GERES [en] Biomass Energy Value Chain in Cambodia
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

GERES [en] Biomass Energy Value Chain in Cambodia

on

  • 2,084 views

Analysis of biomass energy supply and demand in Cambodia - Consultation workshop on Cambodia wood and biomass energy strategy, Siem Reap, November 2012

Analysis of biomass energy supply and demand in Cambodia - Consultation workshop on Cambodia wood and biomass energy strategy, Siem Reap, November 2012

Statistics

Views

Total Views
2,084
Views on SlideShare
1,669
Embed Views
415

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
32
Comments
0

6 Embeds 415

http://unjobs.org 408
http://www.linkedin.com 2
https://www.linkedin.com 2
http://www.slashdocs.com 1
http://users.unjobs.org 1
http://translate.googleusercontent.com 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

CC Attribution-ShareAlike LicenseCC Attribution-ShareAlike License

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

GERES [en] Biomass Energy Value Chain in Cambodia Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Analysis of biomass energysupply and demand in Cambodia Consultation workshop on Cambodia wood and biomass energy strategy Mathieu Ruillet | GERES Cambodia| Siem Reap, Nov 2012
  • 2. Wood/Biomass energy value chain in Cambodia 2 SUSTAINABLE CHARCOAL BALANCE PRODUCTION IS AT STAKE DEMAND 3 MANAGEMENT CHAR COAL households ALTERNATIVE (rural and urban) SOURCING 4 and household-scale BIO BIO FUEL industry CHAR WASTE WOOD energy energy supply demand CHAR BIO 1 BRIQ GAS FOREST BIO industrial MANAGEMENT GAS / commercial users others alternative sourcingAnalysis of biomass energy supply and demand in Cambodia | Nov 2012 | Mathieu Ruillet 2
  • 3. Wood/Biomass energy value chain in Cambodia: forest management 2 SUSTAINABLE CHARCOAL BALANCE PRODUCTION IS AT STAKE DEMAND 3 MANAGEMENT CHAR COAL households ALTERNATIVE (rural and urban) SOURCING 4 and household-scale BIO BIO FUEL industry CHAR WASTE WOOD energy energy supply demand CHAR BIO 1 BRIQ GAS FOREST BIO industrial MANAGEMENT GAS / commercial users others alternative sourcingAnalysis of biomass energy supply and demand in Cambodia | Nov 2012 | Mathieu Ruillet 3
  • 4. Forest management in Cambodia: an overview • 60% of the national territory is covered by forests 181,035 km2 country area • Woody biomass is still the main cooking fuel in 100,940 km2 covered by forest Cambodia: it represents the main fuel in rural households (almost 100%) and the most popular 23 protected areas one in urban households (almost 60%) 91% • Population growth and limited access to electricity put an extra burden on woody biomass of Cambodian households rely on woody biomass for cooking • Biomass is a renewable source only if the forest has time to regenerate (sustainable exploitation) only 20% • High rate of deforestation may not only bring about of Cambodian households a shortage of fuelwood but also soil degradation have access to electricity and impoverishment of agricultural land 90% of rural households have no • Overall balance between offer and demand is access to electricity and rely currently positive, there is however a discrepancy entirely on biomass since wood energy situation varies between areas 5,500,000 tons national yearly demand of fuelwood Source: National Census 2008, UNDP 2010, FAO 2011Analysis of biomass energy supply and demand in Cambodia | Nov 2012 | Mathieu Ruillet 4
  • 5. Forest management in Cambodia: wood energy situation varies between areas BIOMASS ENERGY DEMAND IN RURAL AREAS WOOD SUPPLY BASSIN/ BIOMASS ENERGY SUPPLY Fuelwood is collected for free from forest lands close to the villages Charcoal is bought from Traditional illegal, inefficient kilns Charcoal Kilns Flooded Evergreen/ Forests Natural Forests Community Rural Settlements in Lowland Urban/izing Areas Forests Agricultural Fields & Rural Settlements in Flooded Areas Industrial Areas BIOMASS ENERGY DEMAND IN URBAN AREAS Both firewood and charcoal are outsourced Urban development exerts significant pressure on areas not positively affected by developmentAnalysis of biomass energy supply and demand in Cambodia | Nov 2012 | Mathieu Ruillet 5
  • 6. Forest management in Cambodia: wood energy situation varies between areas Only a certain (?) portion of the extracted wood is actually used as fuelwood Source: FAO 2008Analysis of biomass energy supply and demand in Cambodia | Nov 2012 | Mathieu Ruillet 6
