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Cross-Cultural Training For Astronauts and Space Travelers
 

Cross-Cultural Training For Astronauts and Space Travelers

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This was a Presentation/Lecture done at the Principles of Aviation and Space Medicine Course at University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, July 26, 2013.

This was a Presentation/Lecture done at the Principles of Aviation and Space Medicine Course at University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, July 26, 2013.

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  • Good afternoon All,The next couple of slides are about me(my educational background/experiences living in extreme conditions) and I am going to skip those slides for now because of the time factor…..however, for the faculty I have kept a handout in the folder which has details on my background and experiences as it pertains to Aerospace Medicine, Wilderness Medicine/Antartica like experiences. In addition to my medical/public health background, with my MBA/PhD in Business Management background which is from University of Warwick at Coventry, UK and Ashwood University respectively, I am going to switch gears from Medicine here and move towards Organizational Behavior. Organizational Behavior is one of the discipline of Business Management/MBA like Environmental/Occupational Health in the MPH program. After I came here and before the end of the first week of the course, the topic I have selected is on Culture. This is also a topic I studied from a different angle in the Behavioral Health Module of the Drexel 2 year full-time MPH program. So you are getting a Mini-MBA course today, for those who are interested in pursuing a MBA in the future.Why is this topic of Culture important in Preventive Medicine/Public Health and International Business?.From a Physician perspective, being sensitive to our patient’s culture helps us better understand our patients and provide the best/quality care. I will highlight some studies done in this area towards the end of my presentation.From a business/management perspective, Managers need to develop not only empathy and tolerance toward cultural differences, but also acquire a sufficient degree of factual knowledge about the beliefs and values of foreign counterparts. Cross-cultural proficiency is paramount in many managerial tasks, including: Communicating and interacting with foreign business partners. Negotiating and structuring international business ventures etcFrom an Astronaut perspective, as we have learned during the course that they need to be aware of cultural differences (which include medical concerns- PVC concern for Russian Doctors whereas it is not of big importance to U.S Doctors, treatment issues etc), when interacting with international partners at Star City Russia, at ISS and the mission to Mars. So, I thought about Cross-Cultural training for Astronauts and Space Travelers in the Commercial Space Industry.
  • This presentation is organized as follows:Culture in the Aviation IndustryMainly Operational Culture with a focus on Safety.Need to refocus operation culture with team work. Although team building training is provided by NASA (as per the 2011 book, Preparing for the High Frontier, the role and training of Astronauts in the Post-Space Shuttle Era), it appears not to be sufficient as per talks with some sources/lecturers who has worked with Astronauts at Star City, Russia before they went to ISS. From what we have heard from various lecturers over the duration of this course, there is little or hardly any communication or common project for the Astronauts once they are on the ISS due to many reasons, busy with their projects/tasks in there area of the ISS etc. The Americans (NASA) sit in their module, the Russian Cosmonauts in theirs, European in their module and Japanese in their own etc.Contacted Dr. Schmid, Dr. Moore, Dr.Ogata, Dr. Castleberry, Dr. Beven & Talked with Astronaut Dr.Lindgren and conducted Literature Review on cross-cultural training
  • I received my MD degree (7 year program) from the former Soviet Union (Georgia, Belarus), MPH (2 yr full-time) program from Drexel University, MBA from University of Warwick, and PhD in Business Management with Distinction from Ashwood University, Texas. Offer for Master of Laws (L.L.M) in Public Procurement and Policy at the University of Nottingham, UK.Excelled in Medical School (Dean’s List, photos on Dean’s Board, Stipend was increased), was interested in Preventive Medicine/Public Health. Research in Preventive Medicine/Public Health: “Dynamic Health Conditions of the Population of Belarus”. I Did research (descriptive study) with the help of Professor/Head of Preventive Medicine/Public Health, Prof.Glushanko, conducted a descriptive study on the dynamic health conditions of the Population of Belarus. The paper was in Russian, I translated it to English was accepted for Presentation at Stanford University and presented at Children’s Hospital, Palo Alto, Stanford University in 1994, the Russian Abstract was published in the Abstract book in November, 1994 in the Young Scientist Conference commemorating 60th Anniversary of the Medical University. It was published in English in the journal of the Russian American Medical Association (RAMA), 2011.MPH- Drexel University, Pennsylvania, USA (Class of 2000)Thesis: Factors that Influence the Occurrence of PertussisMBA- University of Warwick, UK (Class of 2009)Thesis: The MBA: What's the Impact?PhD in Business Management with Distinction- Ashwood University, Texas, USA (Class of 2012)Thesis: Global Management of Healthcare Systems: One-World-One-Care?Multicultural/lingual. Have lived and studied in 4 different continents (Asia-India, Africa- Nigeria, Europe- Former, U.S.S.R, UK, Sweden, Germany, Brussels, Belgium starting at a young age.Learning to Fly. Took Discovery Flight in August, 2012Have worked over 10+ years in the healthcare industry as an Epidemiologist (Infectious Diseases- WV, Injury Prevention Epidemiologist- DE, Consultant- NJ, Medical Officer (Epidemiology)-CDRH, FDA-MD Program Director (March of Dimes, California Birth Defects Monitoring Program-CA)
  • I received my MD degree (7 year program) from the former Soviet Union (Georgia, Belarus), MPH (2 yr full-time) program from Drexel University, MBA from University of Warwick, and PhD in Business Management with Distinction from Ashwood University, Texas. Offer for Master of Laws (L.L.M) in Public Procurement and Policy at the University of Nottingham, UK.Excelled in Medical School (Dean’s List, photos on Dean’s Board, Stipend was increased), was interested in Preventive Medicine/Public Health. Research in Preventive Medicine/Public Health: “Dynamic Health Conditions of the Population of Belarus”. I Did research (descriptive study) with the help of Professor/Head of Preventive Medicine/Public Health, Prof.Glushanko, conducted a descriptive study on the dynamic health conditions of the Population of Belarus. The paper was in Russian, I translated it to English was accepted for Presentation at Stanford University and presented at Children’s Hospital, Palo Alto, Stanford University in 1994, the Russian Abstract was published in the Abstract book in November, 1994 in the Young Scientist Conference commemorating 60th Anniversary of the Medical University. It was published in English in the journal of the Russian American Medical Association (RAMA), 2011.MPH- Drexel University, Pennsylvania, USA (Class of 2000)Thesis: Factors that Influence the Occurrence of PertussisMBA- University of Warwick, UK (Class of 2009)Thesis: The MBA: What's the Impact?PhD in Business Management with Distinction- Ashwood University, Texas, USA (Class of 2012)Thesis: Global Management of Healthcare Systems: One-World-One-Care?Multicultural/lingual. Have lived and studied in 4 different continents (Asia-India, Africa- Nigeria, Europe- Former, U.S.S.R, UK, Sweden, Germany, Brussels, Belgium starting at a young age.Learning to Fly. Took Discovery Flight in August, 2012Have worked over 10+ years in the healthcare industry as an Epidemiologist (Infectious Diseases- WV, Injury Prevention Epidemiologist- DE, Consultant- NJ, Medical Officer (Epidemiology)-CDRH, FDA-MD Program Director (March of Dimes, California Birth Defects Monitoring Program-CA)
  • Have worked over 10+ years in the healthcare industry (Epidemiologist, State Influenza Surveillance Coordinator, Project Manager, Medical Officer at FDA, Consultant, Program Director and now Owner of Alpha & Omega Healthcare Management Consulting)Epidemiologist (Infectious Diseases & Influenza Surveillac- WV, Injury Prevention Epidemiologist- DE, Consultant- NJ, Medical Officer (Epidemiology)-CDRH, FDA-MD Program Director (March of Dimes, California Birth Defects Monitoring Program-CA), currently working as President & CEO, Alpha & Omega Healthcare Management Consulting (http://www.alphanomega.info)Shenandoah Mountain is a mountain ridge approximately 73 miles (117 km) long[3] in Virginia and West Virginia. The steep, narrow, sandstone-capped ridge extends from northern Bath County, Virginia to southern Hardy County, West Virginia. Along the way, its crest defines the borders between Highland and Augusta counties, Virginia, and between Pendleton County, West Virginia, and Rockingham County, Virginia. The name comes from the Iroquoian word for 'deer'.Located in the Ridge and Valleyphysiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains, Shenandoah Mountain forms part of the western margin of the Shenandoah Valley, and is part of the easternmost Allegheny Mountains. It lies almost entirely within the George Washington National Forest. U.S. Route 33 crosses the mountain between Franklin, West Virginia, and Harrisonburg, Virginia.Shenandoah Mountain's highest peaks are Reddish Knob (Virginia/West Virginia; 4397’/1340 m [1]), Flagpole Knob (Virginia; 4383’/1336 m [2][1]), and Bald Knob (Virginia; 3680’/1122 m [3]).Experiences related to living in Extreme Conditions (as it pertains to Aerospace Medicine/Wilderness Medicine/Antarctica): Young age (I had just turned 17yrs, and graduated from high school, First time living home with no camping experiences or no relatives/friends in Russia, no knowledge of Russia (not one word) or Russian language)Far, Far from home (India) with no cell phones, internet, TV, only communication with home is by snail mail which takes 2 months (one month if the letter reaches India and another one month to get reply back from India, if it does not get lost)Extremely Cold weather (minus 25 to 30 degree Celsius during winter)Harsh living conditions: In Georgia (1 year Medical Prep School), “Subotnik”, each room in the foreign hostel had to rotate in cleaning that floor’s Toilets like those who have gone to Antartica. Lived cramped usually 3 girls/women in a hostel room (if lucky to get one)- 1 Russian and 2 foreigners with general bathrooms/toilets or shared bathroom/toilets. There was no attached bathrooms/toilets.Used to tie food in grocery bags and hang them out of the window (as there was no refrigerators or microwaves in the hostel rooms).Former Soviet Union Living ExperiencesI was sponsored by the Indian Youth Congress Party, received a 7 year scholarship + stipend (on a student cultural exchange program) from the Ministry of Health, RussiaI can go on and on about my experiences in the former Soviet Union… but want to highlight a few that pertains to living in Extreme conditions (extreme cold in former Soviet Union and extreme heat in summer months of July and August in India), not speaking of environmental radiation that we might have been exposed to from the fallout of the Chernobyl disaster. When I come for the summer months, 1 month goes just in purchasing all the things needed for the next year to take back to former Soviet Union and this includes things not for yourself, but some items as small gifts to natives/room mate/class mates those who helped us there during difficult times (like no rice to purchase etc). All that can be taken in 50lbs per bag (two checked bags and USD 20 foreign exchange) allowable by Airlines. Have to pass annual fitness/Gym /sport training (attendance 2 times a week mandatory) to pass the 1st , 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th years of School. I am self-made, I learned everything the hard way, I was not spoon fed like some of my other celebrity politician relatives or other celebrity children who had everything and lived in the best of conditions.Psychological Reaction My colleagues who are doctors now working in India, U.S and UK were in the train from Moscow to Georgia in the first year(that came through different organizations), before we came to each other, all of a sudden started crying one by one, not knowing where we are headed, missed home and if the 3 roubles that was given to us will be sufficient for us or not in 2 nights 3 day train journey to us. I too was very concerned, I did not cry however was thinking why my parents are putting me through this. “They don’t want me” (the first thing that came to my mind and I was angry and upset but did not cry), and I was alarmed when I saw the others crying out loud, they were all singing bollywood songs a few minutes back and then all started crying one after the other. To be complete & respected in my community (Indian) by my family, relatives and friends, if you have a MD degree and in the U.S, you have to be board certified. So, I wanted to be U.S Board Certified in Preventive Medicine and was interested in Aerospace Medicine and that is why I decided to apply to this course and here I am (my first trip to Texas). I think human kind can survive in any condition, if they have the mind to withstand all oddities of life. Humans are adaptable.Experiences related to living in Extreme Conditions (as it pertains to Aerospace Medicine/Wilderness Medicine/Antarctica): young age (I had just turned 17yrs, and graduated from high school, first time living home with no camping experiences or no relatives/friends in Russia, no knowledge of Russia (not one word) or Russian language)Far, Far from home (India) with no cell phones, internet, TV, only communication with home is by snail mail which takes 2 months (one month if the letter reaches India and another one month to get reply back from India, if it does not get lost)2) Extremely Cold weather (minus 25 to 30 degree Celsius)3) In Georgia (1 year Medical Prep School), as part of “Subbotnik”, each room in the foreign hostel had to rotate in cleaning that floor’s Toilets like those who have gone to Antartica. 4) Lived cramped usually 3 girls/women in a hostel room (if lucky to get one)- 1 Russian and 2 foreigners with general bathrooms/toilets or shared bathroom/toilets. There was no attached bathrooms/toilets.
  • The learning objectives are:The participants of this lecture/presentation will be able to define what is culture?2) The participants will become aware about the most common organizational cultural theories in management literature3) The participants will be able to understand some cultural similarities and differences among different cultures.4) The participants will be able to apply Hofstede’s Cultural dimensions to the international partner countries of the ISS, and understand cultural similarities and differences among them.5) The participants will be able to learn the effectiveness of some cross-cultural training conducted in healthcare setting and in the business environment.Ideally, Cross-Cultural training
  • Culture- Norms, Beliefs, Values of an organization (living, breathing organism, consists of individuals), society, country.Culture The learned, shared, and enduring orientation patterns in a society. People demonstrate their culture through values, ideas, attitudes, behaviors, andSymbol Geert Hofstede,7 a well-known Dutch organizational anthropologist, views culture as a “collective mental programming” of people. The “software of themind,” or how we think and reason, differentiates us from other groups. Such intangible orientations shape our behavior. Another scholar, Harry Triandis,8views culture as an interplay of sameness and differences; all cultures are simultaneously very similar and very different. While as human beings we share manycommonalities and universals, as groups of people or societies we exhibit many differences. For example, some cultures are more complex than others. Some culturesare more individualistic, while others are more collectivist. Some cultures impose many norms, rules, and constraints on social behavior, while othersimpose very few.Culture evolves within each society to characterize its people and to distinguish them from others. First, it captures how the members of the society live—forinstance, how they feed, clothe, and shelter themselves. Second, it explains how members behave toward each other and with other groups. Third, it defines thebeliefs and values of members and how they perceive the meaning of life.Having described what culture is, it is also important to define what culture is not. Culture is:• Not right or wrong. Culture is relative. There is no cultural absolute. People of different nationalities simply perceive the world differently. They have their particular ways of doing things, and do not fit any one standard.Each culture has its own notions of what is acceptable and unacceptable behavior. For instance, in some Islamic cultures, a wife cannot divorce herhusband. In many countries, nudity is entirely acceptable on TV. In Japan and Turkey, wearing shoes in the home is taboo.• Not about individual behavior. Culture is about groups. It refers to a collective phenomenon of shared values and meanings. Thus, while culturedefines the collective behavior of each society, individuals often behave differently. For instance, in most countries, men wear their hair short. Buta few mavericks have very long hair and stand out among their peers. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the United States, some men wearmakeup. Such nonconformist behavior does not represent the cultural values of the larger population.• Not inherited. Culture is derived from the social environment. People are not born with a shared set of values and attitudes. Children graduallyacquire specific ways of thinking and behaving as they are raised in a society. For example, in the United States, children usuaThe focus of this presentation is not on the individual but organizational culture. What is Enculturation?It is the process by which people learn the requirements of their surrounding culture and acquire values and behaviours appropriate or necessary in that culture.[What is Acculturation?The process of adjusting and adapting to a culture other than one’s ownSometimes these words are used interchangeably, however they are different. Enculturation is used to describe the process of first-culture learning, acculturation can be thought of as second-culture learning e.g your mother tongue/first language and second language.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acculturation#Recommended_Models_of_AcculturationAcculturation (as I learned in behavioral health at Drexel University MPH program, acculturation in a nutshell is learning a second culture), is the process of adjusting and adapting to a culture other than one’s own. There are several models of acculturations *Kramer’s theory of Dimensional Accrual and Dissociation, four-fold model in behavioral health, however this is beyond the scope of this presentation/lecture.What is Organizational Culture? (4 models as per Charles Handy)
  • This is the Photo of Alien Squid learning English. English is the official language at ISS, so if aliens/Martians want to communicate with ISS or with commercial space travelers they will need to know English  or take an English Class. Future Astronauts might want to consider becoming TEFL certified.
