Overcoming barriers for the scaling up of ee appliances in nigeria
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The Nigeria Alternative Energy Expo is Nigeria’s leading Energy Expo. NAEE features line-up of local and international speakers, delegates and exhibitors, who will gather to debate a new energy ...

The Nigeria Alternative Energy Expo is Nigeria’s leading Energy Expo. NAEE features line-up of local and international speakers, delegates and exhibitors, who will gather to debate a new energy future for Africa's most populous nation

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Overcoming barriers for the scaling up of ee appliances in nigeria Overcoming barriers for the scaling up of ee appliances in nigeria Presentation Transcript

  • Overcoming barriers for the scaling up of EECONFIDENTIAL appliances in Nigeria Jason YappDocument Oct 2011DateThis report is solely for the use of client personnel. No part of it may becirculated, quoted, or reproduced for distribution outside the clientorganization without prior written approval from McKinsey & Company.This material was used by McKinsey & Company during an oralpresentation; it is not a complete record of the discussion.
  • Unit of measure Content •Lessons learnt •Energy Baseline scenarios •Barriers analysis •UNDP GEF EE Outcomes & outputs •Challenges * FootnoteSource: Source 2 2
  • Win-Win-Win SolutionsUnit of measure The Ghana Standard, GS362: 2001, label and test procedure for Room Air Conditioners was gazetted in December 2001•Save Ghanaian consumers an average of $64 million annually in energybills.•Average price increase 3%, 9% improved efficiency = Payback < 9 months•In 2003 compliance with the standard freed up 13 MW of generating capacity• By 2013 will be saving the equivalent of a 150MW generating plant.• By 2020, this standard alone will be saving about 950GWh per year, freeing up nearly 250MW of generating capacity that can be used for other productive purposes, and that number will increase through 2030, all at net negative cost to the economy (virtual power generation).• In contrast, the 200MW Bui hydropower plant is being constructed at a cost of nearly US$600 million.• Carbon dioxide emissions will be reduced by about 2.8 million tons over 30 years (104,890 tons per year). * FootnoteSource: Source 3
  • Unit of measure • Population - 150 million • Well endowed with oil and natural gas • Largest emitters of GHG in Africa – off-gas flaring * FootnoteSource: Source 4 4
  • Energy Supply ChallengesUnit of measure PHCN 11 companies Current Electricity Demand estimated at over 15,000 MW (Peak), 10,000 MW during off peak. Current Power Generation: 2,500 MW – 4,000 MW Deficit 7,500-11,000 MW leading to frequent load shedding, poor access and energy poverty Caused by inefficient generation, interruptions in gas supplies, high transmission & distribution losses and non technical losses (pilfering and clandestine connection) * FootnoteSource: Source 5
  • Supply ChallengesUnit of measure Electricity demand is increasing at about 7% annually Focus on supply side management at the expense of demand side management Heavy reliance on diesel generators – 60 million owners and cost USD 92 million per year Dirty, noisy and smelly Could this UNDP GEF EE project provides some solutions? * FootnoteSource: Source 6
  • Unit of measure Unreliable Infrastructure services 7 * FootnoteSource: Source 7
  • Household income and electricity accessUnit of measure Lack of access to sustainable energy will impede economic growth and national * development and increase poverty FootnoteSource: Source 8 8
  • World Energy Development Index 2010Unit of measure Malaysia= 0.83 IEA’s Energy Development Index is an average of four indicators: ii) per capita commercial energy consumption (toe); Nigeria = 0.17 iii) per capita electricity consumption (toe); iv) % population share of modern fuels (e.g. LPG, CFL, LED) and v) % population share of access to electricity. 9 * FootnoteSource: Source 9