  • 7. Sustainable balance supply-demand of biomass: actions and constraints in forest management LEGAL AND SOCIAL CONSTRAINTS Other • Limited environmental • CBSFLMP project (2006-2010) projects consciousness • Goal: secure local forests • Weak law enforcement • Target group: 451 villages / 200,000 ha against illegal wood cutting • Some achievements: 65 field-level • No regulation of charcoal training sessions on community production forestry; 33 nationals trained to FOREST • Lack of data on wood use become community forestry trainers MANAGE MENT • University Capacity Building Project Policies • Goal: address the shortage of trained needed? biologists and reliable biodiversity data • Some achievements: first Cambodia’s Master’s Degree in Biodiversity POLICY conservation; over 100 biologists FRAMEWORK trained to dateAnalysis of biomass energy supply and demand in Cambodia | Nov 2012 | Mathieu Ruillet 7
  • 8. Wood/Biomass energy value chain in Cambodia: charcoal production 2 SUSTAINABLE CHARCOAL BALANCE PRODUCTION IS AT STAKE DEMAND 3 MANAGEMENT CHAR COAL households ALTERNATIVE (rural and urban) SOURCING 4 and household-scale BIO BIO FUEL industry CHAR WASTE WOOD energy energy supply demand CHAR BIO 1 BRIQ GAS FOREST BIO industrial MANAGEMENT GAS / commercial users others alternative sourcingAnalysis of biomass energy supply and demand in Cambodia | Nov 2012 | Mathieu Ruillet 8
  • 9. Charcoal production: some basic figures 192,400 national demand • Traditional charcoal producers operate with low- tons of charcoal per year efficiency technologies (i.e. ground-pit kilns) with uncontrolled carbonization processes 6.5 kg/1 kg • High conversion ratios and low calorific values conversion ratio 1,251,000 bring about a greater demand for firewood firewood/charcoal with tons • Charcoal is produced in rural areas (mostly areas traditional ground-pit kiln of firewood around Kirirom, southeast of Kampong Speu) needed yearly • Charcoal is mainly transported to and consumed 26.4 GJ/ton to cover in urban areas calorific value of national demand • Charcoal transportation has both an economic charcoal produced of charcoal and environmental impact with traditional ground-pit kiln • Due to rarefaction of resources, price of charcoal increases steadily 15.6 GJ/ton calorific value of fuelwood of national demand for charcoal 48% comes from Phnom Penh Source: GERES Cambodia analysisAnalysis of biomass energy supply and demand in Cambodia | Nov 2012 | Mathieu Ruillet 9
  • 10. Sustainable balance supply-demand of biomass: actions and constraints in charcoal production Other LEGAL AND TECHNICAL projects CONSTRAINTS • No regulation for charcoal production CHARCOAL • Limited basic knowledge of • Some achievements: 1 Yoshimura producers and no rigid compliance PRODU Kiln installed in the Sustainable to standards and specifications Charcoal Pilot Center of GERES in CTION • Low affordability of producers Takeo and 2 in Pursat • Lack of financial • Conversion ratio of 4.5 incentives/institutional • Calorific value of 29.3 MJ/kg mechanisms to bridge the financial (tested in IUT-LUACOB, France) gap between low affordability of • Potential yearly savings of producers and high price of 470,600 tons of firewood efficient kilns Policies • Taken into account the higher needed? calorific value, savings of 37% of woody biomass can be achieved POLICY • Support by public authorities is FRAMEWORK becoming strongerAnalysis of biomass energy supply and demand in Cambodia | Nov 2012 | Mathieu Ruillet 10
  • 11. Wood/Biomass energy value chain in Cambodia: demand management 2 SUSTAINABLE CHARCOAL BALANCE PRODUCTION IS AT STAKE DEMAND 3 MANAGEMENT CHAR COAL households ALTERNATIVE (rural and urban) SOURCING 4 and household-scale BIO BIO FUEL industry CHAR WASTE WOOD energy energy supply demand CHAR BIO 1 BRIQ GAS FOREST BIO industrial MANAGEMENT GAS / commercial users others alternative sourcingAnalysis of biomass energy supply and demand in Cambodia | Nov 2012 | Mathieu Ruillet 11
