UNIT 6 “Innovation” “Used to” Relative Pronouns Gerunds and infinitives
1. USED TOUsed + to-infinitive means that something happened regularly or went on for a time in the past.For example:“I used to travel”= In the past, I regularly travelled, but I no longer do so.Here are some examples:We used to play the game when we were younger.Nick used to smoke, but he gave it up.I used to like fish, but I never eat it now.** Claire uses to travel a lot. Claire travels a lot.
Negative form:We didnt use to have computers orWe never used to have computers. (more informal way) Interrogative form:Did there use to be a cinema here?Where did people use to buy their food before the supermarket was built?Did you use to live in London?
Relative pronouns• WHO (refers to people)2. WHOM (Refers to people. It is used if it is preceded by a preposition: “to whom” or for formal contexts.)3. WHICH (refers to things or ideas)4. WHOSE (refers to possession mainly of people, but also for countries, organizations, things or animals. It cannot be omitted!)5. WHEN (refers to a moment in time)6. WHERE (refers to a particular place).• THAT (it may replace “who”, “which” or “when” in the defining clauses).
Take into account!We do not use another pronoun (like he or it) with the relative pronoun: **The man who he owns that enormous dog. **The actual spacecraft that it landed on the moon.
Defining clausesEssential information. Without it, the meaning of the sentence is incompleted.“My uncle who is a doctor lives in Asturias”
Non-Defining Clausesa) They add additional information about the nouns that precede them.b) Without them, the sense of the sentence is complete. The information is not necessary to understand the meaning of the sentence.c) Commas are used.d) We can’t use THAT.e) Not often used when speaking.“My uncle, who is a doctor, lives in Asturias”.
3. GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES GERUNDS• Verbs working as a subject: Being a student in the 1950s was not easy.• Prepositions followed by verbs: We talked about going on holiday together in July.
3. After the following verbs or expressions:admit discuss look forward to recollectadvise don’t mind love recommendanticipate enjoy mention resentappreciate fancy mind resistavoid feel like miss riskbe used to finish postpone spendcan’t help get used to practise suggestcan’t stand give up prefer toleratecomplete hate put off understandconsider imagine quitcontinue involve recalldelay it’s no usedeny keep (=continue)detest like/dislike
INFINITIVES:• To express purpose: I phoned him to apologise.• After adjectives: I am too tired to go out.
3. After the following verbs or expressions:advise* decide make up (your) refuseafford do (your) best mind seemagree expect manage swearappear fail need teach*arrange help neglect tell*ask hesitate persuade* tendbe about hope plan turn outbe up to (you) invite* prefer volunteercare learn prepare wantchoose leave it up to pretend warn* (you) proceed wish promise *verb + indirect object: He told me to go to the hotel.
VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUND OR INFINITIVE WITH CHANGE IN MEANING.Stop:a) -ing “dejar un hábito”: She stopped eating chocolate last yearb) infinitive “dejar de hacer algo para hacer otra cosa”: He stopped to eat some chocolate.Forget:a) –ing (generalmente en frases negativas): “imposibilidad de olvidar algo ocurrido en el pasado”: I will never forget visiting the Leaning Tower of Pisa.b) infinitive “olvidarse de hacer algo”. Oliver forgot to bring his lunch.
Regret:a) –ing: “lamentar haber hecho algo en el pasado”: I regret telling her so much about myself.b) infinitive: “lamentar lo que se va a decir a continuación”: I regret to tell you that you have failed your exam.Remembera) –ing: “recordar algo que se hizo en el pasado”: I remember talking to him about the subject.b) infinitive “acordarse de hacer algo”: Remember to take your passport.Trya) –ing: “Probar a hacer algo como medio de conseguir un fin”: I tried using the new method, but it didn’t work.b) infinitive: “tratar de conseguir algo haciendo un esfuerzo”: Errol tried to pass his driving test.