  • There is a short 1 minute video on What is Culture? By the U.S Department of State’s Educational and Cultural Affairs.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=57KW6RO8Rcs
  • The International Space Station is a very good example of cross-border business, when we step into space with interaction among people from different cultures characterized by unfamiliar languages and unique value systems, beliefs, and behaviors who all come together to build, repair the ISS or do research aboard the Space Station.Can someone tell me how many countries are represented at the ISS?Yes, the ISS is represented by 15 countries among the 5 space agencies that are located there. These countries include:ISS- 5 space agencies, 15 countries
  • This striking astronaut photograph taken from the International Space Station (ISS) illustrates the four largest metropolitan areas of Texas (by population, using 2010 US Census estimates). The extent of the metropolitan areas is readily visible at night due to city and roadway lighting networks. The largest metro area, Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington(population over 6.5 million) is visible at image top center; the lighting pattern appears less distinct due to local cloud cover. Four brightly illuminated cloud tops to the northwest (image top center) indicate thunderstorm activity over neighboring Oklahoma.Coming in a close second with a population of approximately 6.1 million, the Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown metro area is located along the Gulf of Mexico coastline at image lower right. To the east near the border with Louisiana, the metropolitan area of Beaumont-Port Arthur ranks tenth (pop. near 400,000) within Texas.Moving inland to south-central Texas, the San Antonio-New Braunfels metro area (image left) has the third largest population of over 2 million. A band of lighting visible to the southeast of San Antonio marks well pads associated with the Eagle Ford Formation (also known as the Eagle Ford Shale); this geologic formation is an important producer of both oil and natural gas.The capital city of Texas (Austin) is included within the Austin-Round Rock-San Marcos metro area to the northeast of San Antonio; it ranks fourth in terms of population with over 1.7 million. The greater Austin metro area is located in central Texas between the Hill Country to the west and the coastal plain to the east-southeast.This image was taken with a relatively high viewing angle from the ISS, as opposed to looking “straight down” towards the Earth’s surface as is typical for most orbital remote sensing instruments. Oblique viewing angles tend to change the apparent distance between objects – for a sense of scale, the actual distance between the central Houston and Dallas-Fort Worth metro areas is approximately 367 kilometers (228 miles).http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/scripts/sseop/photo.pl?mission=ISS036&roll=E&frame=9405
  • In Dr. Roden’s lecture we became aware of some cultures (social habits, rituals etc) of the aborginees in Australia. Here I am going to focus on some cultural theories. There are several cultural theories in management literature. Each of these cultural theories have their limitations. I am going to highlight four of the common one’s and apply Hofsetede’s Cultural Dimensions to the International Space Station.Schein’s Iceberg Model of CultureIf you recall from our first trip to the NBL and Dr. Moore’s presentation she mentioned how the Russian Cosmonauts are skill based (use only two tethers like mountain climbing, while doing the EVA whereas the NASA Astronauts are more task based using several different tethers and tools to play with). This is because of the cultural differences between the Russians and Americans. Russians like to build things that last forever and are used to working with less, whereas Americans like have to more of everything, want variety/different tools and does not mind if a tool breaks, they will replace with another. Currently, NASA is trying to change/transform by promoting a move to skill based culture from task based for the reasons of safety.Schein's book "Organizational Culture and Leadership" provides a great framework for understanding culture and the complexity of transformation. Change does not happen overnight, it takes years sometimes decades for transformation. The framework of the book proposes changing culture through primary embedding mechanisms and secondary reinforcing mechanisms.Schein presents culture as a series of assumptions a person makes about the group in which they participate. These assumptions are grouped into three levels, each level becoming more difficult to articulate and change: Artefacts. Artefacts include any tangible, overt or verbally identifiable element in an organization. Artifacts are the visible elements in a culture and they can be recognized by people not being part of the culture e.g. furniture, dress code, logos, slogans ect2) Espoused beliefs and values.  This is the stated values and rules of behavior of an organization. It is how the members represent the organization both to themselves and to others. This is often expressed in official philosophies and public statements of identity. It can sometimes be a projection for the future, of what the members hope to become. I.e. a very clear CSR strategy or a self image of an organization as one big family. Trouble may arise if espoused values by leaders are not in line with the general assumptions of the culture.3) Basic underlying assumptions.  Shared basic assumptions are deeply embedded, taken-for-granted behaviors which are usually unconscious, but constitute the essence of culture. These assumptions are typically so well integrated in the organization that they are hard to recognize from within. (source: Wikipedia)Edgar Schein[1], is one of the earliest people to work in the space of Culture. Schein explained that culture exists, and needs to be understood, at different levels. These levels range from the very tangible “Artifacts” we can see and feel to the “Basic Underlying Assumptions” that Schein identifies as the “essence of culture”.If we base our assessment of culture only on what we observe, then we miss the most significant aspects. In other words, the way this can be interpreted is that we miss problems/conflicts that might be hidden under the iceberg/in the water which can have dire consequences on any organization in the future.Explanations of corporate culture may already be familiar to you: the "cultural iceberg" image created by Stanley Herman of TRW Systems in 1970. The iceberg highlights the difference between formal aspects of culture and those that represent its more invisible rules; rules sometimes that are directly in conflict with those formal aspects. "Formal" in Herman's vision equals the way we say we get things done; "informal" the way we really get things done. The plaque on the lobby wall says "People are our most important resource," but the below-the-waterline experience of the place doesn't come anywhere close to that, for example. Often such contradictions are "undiscussable" with the leaders of the organization, and become, "the secrets everyone knows." The one thing that does get agreement is that culture, however defined, is powerful.  It influences us so deeply that when we find ourself in a new country -- or company -- we can go into "culture shock," losing the sense of personal stability and grounding that enables unconscious negotiation of our world.  In this sense culture is like our autonomic nervous system, enabling us to carry out our daily tasks without thinking about them, metaphorically akin to things like heart rate, respiration, digestion. Charles Handy born in 1932 in Ireland is a well-known philosopher who has specialized in organization culture. Every organization has certain values and follows some policies and guidelines which differentiate it from others. The principles and beliefs of any organization form its culture. The organization culture decides the way employees interact amongst themselves as well as external parties. No two organizations can have the same culture and it is essential for the employees to adjust well in their organization’s culture to enjoy their work and stay stress-free.According to Charles Handy’s model, there are four types of culture which the organizations follow:PowerThere are some organizations where the power remains in the hands of only few people and only they are authorized to take decisions. They are the ones who enjoy special privileges at the workplace. They are the most important people at the workplace and are the major decision makers. These individuals further delegate responsibilities to the other employees. In such a culture the subordinates have no option but to strictly follow their superior’s instructions. The employees do not have the liberty to express their views or share their ideas on an open forum and have to follow what their superior says. The managers in such a type of culture sometimes can be partial to someone or the other leading to major unrest among others.Handy illustrates the power culture as a spider’s web (see Figure 18), with the all-important spider sitting in the centre ‘… because the key to the whole organisation sits in the centre,surrounded by ever-widening circles of intimates and influence.Role cultureRole culture is a culture where every employee is delegated roles and responsibilities according to his specialization, educational qualification and interest to extract the best out of him. In such a culture employees decide what best they can do and willingly accept the challenge. Every individual is accountable for something or the other and has to take ownership of the work assigned to him. Power comes with responsibility in such a work culture.Task CultureOrganizations where teams are formed to achieve the targets or solve critical problems follow the task culture. In such organizations individuals with common interests and specializations come together to form a team. There are generally four to five members in each team. In such a culture every team member has to contribute equally and accomplish tasks in the most innovative way.Person CultureThere are certain organizations where the employees feel that they are more important than their organization. Such organizations follow a culture known as person culture. In a person culture, individuals are more concerned about their own self rather than the organization. The organization in such a culture takes a back seat and eventually suffers. Employees just come to the office for the sake of money and never get attached to it. They are seldom loyal towards the management and never decide in favour of the organization. One should always remember that organization comes first and everything else later.Then there is Hofstede‘s Cultural Dimensions, which I will go over in the next slide. Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner concluded that what distinguishes people from one culture compared with another is where these preferences fall on each of the following seven dimensions:Universalism versus particularism.Individualism versus communitarianism.Specific versus diffuse.Neutral versus emotional.Achievement versus ascription.Sequential time versus synchronous time.Internal direction versus outer direction.We'll look at each dimension in detail below.You can use the model to understand people from different cultural backgrounds better, so that you can prevent misunderstandings and enjoy a better working relationship with them. This is especially useful if you do business with people from around the world, or if you manage a diverse group of people.The model also highlights that one culture is not necessarily better or worse than another; people from different cultural backgrounds simply make different choices.However, the model doesn't tell you how to measure people's preferences on each dimension. Therefore, it's best to use it as a general guide when dealing with people from different cultures.
