Introduction To Human AnatomyAnatomy : is the study of structures orbody parts and their relationships to one another. “anatome = up (ana) + cutting (tome) “Anatomy : Gross anatomy - macroscopic. Histology - microscopic.• Anatomical position: body is erect, feet together, palms face forward and the thumbs point awayfrom the bodyDisciplines of Anatomy•Gross Anatomy: structures studied with thenaked eye.–Systematic anatomy: organized by systems,e.g., digestive, nervous, endocrine, etc.–Regional anatomy: study of all structures inan area of the body, e.g., upper extremitybones, muscles, blood vessels, etc.•Microscopic anatomy (histology)•Cell biology•Developmental anatomy (embryology)•Pathological anatomy•Radiologic anatomy (x-ray, CT, MRI)•Other areas? (surgery)Levels of Structural Organization•Biochemical (atoms, molecules)•Cellular•Tissue•Organ•Organ system•Organism
• Superior : means the part is above another or closer to head (cranial ).• Inferior: means the part is below another or towards the feet (caudal).• Anterior: means towards the front (the eyes are anterior to the brain) -[ventral].• Posterior: means toward the back (the pharynx is posterior to the oralcavity) - [dorsal].
• Medial : relates to the imaginary midline dividing the body into equalright and left halves (the nose is medial to the eyes).• Lateral: means to words the side with respect to the imaginary midline(the ears are lateral to the eyes).
Anatomical directional terminologyIpsilateral: the same side (the spleen and descending colon areipsilateral ).Contralateral : Refers to the opposite side (the spleen and gallbladderare contralateral ).•Prone–the body lying face downward; stomach lying•Supine–lying on the back; face upward position of the body•Dorsal–relating to the back; being or located near, on, or toward the back, posterior part, or upper surfaceof•Ventral–relating to the belly or abdomen, on or toward the front, anterior part of
•Volar–relating to palm of the hand or sole of the foot•Plantar–relating to the sole or undersurface of the footRegional Terms• Axial part : includes the head, neck, andtrunk.• Appendicular part : Includes the limbswhich are attached to the bodys axis.Body organization1. Body cavities – hollow spaces within the human body that containinternal organs.a) The dorsal cavity: located toward the back of the body, is divided into the cranial cavity (whichholds the brain) and vertebral or spinal cavity (which holds the spinal cord).b) The ventral cavity: located toward the front of the body, isdivided into abdominopelvic cavity and thoracic cavity by thediaphragm.The abdominopelvic cavity is subdivided into abdominal cavity(which holds liver, gallbladder, stomach, pancreas, spleen, kidney,small, and large intestines) andThe pelvic cavity (which holds theurinary bladder and reproductive organs).The thoracic cavity is subdivided into the pleural cavity (whichholds the lungs) and pericardial cavity (which holds the heart).Dorsal and ventral body cavities
Body membranes• Body membranes – tissuelinings of body cavities andcoverings of internalorgans.• parietal membrane –lining of body cavity (e.g.parietal pleural membranelines the pleural cavity )• visceral membrane –covering of internal organ(e.g. visceral pleuralmembrane lines the surfaceof the lungs).Body SectionsSagittal plane – divides the
body into left and rightsections.• Midsagittal (median) plane– divides the body intoequal halves at midline.• Frontal (coronal) plane –divides the body intoanterior and posteriorsections.• Transverse (horizontal)plane – divides the bodyinto superior and inferiorsections.
Eleven organ systems1. Integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, digestive,respiratory, Circulatory, lymphatic, urinary, and reproductive systems .2. The reproductive system is mainly involved in transmitting geneticinformation From one generation to another, while the remaining 10organ systems are important in maintaining homeostasis.Body regions• The abdominal area is subdivided into 9 regions.
Body regions• The abdominal area is subdivided into 9 regions.