  • Overarching Climate Change StrategyUnit of measure National Development Priorities Vision 2020/NEEDS/President 7 Points Agenda Danger Low Carbon, High Growth, Climate Resilient, Social Opportunity Equity & Sustainable Development Mitigation Low Carbon Path Adaptation Climate Industrial Renewable Natural Energy Energy Resilient Emissions Energy Resource Efficiency Access Human Reductions Management Development Methane Vulnerability and Diversified ODS Phase Energy efficient capture/solar Adaptation Livelihoods Out appliances and Hydropower Assessment building Decentralized/ Adaptation Adaptive Feed In Habitat Off grid Mainstreaming Tariff Conservation Territorial Approach on Climate Change Climate Change Governance Capacity Development and Resource Mobilization UNDAF and UNDP CPAP 2009-2012 * FootnoteSource: Source 10
  • Unit of measure * FootnoteSource: Source 11
  • Myth and realityUnit of measureMyth: When an appliance is left on standby, it’s off.Reality: Many people presume electrical products are off, whenthey are on standby. In this mode, they continue to consumepower. Be especially wary of equipment that has a remotecontrol: this is a tell tale sign that the equipment is on standbywhile waiting to receive the “on” signal from the remote. A red orgreen LED light is another tell tale sign.Myth: It’s better to leave fluorescent lights on rather than turningthem off when you leave a room.Reality: This consumes unnecessary energy. A fluorescent tubeuses over five hundred times more energy if left on for fifteenminutes than the energy needed to restart it. * FootnoteSource: Source 12
  • Barriers to EE InvestmentUnit of measure 1. Policy and Regulatory • Lack of appliance standards and labels • Highly subsidized electricity tariff – no incentive to save • Lack of metering – no ‘feel’ of electricity usage and opportunity cost is high • Procurement policies favour lowest cost • Import duties on EE equipment • Unclear or underdeveloped institutional framework to support EE • Lack of credible testing centre • Poor enforcement (Custom and SON) * FootnoteSource: Source 13
  • Barriers to EE InvestmentUnit of measure 2. Appliance suppliers (MIDR) •Limited demand for EE goods and services •Fluctuating voltages and load shedding •Appropriate design (screw/pin, tubular – transport damage) •Affordability * FootnoteSource: Source 14
  • Barriers to EE InvestmentUnit of measure 3. End user •Lack of awareness of EE •Inferior imported EE products – lack of confidence – dumping ground •Concept of energy savings is ‘virtual’ – cannot ‘see’ • Lack of incentives • Lack of credible data • Disempower to act and take informed decision • Media unfamiliar with EE concept * FootnoteSource: Source 15
  • EE Governance for Market TransformationUnit of measure 4. Pilot CFL 3. Capacity Sensitized Development Enabling Manufacturers Who? Environment- Importers - Public/private Market Drivers 1.EE Policy & Distributors sectors Retailers - Policymakers Legislation - Lawmakers 2. S & L EE Appliances - Industry supported by - Commerce accredited Incentives - Consumers testing centres Fiscal Appliances: Microfinance What and how? CFL Carbon - Awareness Street lights - Publicity - Media Refrigerators Well informed - Co-benefits Air-conditioners Low Carbon, - Life cycle cost Electric motors analysis Water Heaters Climate - Monetary and Pumps Resilient and Energy saving Sustainable - Carbon mitigation Consumers ECOWAS Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Centre * FootnoteSource: Source 16
