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The human endocrine system

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  • 1. Year 9 ScienceStrathcona BGGS
  • 2. The Endocrine System Consists of glands that produce chemicals that act as messengers or signals.  These are known as hormones. Hormones are released into and carried by the blood stream. Changes produced by hormones are generally:  Slow  Long term  Irreversible  Including:  Growth  Reproduction
  • 3. Parts of the Endocrine System
  • 4. The Pituitary Gland  Is sometimes called the ‘Master Gland’ as it regulates most other endocrine glands.  Releases hormones including:  Growth Hormone (GH)  Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
  • 5. The Thyroid Gland  Is responsible mainly for the regulation of metabolic rate  Major hormone:  Thyroid Hormone
  • 6. The Islets of Langerhans  Are groups of cells in the pancreas  Regulate blood sugar levels  Releases hormones including:  Insulin – lowers blood sugar levels  Glucagon – raises blood sugar levels
  • 7. The Adrenals  Located on top of the Kidneys  Has two layers  The outer cortex  secretes a lot of hormones.  The most important are aldosterone and cortisol  the inner Medulla  Releases adrenaline and noradrenaline - key hormones of the stress response
  • 8. The Ovaries  Release the female sex hormones:  Estrogen  stimulates the development of female secondary sexual characteristics  involved in monthly preparation for pregnancy  Progesterone  stimulates the growth of mammary glands  prepares the uterus for pregnancy
  • 9. The Testes  Secretes the male sex Hormone:  Testosterone  very important in the development of a male embryo.  stimulates the development of male secondary sexual characteristics
  • 10. The Nervous System vs. The Endocrine System The Nervous System The Endocrine System Uses (mostly) Electrical  Uses Chemical Messages Messages (Hormones) Fast Acting  Generally Slow Acting Reversible changes  Generally Irreversible changes Dedicated signal system  Uses Blood System to spread (nerves) hormones