  • Refers to a society’s orientation, based on traditional male and female values.Masculine cultures tend to value competitiveness, assertiveness, ambition, and the accumulation of wealth. Feminine cultures emphasize nurturing roles, interdependence among people,and taking care of less fortunate PeopleThe four dimensions of cultural orientation that Hofstede proposed have been widely accepted.They provide us with a tool to interpret cultural differences and a foundation for classifying countries. Various empirical studies have also found relationships between thefour cultural orientations and geography, suggesting that nations can be similar (culturally close) or dissimilar (culturally distant) on each of the four orientations.Yet, the Hofstede framework suffers from some limitations. First, as noted, the study is based on data collected during the period from 1968 to 1972. Much haschanged since then, including successive phases of globalization, widespread exposure to transnational media, technological advances, and the role of womenin the workforce. The framework fails to account for the convergence of cultural values that has occurred during the last several decades. Second, the Hofstede findings are based on the employees of a single company—IBM—in a single industry, making it difficult to generalize. Third, the data were collected using questionnaires—not effective for probing some of the deep issues that surround culture. Finally, Hofstede did not capture all potential dimensions of culture.Partly in response to this last criticism, Hofstede eventually added a fifth dimension to his framework: long-term versus short-term orientation. This dimensiondenotes the degree to which people and organizations defer gratification to achieve long-term success. That is, firms and people in cultures with a long-term orientationtend to take the long view to planning and living. They focus on years and decades.The long-term dimension is best illustrated by the so-called Asian values—traditional cultural orientations of several Asian societies, including China, Japan, and Singapore.These values are partly based on the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius (K’ung-fu-tzu), who lived about 500 B.C. In addition to long-term orientation, Confuciusadvocated other values that are still the basis for much of Asian culture today.These include discipline, loyalty, hard work, regard for education, esteem for the family, focus on group harmony, and control over one’s desires. Scholars often credit thesevalues for the East Asian miracle, the remarkable economic growth and modernization of East Asian nations during the last several decades. By contrast, the United Statesand most other Western countries emphasize a short-term orientation.The Hofstede framework should be viewed as only a general guide, useful for a deeper understanding in cross-national interactions with business partners (international partners in this case), customers (Astronauts), and value-chain members (e.g. commercial space travel companies).
  • Primary Sources: E-mails and Discussions with Dr. Ogata, Dr. Lindgren, Dr. Castleberry, Dr. Beven, Dr. Schmidand Presentation/lecture of Dr. Moore & Dr. Vanderploeg.Secondary Sources: Literature review using Google Scholar, Pubmed. Keywords used for search: Cross-Cultural Competence, Cross-Cultural training (selected those with access to full article to include training in both healthcare setting and business environment)
  • Although ESA is now represented by 20 European countries by For the European Space Agency I have used France’s cultural scores, as ESA HQ is located in France. However, ideally and if we had more time, it would be interesting to look at the cultural dimension scores for the remaining 19 countries of ESA. I took the Hofstede Culture dimension scores for these 5 countries from my PhD thesis presentation, Global Management of Healthcare Systems: One-World-One-Care?. However, one can obtain the cultural dimensions for each country from Geert Hofstede’s website on Cultural dimensions, Country scores. And it is available at Geert Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions, Country Scores website.(http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_dimensions.phpThe Highest scores for each dimension has been highlighted in Red.And The Lowest scores for each dimension has been highlighted in Green. So, we can see here that among the Power Distance Index (PDI) Russia has the highest score of 93, followed by France of 68, then Japan with 54. Canada has the lowest score of 39, closely followed by US with 40.On the Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) index, Russia has again the highest score of 95 among the other countries, followed by Japan with 92 and then France with 86, whereas US and Canada has the lowest scores with 46 and 48 respectively.On the Individualism (IDV) index, USA has the highest score of 91, followed second by Canada of 80 and third by France with 71. Please note that Russia has the lowest score for this dimension among the partners. This can be explained by the differences in culture. In the U.S. people are very individualistic, that is you are expected to be independent, do everything on your own and don’t ask anyone for help. For this reason, team work is emphasized in the work environment in the U.S. (have to be a team player and team leader at the same time as needed). In other Cultures, like Russia and Asian countries (here Japan too has a low score, below 50) this score is usually low because people work in a team/group rather than individually, from an early childhood days decisions are made by parents, they have the final word, when you grow up it is usually the spouse and parents who make the decision or get things done for an individual and in the work environment, decisions are made by the team rather then individually and often advise is sought from experienced/elderly persons, people are more dependent on each other to get anything done. Masculinity – It is interesting to note that Japan has the highest score of 95 for this dimension in comparison to other ISS partners with the U.S of 62 and Canada of 52, whereas Russia then followed by France has the lowest scores (more Feminine countries) of 36 and 43 respectively. This again can be explained by the cultures. Women are esteemed highly in the Russian Culture, from the time a girl is in kindergarten, the boy in the group is expected to be a gentleman and to treat her with respect, to help her take off the coat, help her wear it (It is considered of utmost disrespect to see a woman struggle wearing her coat and if a man (irrespective of which culture he is from) just stands there looking at her struggling with it). March 8 – International Women’s day is a national big celebration in Russia and the CIS countries, where women are given flowers & cards and/or taken out for lunch. When a Russian woman gets married, her Father’s (surname) stays with her and becomes her middle name, and her husband’s last name gets added to the end unlike Asian countries and other cultures, where women are expected to work more, often an Asian woman is seen carrying heavy grocery bags while her partner walks beside her with nothing in the hand. If you recall, Masculine countries are more assertive, argumentative and it can become difficult for two masculine countries to work together.Long Term OrientationJapan has the highest score in this dimension. Canada and US has lowest scores with 23 and 29 respectively.When I was in Brussels in the European Business MBA course, Cross-Cultural training was done for 1 day. Each of us got to find out which cultures we belonged to based on some questions that tested these dimensions (that is do you have the culture of your home or native country or both). In my case when I took this test in 2006 with my class, I was half American and Indian. With time, one can become acculturated or take on the full culture of the home country. So, now I don’t know whether I am American, Indian, Russian, French, Scottish or Martian 
  • Although everyone has an accent, some Americans pretend they cannot understand you, “What’s that” to mean what did you say) and sometimes truly cannot understand because of different accents/pronunciation used. This cultural difference can be seen in other countries as well where both parties in the conversation don’t understand each other Impatient, Like to get things done right away, cannot wait. Decisions are made easily and quickly( required to “think on the feet”)Talkative/engage in small talk/FriendlyGreetings (Drastivithe) is very important. It is like the handshake in the U.S.Helping women out of their winter coats or helping them wear their coats is considered the responsibility of the man/men in the room (does not matter whether you are Russian, Indian or from other nationality, which might be conflicting in other cultures, where Men and women are supposed not to touch or be near each other, most Asian cultures).
  • Greetings (Drastivithe) is very important. It is like the handshake in the U.S.Helping women out of their winter coats or helping them wear their coats is considered the responsibility of the man/men in the room (does not matter whether you are Russian, Indian or from other nationality, which might be conflicting in other cultures, where Men and women are supposed not to touch or be near each other, most Asian cultures).French do not place much importance on punctuality (being on time), they however are specific about the pronunciation. Japanese culture similar to most Asian culture. Respect for the elderly person, the oldest person is considered the wisest. Decisions are made collectively (not individually) after much discussion.