  • 4 years Annual Work PlanUnit of measure 2011-2012 2012-2013 2013-2014 2014-2015 Outcomes Outputs M J J A S O N D J F MAM J J A S O N D J F MAM J J A S O N D J F MAM J J A S O N D J F MAOUTCOME 1: Output 1.1: Energy & GHG savings potential for Enhancing the each main end-users in the residential and publicCapacities of all sector validated relevantstakeholders at Output 1.2: Develop an inventory for the the national monitoring and data collection system for end-uselevel regarding sales, energy demand and energy consumption the concept, Output 1.3: Awareness of the political and policy nature and decision makers’ on end-use energy efficiency potential of options and potentials for GHG reductions energy enhancedefficiency in theresidential and Output 1.4: Energy efficiency policy and public sector legislation drafted and approved by ParliamentOUTCOME 2:DEVELOPME Output 2.1: National testing centres and NT OF NEW certification procedures for promoting energy ENERGY efficiency developedEFFICIENCY Output 2.2: Pilot program launched to test and LEGAL finalize appropriate energy efficiency schemes suchREQUIREME as energy labels NTS FOR A SERIES OF Output 2.3: National labelling content and format is END-USE designed, tested, validated and adoptedEQUIPMENTIN NIGERIA Output 2.4: A relevant multiyear timetable is set to assure a coherent implementation * FootnoteSource: Source 17
  • Unit of measure GfK Retail Panel Nigeria - Covered Channels 2010 Examples GfK Panelmarket Traditional Markets Lagos Abuja Kano Ibadan Aba Onitsha Kaduna Port Harc. BeninComputer GSM Village Ibrahim Taiwo Dugbe Ekeoha Elector-mart Ahmadu Bello Town Ring RoadVillage Road Shopping Way Neighbourhoo Sango Iweka Road Ikwerre Road Mission Road CentreGSM Village d Beirut Road Lagos Street Iwo Road Emeka Offor Artillery/Aba New Benin Pound RoadIkeja Emab Plaza Plaza Road Ogunpa AriariaIdumota Wuze 2 Jerry O Olu Obasanjo Challenge St. Michael PlazaAgege Zone 3 GSM Village RoadAlaba Sharif Plaza 300 PortApapa Nyanya Harcourt RoadOshodi MarabaVictoriaIsland * FootnoteSource: Source 18
  • Nigeria – Panel Activities 2010Unit of measure SINCE Covered Mobile Phones January 2007 Product Smart phones January 2007 Groups CRT-TV/PTV (FLAT/Plasma) January 2008 AHS January 2009 DVD January 2009 Refrigerators January 2009 Airconditioners January 2009 Washing Machines January 2010 Deep Freezers January 2010 Freestanding Cookers January 2010 Covered Cities Lagos January 2007 Abuja January 2007 Kano January 2008 Expansion to Kaduna, Ibadan, January 2010 Onitsha, Aba, Port Harcourt & Benin City Audit 1.Monthly Frequency 2.Weekly (By Request) Coverage GSM 80%, CE 85%, MDA 85% * FootnoteSource: Source 19
  • Unit of measure Electrical Department Store in Lagos * FootnoteSource: Source 20
  • 36 39 82721 10602662 2103381 82721 Market TOTAL Cooling Panelmarket II - MDA Dec 10 SalesThsUnits/SalesMioEur Nigeria Volume Zahlen Dec 09 -NG RG/2103381 - RP Intern) Sales bimonthly(Bars) COOLING -ohneALL COLUMN_ROWS 2011-05-30 14:26:08 (DataMart10602662 - ID 279319731 Last 7 Ths. Units,Sales <LC> Mio. SalesThsUnits/SalesMioEur C:UsersmlknorAppDataLocalTempCH9507.tmp PRJUnit of measure COOLING Sales Ths. Units,Sales <LC> Mio. Nigeria Panelmarket Dec 09 - Dec 10 Dec 09 Jan 10 Feb 10 Mar 10 Apr 10 May 10 Jun 10 Jul 10 Aug 10 Sep 10 Oct 10 Nov 10 Dec 10 Sales Ths. Units Monthly Sales Development Sales <LC> Mio. © by GfK-RT, www. gfk rt. com PRJ 82721 - RG 2103381 - RP 10602662 - ID 279319731 * FootnoteSource: Source 21
  • 84 90 MDA 10602664 2103381 TOTAL 82721 Units RG SalesThsUnits Zahlen Cooling NG Dec10 Nigeria Panelmarket Jan-Dec09 ohne 2103381 - Sales82721 14:26:10 COOLINGand ALL (DataMart COLUMN_STACKED_100 RP 10602664 2011-05-30 -% Channels (Running Report) MAT/YTD/7Per / SalesThsUnits Intern) - ID 279319792 Segments II - C:UsersmlknorAppDataLocalTempCH98F3.tmp PRJUnit of measure COOLING Sales Units % Nigeria Panelmarket Jan-Dec09 - Dec10 Jan- Jan- Dec09 Jan-Dec10 Jan-Dec09 Dec10 Dec09 Jan10 Feb10 Mar10 Apr10 May10 Jun10 Jul10 Aug10 Sep10 Oct10 Nov10 Dec10 FS 1 DR UPTO 80 CM Cumulative and monthly Sales Share Development FS 1 DR 81 - 90 CM By product segment FS 1 DR >90 CM FS 2 DR FRZ. TOP FS 2 DR FRZ. BTM FS SIDE BY SIDE FS <Others> BI/BU 1 DR 81 - 90 CM BI/BU 1 DR >90 CM BI/BU 2 DR FRZ. TOP BI/BU 2 DR FRZ. BTM BI/BU <Others> Sales Ths. Units * Footnote © by Gf K-RT, www. gfk rt. com PRJ 82721 - RG 2103381 - RP 10602664 - ID 279319792Source: Source 22
