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Evaluating the use of SEA in Bangladesh
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Evaluating the use of SEA in Bangladesh

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  • Transcript

    • 1.  
    • 2. Evaluation of the Institutional-Centred Strategic Environmental Assessment (I-SEA) of the Dhaka Metropolitan Development Plan Mat Cashmore Ulf G Sandström October 15 2009
    • 3. Five issues
      • Objectives
      • Background / context
      • Methodology
      • Results
      • Conclusions
      • Research lenses
    • 4. The evaluation deals with
      • to what degree the ISEA-process (supported by the World Bank) contributed to environmental policy integration in urban planning in Dhaka, and
      • how it has strengthened public participation and accountability in the planning process.
    • 5. The general objectives
      • to learn how effective the I-SEA approach is at mainstreaming environmental and social considerations, and,
      • to understand the contextual factors that explain its influence or lack thereof.
    • 6. The evaluation is
      • Supported by Swedish Sida
      • Carried out by staff from Swedish EIA centre SLU:
        • Anna Axelsson (Sida helpdesk)
        • Mat Cashmore ( School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, UK)
        • Ulf G. Sandström
    • 7. Bangladesh
    • 8. Short information on Bangladesh
      • Number of inhabitants: 161 300 000 (2008)
      • Polity: republic
      • Area: 147 570 km²
      • Capital city: Dhaka 6,9 million, mega-Dhaka >12 000 000 (estimation 2009)
      • Important rivers: Brahmaputra-Jamuna, Ganges-Padma, Meghna
      • Birth rate: 2,6 %
      • Folk groups: Bengalis ca 98 %, Biharer ca 1 %, local tribes ca 1 %
      • Literacy rate: about 70 % in Dhaka
      • GNP per se: 510 US dollar (2008)
      • Language: Bengali is the official; others are Urdu, English and Tibetans-Burmeish dialects
      • Important export: clothes, shrimps, fish, jute, leader, the
      • No inhabitants/km: 1093
      • Religion: Islam (mostly Sunni)
      • Memberships in internationally organisations: FN, OIC, SAARC, WTO
    • 9.  
    • 10.  
    • 11.  
    • 12. From the street
    • 13.  
    • 14. Methodology
      • Three phases:
        • Preparatory work, e.g. document analysis
        • Data collection, e.g. interviews
        • Data analysis
    • 15. Preparatory work
      • Terms of Reference
      • SEA Inception report
      • SEA Interim report
      • SEA Final report
      • Policy Note
      • Mission report
      • Lesson learnt report
      • WB comments
      • Background literature
    • 16. Qualitative depth interviews
      • SEA Team [8 – 8 involved in the SEA]
        • (WB, Consultants, RAJUK)
      • Government [11 – 4]
        • e.g. RAJUK, DCC, Pourashavas,
      • CSOs [11 – 7]
        • e.g. BAPA, BUP, CUS, BUET
      • Other stakeholders [4 – 0]
        • e.g. Daily star, DAP consultant
    • 17. The outcomes of I-SEA in Dhaka. Negligible. 4. Promote social learning. Negligible. 3. Improve social accountability. Negligible. 2. Strengthen environmental constituencies. Negligible. 1. Environmental and social policy integration in urban development. Contribution in practice I-SEA goal
    • 18. Explanatory factors: Embedding I-SEA in the administration.
      • A real ‘window of opportunity’?
      • ‘ Local’ ownership of I-SEA and its results.
        • “ the World Bank pressurised me …they put pressure on the Government, the Ministry and the Chairman [of RAJUK]. I was not happy with the work and report ” (RAJUK SEA team #1).
      • Miscommunication of purposes.
    • 19. Explanatory factors.
      • Lack of follow up.
        • “ I think it [the need for follow up] is lost out there in Washington because there are so many other burning issues “ (WB Dhaka).
      • Naive expectations about fostering learning.
      • Strengthening environmental constituencies: underdeveloped conceptually.
      • Urban development as a neglected area.
    • 20. Evaluation conclusions
      • Poor project design for pilot I-SEA.
        • “ this was a methodology which every day we had to invent the next step ” (Consultant #1).
      • Questionable commitment to:
        • ‘ Local’ ownership of I-SEA and its results.
        • Implementation of its recommendations.
        • Respectful and open participation.
      • Failure to internalise basic evaluation lessons.
    • 21. Research lenses.
      • Environmental policy integration in development cooperation - why such an elusive goal?
        • “ the Bank Group continues to give low de facto priority to the goal of enhancing the environmental sustainability of development ”
        • “ reprehensible ”, “ entirely unacceptable ”, “ saddens and alarms us ”, “ damning ” (DFID) .
      • Institutions and impact assessment: Theoretical relevance.
      • The role of international development cooperation agencies in ‘creating’ knowledge about EPI.