  • Sound of MusicKing and IMy Fair LadyThere was a Britcomtele series that I used to watch while growing up in the 1980’s, it was called “Mind your language”. The series are now on You Tubehttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u1QxzpWbbdISpeaking of Languages,Some of you have asked me about learning Russian Language. I want to mention some Language learning methods that are out there.. One of them is Dr. Pimsleuer method of language learning. There is a nice video on You Tube which explain the four revolutionary language learning principles. There is also Rosetta Stone and traditional face to face classes offered all around the world. There is nothing like learning a language face 2 face.The Four Revolutionary Language Learning Principleshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=09_gYlsZD7I23 AND ½ HOUR video on Preventive Medicine by Dr. Mike Evans using RSA animate video. I got this video link from Catherine Fish one of the presenters at an AOPA safety seminar.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aUaInS6HIGoCultures also differ in their perceptions of physical space; we have our own sense of personal space and feel uncomfortable if others violate it. Conversational distance iscloser in Latin America than in northern Europe or the United States. When a North American national interacts with a Latin American, he or she may unconsciously backup to maintain personal space. Those who live in crowded Japan or Belgium have smaller personal space requirements than those who live in land-rich Russia or the United States. In Japan, it is common for employee workspaces to be crowded together in the same room, desks pushed against each other. One large office space might be used for 50 employees. North American firms partition individual workspaces and provide private offices for more important employees. In Islamic countries, close proximity may be discouraged between a man and a woman who are not married.
  • 1) Instead of Grandmothers beating the drunk men (in Australia among Aboriginal tribe), I have seen women in Russia push out drunk men from buses/public transportation, which is opposite of the U.S (In the U.S, the law requires to offer a drunk friend or relative to stay over night at their home and not to send them away drunk or drive when drunk). The caste system is connected to the Hindu concept of the four varnas, which order and rank humanity by innate spiritual purity. The highest varna is the Brahmins, or priests (Swami’s). Next comes the Kshatriyas, the warriors, and then the Vaishyas, the merchants. The lowest varna is the Shudras, consisting of labourers, artisans and servants who do work that is ritually unclean. Contact between varnas, and particularly the sharing of food and water, must be limited to avoid pollution of higher, purer individuals by lower, more unclean ones.The Brahmins usually never perform lower caste duties (e.g. cleaning toilets etc) and marriage between a Brahmin and lower castes are unheard off, in rare cases if it happens the Brahmin will no longer be considered a Brahmin and to attain spiritual purity and regain back his/her status has to perform certain Hindu religious rituals including penance in the form of Yatra’s (journey) to the Himalaya’s, dipping in the Ganges and praying… .It is like remaining abstinent by devout Catholics/Christians to remain pure. Eating habits (strictly vegetarian), hygiene (bathing in the morning and evening) religious rituals are very different for Upper castes and are strictly followed by devout Brahmins. To be accepted into the Hindu community these rituals and ceremonies need to be observed/followed.
  • So, we can see here that among the Power Distance Index (PDI) Russia has the highest score of 93, followed by France of 68, then Japan with 54. Canada has the lowest score of 39, closely followed by US with 40.On the Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) index, Russia has again the highest score of 95 among the other countries, followed by Japan with 92 and then France with 86, whereas US and Canada has the lowest scores with 46 and 48 respectively.On the Individualism (IDV) index, USA has the highest score of 91, followed second by Canada of 80 and third by France with 71. Please note that Russia has the lowest score for this dimension among the partners. This can be explained by the differences in culture. In the U.S. people are very individualistic, that is you are expected to be independent, do everything on your own and don’t ask anyone for help. For this reason, team work is emphasized in the work environment in the U.S. (have to be a team player and team leader at the same time as needed). In other Cultures, like Russia and Asian countries (here Japan too has a low score, below 50) this score is usually low because people work in a team/group rather than individually, from an early childhood days decisions are made by parents, they have the final word, when you grow up it is usually the spouse and parents who make the decision or get things done for an individual and in the work environment, decisions are made by the team rather then individually and often advise is sought from experienced/elderly persons, people are more dependent on each other to get anything done. Masculinity – It is interesting to note that Japan has the highest score of 95 for this dimension in comparison to other ISS partners with the U.S of 62 and Canada of 52, whereas Russia then followed by France has the lowest scores (more Feminine countries) of 36 and 43 respectively. This again can be explained by the cultures. Women are esteemed highly in the Russian Culture, from the time a girl is in kindergarten, the boy in the group is expected to be a gentleman and to treat her with respect, to help her take off the coat, help her wear it (It is considered of utmost disrespect to see a woman struggle wearing her coat and if a man (irrespective of which culture he is from) just stands there looking at her struggling with it). March 8 – International Women’s day is a national big celebration in Russia and the CIS countries, where women are given flowers & cards and/or taken out for lunch. When a Russian woman gets married, her Father’s (surname) stays with her and becomes her middle name, and her husband’s last name gets added to the end unlike Asian countries and other cultures, where women are expected to work more, often an Asian woman is seen carrying heavy grocery bags while her partner walks beside her with nothing in the hand. If you recall, Masculine countries are more assertive, argumentative and it can become difficult for two masculine countries to work together.Long Term OrientationJapan has the highest score in this dimension. Canada and US has lowest scores with 23 and 29 respectively.When I was in Brussels in the European Business MBA course, Cross-Cultural training was done for 1 day. Each of us got to find out which cultures we belonged to based on some questions that tested these dimensions (that is do you have the culture of your home or native country or both). In my case when I took this test in 2006 with my class, I was half American and Indian. Your cultural dimension score is dependent on what you value, how long you have been in that country etc. For example, if you like cultural values of modesty and caring over being assertive and competitive, you probably will have a lower score on the Masculinity (MAS) index and you are probably better off in a feminine country like Russia or France or other feminine countries (e.g. Sweden which has very low score of 5) even if you are not native of that country and vice versa. With time, one can become acculturated (take on a second culture) or take on the full culture of the home country and it can change again if the person returns to their native country or with time, depending on the person’s life circumstances. So, now I don’t know whether I am American, Indian, Russian, French, Scottish or Martian 
  • From, the review of literature (JAMA, BMJ, American , there was not current studies done on Astronauts as it pertains to Cross-Cultural training. It does not matter what kind of cross-cultural training one has received (in–class, online etc) or for how long, cross-cultural training has proven to be effective.For example, the study done by Beach et al “Cultural Competency: A Systematic Review of Health Care Provider Educational Interventions” which was published in 2005 indicate that “Cultural competence training shows promise as a strategy for improving the knowledge, attitudes, and skills of health professionals. However, evidence that it improves patient adherence to therapy, health outcomes, and equity of services across racial and ethnic groups is lacking”.
  • These are examples of some cultural patches (as I like to call them), how different organizations, come together, work together now and or in the future. The shape of the patch has no meaning. I just put them together to show how many different organizations (with different cultures) work together for example at the ISS. It was interesting to note/learn from the lectures we had, how Astronauts in a particular Mission design their own patch together. This Patch is that of Apollo 15.
  • HI-SEAS (Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation) is a planetary surface exploration analog site at ~8500 feet on the Mauna Loa side of the saddle area on the Big Island of Hawaii. HI-SEAS is funded for its first season of operation by a grant from the NASA Human Research Program, for research focusing on new forms of food and new food preparation strategies for long-term space exploration. This first mission will involve six astronaut-like (in terms of education, experience, and attitude) crewmembers living in the habitat for 120 days under Mars-exploration conditions (e.g. with communication latencies and blackouts, in close quarters, under strict water-use rules etc.). The crew has been selected from over 700 applicants, and the 120-day simulated mission is scheduled to begin in early 2013. http://hi-seas.org/?p=1278Monitor behavior of Astronauts using OCR and other devices for long term missions (3 years and over) to Mars etc at simulation centers/facilities like HI-SEAS, HawaiiHera is the new data processing facility provided by the HEASARC at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for analyzing FITS format. astronomical data fileshttp://hi-seas.org/?p=1278
  • So, in summary we went over the following learning objectives as set forth, that is defined what is culture?, described some of the common widely accepted organizational cultural theories. I went over with you some of the cultural similarities and differences among different cultures, the Hofestede’s cultural dimension scores of ISS countries/agencies and reviewed some research findings in the literature on cross-cultural training.