  • Unit of measure105 09-Dec ohne Zahlen117MDA by 09,Jan %10602665TOTAL 2103381 RP2103381Panelmarket82721 Units - Units 10-Dec-10 Intern)Total/FS/BIBU / Energy Label Units %Sales82721 14:26:11COOLING %RG ALL (DataMart10602665 - ID 279319794EnergyFeaturesCooling NGNigeria LabelJanCOLUMN_STACKED_1002011-05-30 Total,FS,BI/BUII -Total/FS/BIBU C:UsersmlknorAppDataLocalTempCH9EE3.tmp PRJ COOLING Sales Units % Nigeria Panelmarket Jan 09-Dec 09,Jan 10-Dec 10 Total FS 1 DR 81 - 90 CM FS 1 DR >90 CM FS 2 DR FRZ. TOP FS 2 DR FRZ. BTM Jan 09-Dec 09 Jan 10-Dec 10 Jan 09-Dec 09 Jan 10-Dec 10 Jan 09-Dec 09 Jan 10-Dec 10 Jan 09-Dec 09 Jan 10-Dec 10 Jan 09-Dec 09 Jan 10-Dec 10 A ++ A + A B C D E F G Others Cumulative Sales Share Development By product segment and European Energy Label (coded if available) Sales Units % Sales Ths. Units * © by Gf K-RT, www. gfk rt. comFootnote PRJ 82721 - RG 2103381 - RP 10602665 - ID 279319794 Source: Source 23
  • Metering studyUnit of measure Study 1 10 high/middle + 10 poor = 20 HH Monitor for 1 year – seasonal impact Study 2 25 high/middle + 25 poor in 6 geopolitical zones – monitor monthly = 300 HH * FootnoteSource: Source 24
  • Unit of measure * FootnoteSource: Source 25
  • Unit of measure * FootnoteSource: Source 26
  • Unit of measure * FootnoteSource: Source 27
  • Unit of measure * FootnoteSource: Source 28
  • Unit of measure * FootnoteSource: Source 29
  • Unit of measure * FootnoteSource: Source 30
  • Unit of measure * FootnoteSource: Source 31
  • Unit of measure * FootnoteSource: Source 32
  • Minimum Energy Performance StandardUnit of measure * FootnoteSource: Source 33
  • LabelsUnit of measureUnited States Source: US Federal Trade Commission 16CFR305Europe Source: European Commission Directives 2003/66/EC and 94/2/ECKorea Source: Korean Energy Management CorporationAustralia Source: Australian Department of Energy Efficiency and Climate change * FootnoteSource: Source 34
  • 4 years Annual Work PlanUnit of measure 2011-2012 2012-2013 2013-2014 2014-2015 Outcomes Outputs M J J A S O N D J F MAM J J A S O N D J F MAM J J A S O N D J F MAM J J A S O N D J F MA OUTCOME 3: TRAINING OF Output 3.1: Enforcement of the Energy EfficiencyPROFESSIONAL requirement (through Standards, Codes, Labels or aSTAKEHOLDER combination of them) for market transformation S AND PUBLIC OUTREACH Output 3.2: The new regulations are understood and ACTIVITIES & adopted by local manufacturers, importers, appliancesENFORCEMENT distributors and the retail chain OF THE NEW ENERGY Output 3.3: Energy efficiency becomes priority in the EFFICIENCY purchase of any equipmentLEGISLATION Output 3.4: A system for the monitoring of the impact of the new energy efficiency requirement developed. Regular updates of the legislation in order to tighten the energy efficiency requirement OUTCOME 4: Output 4.1: A large scale pilot project for ‘Campaign TRANSFORM for Energy Efficiency Lamps’ completed. A minimum THE LIGHTING of million CFLs disseminated in household, commercial MARKET: and public services in partnership with Government ofPROMOTION OF Cuba and ECOWAS ENERGYSAVINGS LAMPS Output 4.2: Financial incentives provided to pro-active (USD 400,000) local importers and traders to sale EE products Output 4.3: Provision for the recycling of compact fluorescent lamps with the recovery of mercury according to international best practices OUTCOME 5: PROJECT Output 5.1: Project management and implementation MANAGEMENT support (USD 227,273) * FootnoteSource: Source 35
  • Some factsUnit of measure * FootnoteSource: Source 36
  • ChallengesUnit of measure * FootnoteSource: Source 37
  • ChallengesUnit of measure * FootnoteSource: Source 38
  • ChallengesUnit of measure * FootnoteSource: Source 39
  • ECN - Cuban CFL projectUnit of measure IBL CFL Quan Monthly monthly tity CFL energy energy MonthlyType of (milli ILB usag Differe consum consum energy light on) Savi usage e nce ption ption saved bulbs ILB CFL ngs (MW) (MW) (MW) (MWh) (MWh) (MWh) 60>14 0.8 3.7 W 60 14 46 15.8 12.1 3,421 798 2,623 0.1 0.340>8 W 40 8 32 1.3 1.1 285 57 228100>18 0.3 W 0.05 100 18 82 1.7 1.4 356 64 292 0.120>5 W 0.05 20 5 15 0.3 0.2 71 18 53 4.3Total 1.0 19.1 14.8 4,134 937 3,197 * FootnoteSource: Source 40
