%ofthestatepopulationlives in threecounties: Fresnillo (14.3%), Guadalupe (10.7%) y Zacatecas (9.3%)<br />9<br />
    17. 17. Marginalization and Finance<br /><ul><li>Onlyoneofthe 9 countieswith a ‘high’ grade ofmarginalization, Pinos, has a bankbranch
    18. 18. OneofeveryfourZacatecanslives in a countywithhighormedium grade ofmarginalizationwherethereisonlyonebankbranchperevery 20,000 adults. </li></ul>10<br />
    19. 19. Small Businesses and Finance<br />Extremely high dependence on small and micro businesses<br />Employ 70% of the economically active population<br />98% of all businesses are small or micro (up to 10 employees)<br />11<br />Only 20% of micro-businessessoughtfundingtobeginoperating (ENAMIN survey)<br />
    20. 20. MigrationandFinancialInclusion<br />12<br />
    21. 21. Towards aTransnational Microbank<br />Survey of Migrant Financial Needs<br />Interviews and Comparison of Microfinance Institutions operating in high-migration areas<br />Analysis of government programs supporting migrant entrepreneurship<br />Motivation:OfMexican states, Zacatecashasthehighestnumberofbusinessfundedbyfamilymembersorfriendslivinginaforeign country<br />
    22. 22. Conclusions<br />Recommendations<br />Observations<br />High concentration of financial infrastructure in urban areas<br />Challenge: bring financial services to rural areas<br />Further, very low business use of credit, especially among micro-businesses<br />There is a large opportunity for microfinance institutions to meet these needs in rural areas<br />There exists a new space for collaboration between social development programs and microfinance institutions<br />New government program to promote financial inclusion<br />Open new channels of funding to support rural financing efforts (savings and credit services)<br />Explore new programs to equip microfinance institutions to bring remittance payment services to rural areas<br />14<br />
    23. 23. 15<br />ManyThanks<br /><ul><li>To COMEXUS and the Fulbright-García Robles scholarship program
    24. 24. Dr. García Zamora and the Development Studies department, UAZ
    25. 25. FEDZAC and migrant leaders
    26. 26. AMUCSS and the </li></ul>Microfinance institutions<br /><ul><li>To the Government Directors and </li></ul>Delegates of Zacatecas<br />migrant programs<br />Matt Rolland<br />Matt.Rolland@fulbrightmail.org<br />

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