  • I was indoctrinated into the Aerospace Medicine Culture here at UTMB, like most of you and got the call sign name of “Valsalva” by you all/my Aerospace Medicine Course Team. Dr. Vasalva was an Italian Physician of the 17th century who is known for the “Valsalva maneuver” and “Valsalva device” used in Space Suits. The Valsalva device - basically a raised foam fixture that can be used to block the nostrils to clear the ears - was removed post-flight from Jeffrey Hoffman's EMU helmet to be discarded. Hoffman donned his helmet and spacesuit during STS-51D Discovery mission for an unscheduled spacewalk that called for David Griggs and him to attach a "flyswatter" device to the end of the robot arm in an attempt to activate a switch on the Syncom satellite that was deployed on the mission in April, 1985.On 25 May 2011, NASA reported that during the second spacewalk of Space Shuttle mission STS-134, astronaut Drew Feustel used a part of his Extravehicular Mobility Unit (spacesuit) to make use of "a spongy device called a Valsalva that is typically used to block the nose in case a pressure readjustment is needed."[3]Dr.Valsalva both studied and taught in the fields of science, surgery, anatomy, physiology, and psychiatry.The Valsalva maneuver or Valsalvamanoeuvre is performed by moderately forceful attempted exhalation against a closed airway, usually done by closing one's mouth, tilting head up, pinching one's nose shut while pressing out as if blowing up a balloon. Variations of the maneuver can be used either in medical examination as a test of cardiac function and autonomic nervous control of the heart, or to "clear" the ears and sinuses (that is, to equalize pressure between them) when ambient pressure changes, as in diving, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, or air travel.Dr. Hoffman (ENT specialist) How to Pop your Ear Safely/Ear Problemshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zYL5wQveEhU&list=PLDBAB6956397447BFI must say I resemble him  and he has similar middle name like mine Maria/Mary.
  • ResourcesCentre for Intercultural Learning. Cultures in Space (. - See more at: http://www.relationsandmore.com/scheins-three-levels-of-culture.html#sthash.w8dw01w8.dpuf
  • Resources. - See more at: http://www.relationsandmore.com/scheins-three-levels-of-culture.html#sthash.w8dw01w8.dpuf
  • Ear Pressure - How Does Ear Pressure Work - Popping Your Ears http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PCpRyp5EUFoEarPopper Ear Pressure Relief Device : How to Use http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fi-3GYCGgsw

Cross-Cultural Training For Astronauts and Space Travelers Cross-Cultural Training For Astronauts and Space Travelers Presentation Transcript

  • Cross- Cultural Training for Astronauts and Space Travelers Tripthi M. Mathew, MD, MPH, MBA, PhD President & CEO, Alpha & Omega Healthcare Management Consulting www.alphanomega.info Presented at University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB), Principles of Aviation and Space Medicine Course July 26, 2013, Galveston, Texas α Ώ Alpha & Omega Healthcare Management Consulting
  • Presentation Overview My Background & Experiences Learning Objectives Definition- What is Culture? Background- Some Cultural Theories/tools: Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions & ISS Methods- Primary and Secondary Sources. Analysis- Hofstede’ Cultural Dimension was applied Results- Cultural Dimension Scores of ISS Countries/Agencies Recommendations/Conclusion- Need for Continued Cross-Cultural Training Contact References Acknowledgements Question & Comments
  • AboutthePresenter Dr. Tripthi Mary Mathew received her MD degree (7 yr program) from the former Soviet Union (Georgia & Belarus), MPH (2 yr full-time) degree from Drexel University, MBA from University of Warwick, and PhD in Business Management with Distinction from Ashwood University, Texas. Has an Offer for Master of Laws (L.L.M) in Public Procurement and Policy at the University of Nottingham, UK. Dr. Mathew has over 10 years of experience in the healthcare industry in various sectors: Private, Public (Federal, State and Local), Academia and Non-profit Dr. Mathew is a member of the World Medical Association, European Medical Association, Russian American Medical Association, Aerospace Medical Association, Women in Aerospace, Aircraft Owners & Pilots Association and member of 50 groups and associations on Linkedin.com Dr. Mathew was nominated as a member to the Global Advisory Board of the American Academy of Project Management; the Editorial Advisory Committee of the Nation's Health- American Public Health Association's Newspaper and is a member of the Harvard Business Review Advisory Council. Dr. Mathew is the Founder, President and CEO of Alpha & Omega Healthcare Management Consulting www.alphanomega.info Multicultural/lingual. Have lived and studied in 4 different continents (Asia-India, Africa- Nigeria, Europe- Former, U.S.S.R, UK, Sweden, Germany, BrusselsLearning to Fly. Discovery Flight on August 30, 2012. In process of preparing for FAA exam for Private Pilot license α Ώ Alpha & Omega Healthcare Management Consulting
  • / First Preventive Medicine/Public Health Job (Vaccine Preventable & Invasive Bacterial Diseases Epidemiologist & State Influenza Surveillance Coordinator, Infectious Disease Epidemiology Program, WVDHHR, 2000-2001) Became U.S. Citizen in Charleston, West Virginia, 2001 and first media interview Altitude Experiences (Snowshoe Mountain-, West Virginia) Working on investigating a respiratory illness outbreak in a Middle School at Pochantos County, West Virginia. Collection of specimens from children at the Pochantos Memorial Hospital, and riding over the Snow Shoe Mountain (4,711 Ft ) to get there Riding with the regional epidemiologist (visiting the counties) on the Shenandoah Mountain (Mountain Ridge between Virginia & West Virginia, highest peak Shenandoah/Blue Ridge Mountain, West Virginia Source: www.innvirginia.com Source: http://www.snowshoemtn.com West Virginia State Capitol on Kanwaha River, Source: www.countryinns.com Source: www. myhuntprofile.com Map of West Virginia Source: http://www..geology.com Flag of WV Source: commonswikimedia.org Source: en.wikpedia.org Dr. Tripthi Mary Mathew Press Interview in the Charleston Daily, October 2, 2001
  • AboutthePresenterCont’d,BelaruswithLove Experience organizing the Injury Prevention Program and participating at Delaware State Health Fairs, Public Health Preparedness etc. Experiences related to living in Extreme Conditions (as it pertains to Aerospace Medicine/Wilderness Medicine/Antarctica):  Young age (I had just turned 17yrs), graduated from high school, entered College  First time living home with no camping experiences  No knowledge of Russian language (not one word)  No Relatives or Friends in Former U.S.S.R (CCCP)  Far, Far from home (India) with no phones, cell phones, internet, TV. Only communication with home is by snail mail which takes 2 months (one month if the letter reaches India and another one month to get reply back from India, if it does not get lost)  Extremely Cold weather ( can reach minus 25 to 30 degree Celsius during winter)  Harsh living conditions: In Georgia (1 year Medical Prep School), “Subotnik”  Lived cramped usually 3 girls/women in a hostel room (if lucky to get one)  Used to tie food in grocery bags and hang them out of the window (as there was no refrigerators or microwaves in the hostel rooms)  Can come home (India) only once a year during summer months (for 1-2 months) as per visa stamped and course requirements, short 1-2 weeks break in Winter.  Planning and Rationing of food supply (dried foods, coffee, tea, pickles etc) and other goods (sanitary products etc, all that you need for 1 yr) brought from home to last 1 year,  Purchasing all supplies for the year usually took 1 month back home (food, medicine, sanitary products, warm clothes, English Medical Books etc)  Medium of Medical Studies- only in Russian Language Alpha & Omega Healthcare Management Consulting
  • From Belarussia withLove Vitebsk State Medical University, Vitebsk, Belarus Source: http://medicoabroadvsmu.weebly.com/index.html α Ώ Alpha & Omega Healthcare Management Consulting
  • Learning Objectives  The participants of this lecture/presentation will be able to define what is culture?  The participants will become aware about the most common organizational cultural theories in management literature  The participants will be able to understand some cultural similarities and differences among different cultures.  The participants will be able to apply Hofstede’s Cultural dimensions to the international partner countries of the ISS, and understand cultural similarities and differences among them.  The participants will be able to learn the effectiveness of some cross- cultural training conducted in healthcare setting and in the business environment. α Ώ Alpha & Omega Healthcare Management Consulting