  • ECN - Cuban CFL projectUnit of measure 2. Estimated expenditures Naira USD i. Cost of 1 million CFLs (@ USD1.50 each) 224,717,850 1,498,119 ii. Spot survey 3,000,000 20,000 iii. Shipment and insurance 10,560,589 70,404 iv. Clearing and transportation 12,500,000 83,333 v. Publicity and Sensitization 2,500,000 16,667 vi. Distribution and installations 5,000,000 33,333 vii. Cuban experts 22,500,000 150,000 viii. Monitoring and evaluation 3,000,000 20,000 Total expenditure 283,778,439 1,891,856 3. Payback Total monthly saving 101,181,455 674,543 Investment Payback (months) 2.8 2.8 * FootnoteSource: Source 41
  • Co-benefits of CFL projectUnit of measure Million of CFLs installed 1 10 30Carbon savings (tCO2e) 233,400 2,334,000 7,002,0001. Customers benefits and costAnnual cost of electricity saved 1,534,500 15,345,000 46,035,000Incandescent cost avoided (USD) 1,000,000 10,000,000 300,000,000Total 2,534,500 25,345,000 346,035,0002. Utility benefits and costsTotal MW avoided from 1 millionCFLs 38.9 389 1167Cost of power station developmentavoided (USD) 38,900,000 389,000,000 1,167,000,000Annual fuel cost avoided (USD) 31,600,000 316,000,000 948,000,000Total 70,500,000 705,000,000 2,115,000,0003. National benefits and costsAvoided capacity cost (USD) 38,900,000 389,000,000 1,167,000,000Avoided fuel cost (USD) 31,600,000 316,000,000 948,000,000CDM revenue (USD) 2,334,000 23,340,000 70,020,000Total 72,834,000 728,340,000 2,185,020,000 * FootnoteSource: Source 42
  • EnerCapUnit of measure * FootnoteSource: Source 43
  • Reducing Peak LoadUnit of measure Whilst the adoption of energy efficiency technologies in the west is a matter of luxury, scaling up EE in Nigeria is a matter of survival. The opportunity cost is far too high to ignore! * FootnoteSource: Source 44
  • Unit of measure * FootnoteSource: Source 45
  • Mercury in CFLUnit of measureEnergy experts estimate that lighting makes up approximately 14 % of the average householdselectricity account. As much as 80 % of that can be saved by replacing ordinary incandescentlight bulbs with energy efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs). Mercury, however, is anessential, irreplaceable element in compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs); its what allows thebulb to be such an efficient light source.This, however, raises a question about how safe and environmentally sound the use of CFLs is. * FootnoteSource: Source 46
  • Myth and realityUnit of measureMyth: Screen savers save energy.Reality: They are not designed to save energy. They helpmaximise your screen’s useful life. Some screen savers actuallyincrease energy consumption.Myth: Turning a computer on and off frequently uses morepower and damages the hard drive.Reality: The belief that frequent shut-downs are harmful persistsfrom the days when hard drives did not automatically park theirheads when shut off. Modern hard drives are not significantlyaffected by frequent shut-downs. * FootnoteSource: Source 47
  • Industrial SectorUnit of measureAction needed from industryElectricity usage optimisation needs to be driven by top management• Participate in a voluntary 10% energy reduction programme – some SA companies havealready reduced by 10%Identify opportunities for improved energy utilisation• Process optimisation• Technology improvements• Shift usage to off-peak periodsParticipate in Eskom’s demand saving programme• Incentives available for energy savings projects• Approval lead times improved considerablyParticipation in Demand Market Participation Programme• Incentives for hourly load reduction when tight system conditions prevail * FootnoteSource: Source 48
  • Adaptive Project ManagementUnit of measure Policy Nigeria GEF Focal Point (GEF FP), makers and Federal Ministry of Environment (FME) Lawmakers EE Steering Committee (EESC) to be Co-Chaired by FME (GEF FP) and UNDP ECN – NERC – PTFP – NCEEC – SON – MAN – EDAN – CPC – FOTE Terms of reference and meet at least twice a year Implementing Agency and Secretariat of the EESC Energy Efficiency Unit lead by a Project Coordinator To be domiciled at ECN UNDP Support * FootnoteSource: Source 49
