SPEECH & LANGUAGE NEWSLETTER UPCOMING Speech Meetings October 19- LUNCH BUNCH, 11:30-12:30 (informal gathering before the Speech Mtg. CFYs and their supervisors are encouraged to attend); Regular Speech Meeting, 12:30 p.m., Old Olive site, Room #305; BRING YOUR iPAD! 1 CEU opportunity-Bilingual Assessments: Practical, Hands-on Info! November 9- Protocal ordering meeting; 12:30, at Casita Elementary in the MPR November 15-17 ASHA Convention , Atlanta, Georgia December 7- Speech luncheon meeting; location TBA January 25, 2013- Staff Development Day / CEU opportunity (bring your iPads) and protocol delivery (7:30 – 11:00 a.m. at Casita Elementary in the MPR). You MUST stop by to pick up protocols if you ordered any! Questions? Call: Susie Setran at Breeze Hill 945-2373 (4665) or Diana Farrell at Foothill Oak 631-3458(4180) * Send Orders to Anne Pickering at Empresa * Send Medi-Cal logs to Lisa McGuire at Beaumont * Email Julie Chase at Casita Elementary for Medi-Cal billing questions
Bilingualism FINDING PRACTICE The practice of testing a bilingual Proficiency in all the student’s child in a single language does not languages must be considered. give the child credit for linguistic Monolingual SLPs should collaborate knowledge in both languages. with linguistic informants, (Kayser, 1989) interpreters and bilingual colleagues. Dynamic assessment may be the Testing student’s learning potential most effective assessment (rate) must include data on progress procedure for evaluating culturally in response to evidence-based and linguistically diverse children. instruction. Following initial testing, Test-teach-retest procedures mediate learning experiences and appear best suited for then retest at the end of instruction. distinguishing language differences Atypical students with a disability will from language learning disabilities have difficulty learning even when (Gutierrez-Clellen & Pena, 2001) explicit instruction is provided. Bilingual Phenomena A normal occurrence in 2nd language learnersCross-linguistic influence- When two languages Threshold Hypothesis- A minimum level ofcome into contact, one language may influence proficiency is required in one language in orderthe other one or both languages may influence to achieve the positive cognitive growtheach other. associated with the addition of another language.Arrest- The level of proficiency in a language Attrition- A reduction in proficiency occurs indoes not change. linguistic competence and performance.Avoidance- A specific element of a language is Language Alternation- A change is made fromnot used. one language to another.Language Non-Use- A language is not used Overgeneralization – A language rule isfor communication purposes. applied in an unrestricted fashion.Fossilization- An inaccurate rule stabilizes to the Hesitation- A temporal variation may occur aspoint of continual usage. an isolated phenomenon or with other phenomenaTransfer- A phonological, morphological, syntactic, semantic, or pragmatic characteristic of one language is usedin another language.
Bilingual AssessmentsLaws, Regulations, and Best Practices/Code of Ethics Regarding Assessment of English Language LearnersWhat Does Federal/IDEA Law Say?Use a variety of assessment tools and strategies to gather relevant functional, developmental, and academicinformation about the child,Assessments and other evaluation materials used to assess a child under this part--(i) Are selected and administered so as not to be discriminatory on a racial or cultural basis;(ii) Are provided and administered in the childs native language or other mode of communication and in the formmost likely to yield accurate information on what the child knows and can do academically, developmentally, andfunctionally, unless it is clearly not feasible to so provide or administerWhat Do State Laws Say?California Education Code Section 56320-56330Testing and assessment materials and procedures used for the purposes of assessment and placement of individualswith exceptional needs: Are selected and administered so as not to be racially, culturally, or sexually discriminatory. Pursuant to Section 1412(a)(6)(B) of Title 20 of the United States Code, the materials and procedures shall be provided in the pupils native language or mode of communication, unless it is clearly not feasible to do so. Are provided and administered in the language and form most likely to yield accurate information on what the pupil knows and can do academically, developmentally, and functionally, unless it is not feasible to so provide or administer as required by Section 1414(b) (3)(A)(ii) of Title 20 of the United States Code. Are used for purposes for which the assessments or measures are valid and reliable.California Education Code Section 56333-56338A pupil shall be assessed as having a language or speech disorder which makes him or her eligible for specialeducation and related services when he or she demonstrates difficulty understanding or using spoken language tosuch an extent that it adversely affects his or her educational performance and cannot be corrected without specialeducation and related services.California Code of RegulationsTitle 5, Article 3(a) In addition to provisions of Education Code Section 56320, assessments shall be administered by qualifiedpersonnel who are competent in both the oral or sign language skills and written skills of the individuals primarylanguage or mode of communication and have a knowledge and understanding of the cultural and ethnicbackground of the pupil. If it clearly is not feasible to do so, an interpreter must be used, and the assessment reportshall document this condition and note that the validity of the assessment may have been affected.(b) The normal process of second-language acquisition, as well as manifestations of dialect and sociolinguisticvariance shall not be diagnosed as a handicapping condition.What Does ASHA Say?ASHA Code of Ethics I, Rule C states: “Individuals shall not discriminate in the delivery of professional services orthe conduct of research and scholarly activities on the basis of race or ethnicity, gender, gender identity/genderexpression, age, religion, national origin, sexual orientation, or disability.”ASHA Knowledge and Skills Needed by Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists to Provide Culturally andLinguistically Appropriate Services states:4.0 Role: Obtain knowledge base needed to distinguish typical and disordered language of clients/patients.5.0 Role: Identification/Assessment of typical and disordered language. This includes knowledge and skills relatedto: 5.1 C. Appropriate criteria for distinguishing a disorder from a difference by using the norms of theclient’s/patient’s speech community as the standard.What Does CSHA Say?CSHA supports Federal/IDEA, California State laws, ASHA positions/code of ethics and further adds:“Materials and procedures used to assess a child must be selected and administered so as not to be racially,culturally, or sexually discriminatory. In addition, materials and procedures used to assess a child with limitedEnglish proficiency must be selected and administered to ensure that they measure the extent to which the child hasa disability and needs special education, rather than measuring the childs English language skills.If an assessment is not conducted under standard conditions, a description of the extent to which it varied fromstandard conditions (e.g., the qualifications of the person administering the test, or the method of testadministration) must be included in the evaluation report.”Researched and Written by Dawn Shirvanian, 2012.
References:IDEA Regulations: Part 300/D/Sec. 300.304 Evaluation Procedures. Available from:http://idea.ed.gov.California Laws and Codes: California Education Code. Available from: http://www.cde.ca.gov.California Laws and Codes: California Code of Regulations. Available from:http://www.cde.ca.gov.American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2010). Code of Ethics [Ethics]. Availablefrom: www.asha.org/policy.American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2004). Knowledge and Skills Needed bySpeech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists to Provide Culturally and LinguisticallyAppropriate Services [Knowledge and Skills]. Available from: www.asha.org/policy.California Speech-Language Hearing Association. (2006). Service Delivery to Culturally andLinguistically Diverse Individuals-Position Paper. Available from: www.csha.org.