  • Definition of Culture What is Culture (Kultura in Russian)? Culture of a group, organization, society country consists of language (s), religion (s), norms, values, social habits, dress, cuisine, music and arts. As per Geert Hofstede, a Dutch anthropologist, views culture as “collective mental programming” of people. What is Enculturation? It is the process by which people learn the requirements of their surrounding culture and acquire values and behaviors appropriate or necessary in that culture.[ What is Acculturation? The process of adjusting and adapting to a culture other than one’s own. α Ώ Alpha & Omega Healthcare Management Consulting
  • Quotes on Culture “Culture is the widening of the mind and of the spirit”. - Jawaharlal Nehru “Culture of the mind must be subservient to the heart”. - Mahatma Gandhi “No culture can live if it attempts to be exclusive”. - Mahatma Gandhi “Preservation of one’s own culture does not require contempt or disrespect for other cultures”. -Cesar Chavez “ The tendency to aggression is an innate, independent, instinctual disposition in man…it constitutes the powerful obstacle to culture” . -Sigmund Freud “If everybody is looking for it, then nobody is finding it. If we were cultured, we would not be conscious of lacking culture. We would regard it as something natural and would not make so much fuss about it. And if we knew the real value of this word we would be cultured enough not to give it so much importance.” - Pablo Picasso “No occupation is so delightful to me as the culture of the earth, and no culture comparable to that of the garden” - Thomas Jefferson “If art is to nourish the roots of our culture, society must set the artist free to follow his vision wherever it takes him” - John F. Kennedy α Ώ Alpha & Omega Healthcare Management Consulting
  • Background International Space Station (ISS) International Partnership. Established 14 yrs ago in 1998, first module built and sent was unmanned Russian Module Zarya. The ISS was manned 12 yrs ago in 2000 (as per Astronaut Sunita Williams, Commander of 33rd Expedition). Consists of 5 Space Agencies (NASA, ESA, Roscosmos, JAXA, CSA) 24 Countries (US, Canada Japan, Russia and ESA Member States: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom). Official Language on ISS: English Current Crew on Expedition 36 consists of 3 Russians, 2 Americans and 1 Italian Current Mission (36th) Period: May, 2013 to September, 2013 Pictured on the front row are Expedition 36 Commander Pavel Vinogradov (left) and Flight Engineer Fyodor Yurchikhin. Pictured from the left (back row) are Flight Engineers Alexander Misurkin, Chris Cassidy, Luca Parmitano and Karen Nyberg. Photo credit: NASA α Ώ Alpha & Omega Healthcare Management Consulting
  • View from the International Space Station (ISS) Texas MetropolitanAreas at Night Astronaut Photography taken on July 1, 2013 α Ώ Alpha & Omega Healthcare Management Consulting
  • Cultural Theories Schein’s Iceberg Model of Culture 1) Artefacts 2) Espoused Beliefs and Values 3) Basic Underlying Assumptions Handy’s Organizational Culture 1) Power Culture (Spider in the center of a web) 2) Role Culture (Bureaucratic structure) 3) Task Culture (Team) 4) Person Culture Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions 1) Power Distance (PDI) 2) Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) 3) Individualism (ID) 4) Masculinity (MAS) 5) Long-Term Orientation (LTO) Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner Dimensions (Seven Dimensions) 1) Universalism vs Particularism 2) Individualism vs Communitarianism 3) Specific vs Diffuse 4) Neutral vs emotional 5) Achievement vs ascription 6) Sequential time vs synchronous time 7) Internal direction vs outer direction α Ώ Alpha & Omega Healthcare Management Consulting
  • Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions  Power Distance- Power distance is defined as the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organisations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. It describes how the society deals with the inequalities in power that exist among people.  Uncertainty Avoidance-The extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these situations. It implies the extent to which people can tolerate risk and uncertainty in their lives.  Individualism-It is the degree of interdependence a society maintains among its members. It describes whether a person functions primarily as an individual or within a group.  Masculinity- The fundamental issue here is what motivates people, wanting to be the best (masculine) or liking what you do (feminine). Masculine cultures tend to value competitiveness, assertiveness, ambition, and the accumulation of wealth. Feminine cultures emphasize nurturing roles, interdependence among people, and taking care of less fortunate people.  Long Term vs Short-term Orientation-dealing with society’s search for virtue, the extent to which a society shows a pragmatic future-oriented perspective rather than a conventional historical short-term point of view. Denotes the degree to which people and organizations defer gratification to achieve long- term success. Source: The Hofstede Center, 2013. Internet. http://geert-hofstede.com/dimensions.html α Ώ Alpha & Omega Healthcare Management Consulting
  • Methods Question: Is there any cross-cultural training done for Astronauts? What is the effectiveness of cross-cultural training? Primary Data Sources: E-mails and Discussions with Dr. Ogata, Dr. Lindgren, Dr. Castleberry, Dr. Beven, Dr. Schmid and Presentation/lecture of Dr. Moore, Dr. Scott & Dr. Vanderploeg . Secondary Sources: Literature review using Google Scholar, Pubmed. Keywords: Cross-Cultural Training in Astronauts, Cross-Cultural Competence
  • Analysis:Hofstede’sCulturalDimensionScores forISSPartners Countries/Agen cies at ISS Power Distance Index (PDI) Uncertainty Avoidance (UA) Individualism (IDV) Masculinity (MAS) Long Term Orientation USA (NASA) 40 46 91 62 29 Canada (CSA- Canadian Space Agency) 39 48 80 52 23 Russia (Roscosmos- The Russian Federal Space Agency ) 93 95 39 36 - Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) 54 92 46 95 80 France ESA (European Space Agency) 68 86 71 43 - Source: Mathew, TM. Global Management of Healthcare Systems: One-World-One-Care? 4th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI, 2011), November 14-16, 2011; Madrid, Spainα Ώ
  • Different Business Cultures Countries Greetings Dress Punctuality Language Other USA Firm Handshake Casual Business/Inform al (Moderate Importance) of Highest Importance (Don’t be late-Zero Tolerance) English-High Importance placed on Accent (although Americans all have different accents and come from different countries) Talkative /like to engage in small talk/Frie ndly α Ώ Alpha & Omega Healthcare Management Consulting
  • Different Business Cultures Countries/Agen cies at ISS Greetings Dress Punctuality Language Other Russia (C.I.S Countries/Former Soviet Union) Unknown Person/First Time meeting- Drasthivithe Well Known- Drasthivithie, Kak Dela (How are you?), and a Hug Of High Importance Well Dressed/F ormal (of Highest Importanc ) Moderate Low- Don’t care about how you speak or pronounce Russian/Gra mmar very complex (Easy to please Russians) Russian Language- 2nd most difficult language, 1st Chinese If you are a Man and happen to be in Russia in the winter, and you are in a meeting (there are women present, expect to help them take their coats off and help themα Ώ Alpha & Omega Healthcare Management Consulting
  • Can you name three classical Hollywood movies that teaches one or more elements of culture that we defined earlier e.g. Language, music, dress? Cultural Misunderstandings. The Italian Man who went to Malta. 2008 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F_N1Cmt_QB0 (1:13) 16 Rude & Interesting Gestures Around the World: explained by Skyscanner http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a1b6MGoxekY Mind Your Language (Britcom Comedy/ TV series) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u1QxzpWbbdI α Ώ Alpha & Omega Healthcare Management Consulting