  • Unit of measure Establishment Date S & L in Africa Type of Program Country Equipment Type Labeling MEPS Labeling MEPS Ghana Room air conditioner & June 2005 2002 - Voluntary June Mandatory Compact Fluorescent 2005 Lamps - Mandatory June 2006 Domestic refrigeration Nov 2009 Nov 2009 - Voluntary Nov - Voluntary appliances 2009 Nov 2009 - Mandatory June - Mandatory 2010 June 2010 Banning of manufacturing Nov 2009 Nov 2009 - Voluntary Nov - Voluntary and importation of 2009 Nov 2009 incandescent lamps, used - Mandatory June - Mandatory refrigerator, freezers & 2010 June 2010 South Africa AC CFLs 2003 - Voluntary - Clothes Dryers - - Under consideration - Clothes Washers 2005 - Voluntary - Cooktops and - - - Under consideration Ranges/Ovens Freezers 2005 - Voluntary - Refrigerators 2005 - Voluntary - Refrigerator-freezers 2005 - Voluntary - Tunisia Refrigerators 2004 (2007) Mandatory Egypt Clothes Washers 2003 2003 Mandatory Mandatory Freezers 2003 2003 Mandatory Mandatory Room Air Conditioners 2003 2003 Mandatory Mandatory Refrigerators 2003 2003 Mandatory Mandatory * FootnoteSource: Source 50
  • ChallengesUnit of measure • This is a timely and strategic interventions but how to ensure continuity beyond the GEF EE project? • Will the CFL programme in Nigeria help to reduce the peak demand and allow more citizen to gain access to electricity? • How to empower the citizens to own the project and generate strong buy in to adopt a EE lifestyle? • How will voltage fluctuation affect the success of the programme? • What is the potential to replicate this programme across Nigeria and the ECOWAS region? * FootnoteSource: Source 51
  • ChallengesUnit of measure * FootnoteSource: Source 52
  • ChallengesUnit of measure * FootnoteSource: Source 53
  • Unit of measure Challenges * FootnoteSource: Source 54
  • Residential sectorUnit of measureAction needed from households“If you’re not using it, switch it off.”• Hot water heater: Switch off geysers between 06:00 and 22:00, reduce thermostat to 60degrees, insulate geyser and water pipes and replace geysers with solar waterheaters using Eskom’s rebate programme• Lighting: Replace incandescent light bulbs with energy savers, and switch off lightsin unoccupied rooms• Bathing: Shower rather than bath as less hot water is used, and install an energyefficient shower head• Climate control:• Minimise use of air conditioners by first opening windows to allow cool air tocirculate• When using an air-conditioner keep the temperature setting between 18 – 22degrees C• Insulate ceilings to keep home cool in summer and warm in winter• Pool pumps: Reduce the operating time to limit water circulation to twice a day andset the pool pump to operate between 24:00 and 05:00• Vampire appliance usage - Don’t leave appliances in standby mode. Unplug cellphone charger• Participate in the Power Alert programme on national TV (SABC and etv) * FootnoteSource: Source 55
  • ChallengesUnit of measure * FootnoteSource: Source 56
  • ChallengesUnit of measure * FootnoteSource: Source 57
  • ChallengesUnit of measure * FootnoteSource: Source 58
  • ChallengesUnit of measure• Economic incentives: phasing out subsidies, tax credits or feed-in tariffs for renewable power• Target economic/fiscal measures: landfill, CO2 or fuel taxes• Regulation and standards: energy efficiency standards, bio-fuel standards and electricity market regulation• Market-based measures: green certificates and emissions trading• Research and Development (R&D) for low-carbon technologies and demonstration projects * FootnoteSource: Source 59
  • ChallengesUnit of measure * FootnoteSource: Source 60
  • ChallengesUnit of measure * FootnoteSource: Source 61
  • ChallengesUnit of measure * FootnoteSource: Source 62
  • ChallengesUnit of measure * FootnoteSource: Source 63