Power Generation by Application of Photo-Voltaic BY O.A. AKINOLA DEPT. OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE ABEOKUTA NIGERIAPAPER PRESENTED AT THE 2012 NIGERIA ALTERNATIVE ENERGY EXPO, JUNE 12 CULTURAL CENTRE, ABEOKUTA, OGUN STATE, NIGEIRA
Did you know that…? The 89 PW of sunlight reaching the Earths surface is plentiful – almost 6,000 times more than the 15 TW equivalent of average power consumed by humans. Solar electric generation has the highest power density (global mean of 170 W/m 2) among renewable energies By the end of 2011, a total of 67.4 GW had been installed, sufficient to generate 85 TWh/year. Solar photovoltaic is now, after hydro and wind power, the third most important renewable energy source in terms of globally installed capacity The first 1 MWP solar park was built by Arco Solar at Lugo near Hesperia, California at the end of 1982, followed in 1984 by a 5.6 MW P installation in Cerrizo Plain. The largest solar parks currently operating have capacities between 200 and 300MWP. The largest sites under construction have capacities of hundreds of MW P and projects at a scale of 1 GWP are being planned.
Outline Introduction What is Photovoltaic What is Photovoltaic system Application Advantages Power Ratings Site Area and Land Use Some Power Plants Around the World Power Cost Energy Storage PV System under construction and Planned Solar Cell Companies and their Rankings World Largest PV Systems
IntroductionWhat is Photovoltaic?Photovoltaic (PV) is a method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect.Materials presently used for photovoltaic include monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline, amorphous, cadmium telluride, and copper indium gallium selenide/ sulfide.
What is Photovoltaic systems? Photovoltaic systems (PV system) use solar panels to convert sunlight into electricity. A system is made up of one or more solar photovoltaic (PV) panels, a DC/AC power converter (also known as an inverter), a racking system that holds the solar panels, electrical interconnections, and mounting for other components. Optionally it may include a maximum power point tracker (MPPT), battery system and charger, solar tracker, energy management software, solar concentrators or other equipment. A small PV system may provide energy to a single consumer, or to an isolated device like a lamp or a weather instrument. Large grid-connected PV systems can provide the energy needed by many customers.
Application of photovoltaic Power station 80 MW Okhotnykoyo Solar Park in Ukraine The 25.7 MW Lauingen Energy Park in Bavarian Swabia, Germany Bellpuig Solar ParkNear Lerida Spain uses pole-mounted 2-axis trackers Waldpolenz Solar Park divided into blocks each with a centralised inverter
Application of photovoltaic Photovoltaic wall at MNACTEC Terrassa in Spain The 104kW solar highway Standalonenear Tualatin Oregon in December 2008 Solar parking paystation
Advantages Solar electric generation has the highest power density (global mean of 170 W/m2) among renewable energies Solar power is pollution-free during use PV installations can operate for many years with little maintenance or intervention after their initial set-up, so after the initial capital cost of building any solar power plant, operating costs are extremely low compared to existing power technologies. Grid-connected solar electricity can be used locally thus reducing transmission/distribution losses .
Power RatingPhotovoltaic power stations are typically rated in terms of the DC peak capacity of the solar arrays as follows mega watt-peak (MWP), nominal maximum AC output in megawatts (MW) mega volt-amperes(MVA). Most solar parks are developed at a scale of at least 1 MWP. The largest operating photovoltaic power stations have capacities of hundreds of MWP; projects up to 1 GWP are planned
Site area and Land Use Fixed tilt solar arrays using typical modules of about 15% efficiency on horizontal sites, need about 1 hectare/MW in the tropics and this figure rises to over 2 hectare in other location. Some large photovoltaic power stations like Waldpolenz Solar Park and Topaz Solar Farm cover tens or hundreds of hectares and have power outputs up to hundreds of megawatts. The best locations for solar parks in terms of land use are held to be brown field sites, or where there is no other valuable land use. Even in cultivated areas, a significant proportion of the site of a solar farm can also be devoted to other productive uses, such as grazing or biodiversity.
Some Power Plants Around the World Name Country Nominal power Commissioned noteLugo USA 1 MW Dec 1982 First MW plantCarrisa Plain USA 5.6 MW Dec 1985 World’s largestHemau Germany 4.0 MW Apr 2003 Europe’s largest; community ownedLeipziger Land Germany 4.2 MW Aug 2004 Europe’s largest; first under FITsPocking Germany 22 MW Apr 2006 Worlds and Europes largestNellis Airforce Base, Nevada USA 14 MW Dec 2007 Americas largestOlmedilla[ Spain 60 MW Jul 2008 Worlds and Europes largestSinan[ Korea 24 MW Aug 2008 Asias largestWaldpolenz, Saxony Germany 40 MWP Dec 2008 Worlds largest thin film plant. Extended to 52 MWP in 2011
Some Power Plants Around the WorldDeSoto, Florida[ USA 25 MW Oct 2009 Americas largestLa Roseraye Reunion 11 MWP Apr 2010 Africas first 10MW+ plantSarnia, Ontario Canada 97 MWP (80 MWAC) Sep 2010 Worlds largestGolmud[ China 200 MW Oct 2011 Worlds largestCharanka, Gujarat India 214 MW Apr 2012 Worlds and Asias largest (consists of multiple solar power plants co-located on the same site)Agua Caliente, Arizona[ USA To be: 290 MWAC Jul 2012 Passes 200 MW in July 2012 to become worlds largest solar parkWalkaway, Western Australia 10 MW Oct 2012 Largest in AustraliaAustralia[Topaz, California USA To be: 500 MWAC 2013 Construction started 2011/12[
Power Cost The table below shows the total cost in US cents per kWh of electricity generated by a photovoltaic system using the Levelized Energy Cost (LEC) which is the price at which electricity must be generated from a specific source to break even over the lifetime of the project. The row headings on the left show the total cost, per peak kilowatt (kWp), of a photovoltaic installation. The calculated values in the table reflect the total cost in cents per kilowatt- hour produced. They assume a 5%/year total capital cost (for instance 4% interest rate, 1% operating and maintenance cost, and depreciation of the capital outlay over 20 years). Normally, photovoltaic modules have a 25 year warranty.
Energy Storage Solar energy can be stored at high temperatures using molten salts. Salts are an effective storage medium because they are low-cost, have a high specific heat capacity and can deliver heat at temperatures compatible with conventional power systems. The Solar Two used this method of energy storage, allowing it to store 1.44 TJ in its 68 m³ storage tank, enough to provide full output for close to 39 hours, with an efficiency of about 99%. Off-grid PV systems have traditionally used rechargeable batteries to store excess electricity. With grid-tied systems, excess electricity can be sent to the transmission grid.
Some PV System under Construction and PlannedLegend: * Under construction; ** Planned
Some World Largest PV System Veprek Solar Park Waldpolenz Solar Park35.1Mwp in Czech Republic 52 MWp in Germany
Some World Largest PV System DeSoto Next Generation Solar Lieberose Photovoltaic ParkEnergy Center. 25MWP in U.S.A 71.8 MWp in Germany Golmud Solar Park China 200MWp Completed October 2011
ConclusionNigeria has sufficient solar resources which can be harnessed to power the whole nation. We need to take the responsibility of creating a green world of pollution free and environmental friendly.Photovoltaic system is the answer to alternate and renewable energy production in Nigeria.