  •  Similarities between the Aboriginal Tribe in Australia (Dr. Roden’s lecture) and People of the former Soviet Union with regards to Alcohol Consumption. There is intolerance to drinking (considered a public disgrace).  The tribal markings on the skin made by the Aboriginal tribe in Australia is similar to those of different tribes in Africa.  Can only marry someone from the same Aboriginal tribe (if not punished by having a spear thrown on leg), which is similar to caste system in India (where marriage is allowed only between people from the same caste, if not frowned upon by parents, cut off from relatives, looked down by Indian Society).  “The Cast System is connected to the four varnas, which order and rank humanity by innate spiritual purity. The highest varna is the Brahmins, or Priests (Swami/Sanyasi). Next come the Kshatriyas, the warriors, and then the Vaishyas, the merchants. The lowest varna is the Shudras, consisting of labourers, artisans and servants who do work that is ritually unclean”.  Contact between varnas, particularly the sharing of food and water, must be limited to avoid pollution of higher, purer individuals by lower, more unclean ones. α Ώ Alpha & Omega Healthcare Management Consulting
  • Results Cultural Dimensions  Among the five space agency countries (head quarter locations only), there was no equal (50/50) distribution on any of Hofstede’s Cultural dimension (IDV, UA, PDI, MAS, LTO) scores .  Among the 5 space agencies, the distribution of feminine countries is 40% and 60 % are masculine countries. In general, the women & men in feminine countries are more modest, and caring than their masculine counterpart countries who are assertive, and competitive.  The women in these masculine countries are not as assertive, competitive as the men, which mean there is a gap between men’s and women’s values.  Canada and US (low scores), 40% of the countries have short term orientation. This kind of orientation is characterized by values of respect for tradition, fulfilling social obligations, and protecting “one’s” face in contrast to countries with long term orientation values of thrift and perseverance (Geert Hofstede.com, 2010).  Three of the partner space agency countries had high Power Distance Index (PDI) scores whereas 2 countries had low scores. This indicates how citizens of these countries view equality of power and wealth within their societies and accepted by the population as a cultural norm. A higher PDI score indicating a high level of inequality of power and wealth within the society, accepted by the population of that country (Geert Hofstede.com, 2010).  Three out of the five space agency countries (60%) had high scores on Individualism (with US being the highest) index. α Ώ Alpha & Omega Healthcare Management Consulting
  • Cross-Cultural Training Research Findings • One full day training on Cross- Cultural training for Astronauts (primary data sources, Lindgren etc) • Cross- Cultural Training Rotation of Astronauts in 5 different Space Agencies • Hardly any recent studies done on effectiveness of Cross-Cultural training on Astronauts in literature. Most recent one published in 2007. There is a NASA report published in 2011. • From the literature review on the effectiveness of Cross-Cultural Training/Cultural Competence, it is interesting to note the following:  “Cultural competence training improved the knowledge, attitudes & skills of health professionals” (Beach et al, 2005)  “Cross-cultural training as a mechanism to address racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare….”, “The need for significant improvement in cross-cultural care to help eliminate racial and ethnic disparities” (Weissmann et al, 2005)  “Teaching of cultural diversity has been developed in the UK, but seems fragmented” (Dogra et al, 2005)  “Cross-Cultural training in general is effective” (Black, SJ & Mendenhall, M, 1990)  “Documentary and interpersonal training methods had additive benefits in preparing managers for intercultural work assignments” (Earley, 1987) α Ώ Alpha & Omega Healthcare Management Consulting
  • Cultural Patches Ώα Alpha & Omega Healthcare Management Consultingα Ώ
  • Recommendations Continue Team Work Promote & Continue Collaborative Projects Continue Promoting Awareness about different Cultures through Cross-Cultural Training. Consider Hofstede’s cultural dimension for a deeper understanding in cross- national interactions with business partners/space agencies, astronauts and value-chain members (commerical space travel organizations, space travelers). Conduct studies on the effectiveness of cross-cultural training on Astronauts. For NASA Astronauts (Continue the move from task-based culture to a skill based culture) Use Language translators/interpreters with medical/scientific background to improve communication. Use devices (OCR) /technology (simulations using HERA & HI-SEAS) that could study facial expressions, social interactions and curtail astronaut conflict. Develop integrated space suits with lingual/cultural resources/capacity to remove cultural barriers for future space travelers (commercial) Astronauts exploring Mars will need to reduce conflict and encourage teamwork. Image Credit: HI- SEAS/Sian HI-SEAS: Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation Source: http://hi- seas.org/?p=1278 α Ώ Alpha & Omega Healthcare Management Consulting
  • Summary What is Culture? Organizational Culture Theories (common ones/widely accepted) Cultural similarities and differences among different cultures. Hofestede’s Cultural Dimension Scores of ISS Countries/Agencies and understand cultural similarities and differences among them. Research findings from the literature on the effectiveness of cross-cultural training conducted in healthcare setting and in the business environment. Untethered Astronaut Bruce McCandless Source: wikipedia
  • Contact Dr. Valsalva (Val)- My Call Sign Dr.Val_Aerospace@yahoo.com Dr. Antonio Maria Valsalva January 17,1666 – February 2,1723 Source: Photo courtesey Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Maria_Valsalva Astronaut Jeffrey A. HoffmanEVA-1 Valsalva Device Source: Collect Space .com http://www.collectspace.com/collection/artifacts_sts_sts51dvals.html Website: www.alphanomega.info Linkedin.com: http://www.linkedin.com/in/mathewtm You Tube: http://www.youtube.com/user/DrMathewTM Skype: DrTripthiM Alpha & Omega Healthcare Management Consultingα Ώ
  • References/Resources1) Say Hello to your very own books of Quotes. Quotes about Culture. Internet http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/culture.html#u6vcBG8DzWoBKl4I.99 3) REFLECTIVE LEADERSHIP PRACTICE Can Culture Be Changed?2012 http://archive.constantcontact.com/fs082/1106536376264/archive/1109900773525.html 4) Embedding Culture into BCM. 2013. Internet. http://www.continuityinsights.com/articles/2013/03/embedding-culture-bcm 5) Conflicts between Astronauts Could Jeopardize Trip to Mars. 2013. Internet. http://lsiblog.blogspot.com/2013/07/conflicts-between-astronauts-could.html 6) Technology could curtail Astronaut Conflict. 2013. Internet. http://www.astrobio.net/exclusive/5550/technology-could-curtail-astronaut-conflict 7) The Hi-SEAS Habitat. 2013. Internet. http://hi-seas.org/?p=1278 8) Antonio Maria Salva 2013.Internet.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Maria_Valsalva 9) EVA-1 Valsalva Device.Internet.2012. http://www.collectspace.com/collection/artifacts_sts_sts51dvals.html 10) Management. Perspective and Practice. Handy’s four tyoes of Organizational Culture.Internet. http://www.open.edu/openlearn/money-management/management/leadership-and-managem... 11) The Seven Dimensions of Culture. Understanding and Managing Cultural Differences. http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/seven-dimensions.htm 12) Edgar H. Schein (1985). Organizational Culture and Leadership. John Wiley & Sons 13) NASA. Team Training for Long-Duration Missions in Isolated and Confirmed Environments, A Literature Review, an Operational Assessment, and Recommendations for Practice and Research. 2011. α Ώ Alpha & Omega Healthcare Management Consulting
  • Acknowledgements I like to thank the following persons for their direct or indirect response/feedback/support or information through their lectures on this project/presentation: Dr. Tarah Castleberry Dr. Chuck Mathers, Dr. Richard Jennings, Dr. Charles Berry, Dr. James Vanderploeg, Dr. Sandra Moore, Dr. Josef Schmid, Dr. Gary Bevens, Astronaut Lindgren, Dr. Anil Menon Dr. Katsu Ogata, Dr. Sean Roden Dr. Graham Scott, Dr. Serena Aunon Mrs. Yvette Schulz, Ms. Diane Ellison α Ώ Alpha & Omega Healthcare Management Consulting
  • Questions/Comments Take Home Preventive Medicine Message: Think of doing “Valsalva”, and other remedies (ear poppers) when you fly, while descending…………… Principles of Aviation and Space Medicine Course, Class of 2013 Group Photo at NBL, Houston, Texas Source: Courtesy Dr. Dalbir Makh α Ώ Alpha & Omega Healthcare Management Consulting