  • 12. Demand management of biomass energy: households and household-scale industry 84% of Cambodian households use • Households and household-scale industries are firewood for cooking purposes the biggest consumers of firewood in Cambodia • Biomass consumption for domestic cooking in an average rural 7% rural and urban areas accounts for more than household consumes prefer charcoal 50% of Cambodian energy consumption every day • Household-scale industries have a limited 3.135 kg 1.543 kg thermal efficiency (18-24% according to the of firewood of charcoal industry), which could be improved by utilizing efficient stoves and kilns an average urban household • Improved stoves and kilns are expensive and consumes daily 2.1 kg difficult to afford for households and household- 3.11 kg of firewood scale industries of charcoal a palm sugar industry consumes daily a rice wine 104 kg distillery of firewood 42.5 kg Source: GERES Cambodia analysis and monitoring tests, National Census 2008Analysis of biomass energy supply and demand in Cambodia | Nov 2012 | Mathieu Ruillet 12
  • 13. Sustainable balance supply-demand of biomass: households and household-scale industry LEGAL, TECHNICAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC Other CONSTRAINTS projects • Lack of technical knowledge • Lack of technical specifications, no energy efficiency standards for stoves made in Cambodia and for products entering Cambodia • New Lao Stove (NLS) and Neang DEMAND • Lack of precision of current data Krongrey Stove (NKS): improved MANAGE • Lack of financial/tax incentives for cookstoves for households MENT improved stoves and kilns • Some achievements of NLS: over • Limited access to credits for 1,800,000 stoves sold; 35,000 household-scale industries due to NLS produced/month in 42 their informal character production centers; avoided • Difficulties in changing the deforestation for 10,000 football consumption patterns and cooking pitches; savings of 9-25% of habits of end-users woody biomass (according to Policies • Low level of awareness on the cooking habits) needed? potential of energy efficiency • Some achievements of NKS: almost 360,000 stoves sold; 42 POLICY production centers in 9 provinces FRAMEWORKAnalysis of biomass energy supply and demand in Cambodia | Nov 2012 | Mathieu Ruillet 13
  • 14. Demand management of biomass energy: the case study of garment and brick factories • Demand from small and medium-size industries 1,600,000 m3 obtained in Cambodia is a threat to a sustainable forest annually from abandoned rubber management plantations to supply brick, tile and • Supply from old rubber plantations is almost garment industry exhausted, industries are using other types of 273,000 tons volume of wood and biomass energy fuels (especially rice fuelwood consumed per year by husks) 69 garment factories • Improved machinery (e.g. boilers for ironing in in Cambodia, corresponding to the garment industry) could be employed to increase the overall energy efficiency of the 3,900 ha per year industrial processes and reduce the demand for fuelwood 50,000 tons volume of • Other potential measures comprise the fuelwood consumed per year by reutilization of industrial waste 40 brick factories in Cambodia, corresponding to 750 ha per year Source: GERES Cambodia analysis, UNDP 2010, IFC studyAnalysis of biomass energy supply and demand in Cambodia | Nov 2012 | Mathieu Ruillet 14
  • 15. Sustainable balance supply-demand of biomass: the case study of garment and brick factories LEGAL, TECHNICAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSTRAINTS • Lack of technical knowledge • Lack of technical specifications, no Projects energy efficiency standards for and data? stoves made in Cambodia and for products entering Cambodia DEMAND • Lack of precision of current data MANAGE • Lack of financial resources for small MENT and medium local companies and absence of affordable borrowing schemes (rather high interest rates from local banks up to 9.5% per year) • Lack of financial/tax incentives for improved machinery Policies • Low level of awareness on the needed? potential of energy efficiency POLICY FRAMEWORKAnalysis of biomass energy supply and demand in Cambodia | Nov 2012 | Mathieu Ruillet 15
  • 16. Wood/Biomass energy value chain in Cambodia: alternative sourcing 2 SUSTAINABLE CHARCOAL BALANCE PRODUCTION IS AT STAKE DEMAND 3 MANAGEMENT CHAR COAL households ALTERNATIVE (rural and urban) SOURCING 4 and household-scale BIO BIO FUEL industry CHAR WASTE WOOD energy energy supply demand CHAR BIO 1 BRIQ GAS FOREST BIO industrial MANAGEMENT GAS / commercial users others alternative sourcingAnalysis of biomass energy supply and demand in Cambodia | Nov 2012 | Mathieu Ruillet 16
  • 17. Alternative sourcing from biochar: the case study of the garment industry 69 • Biochar (carbonized wood through pyrolysis garment factories process) results as a residue from industrial, commercial and domestic processes in Cambodia generate monthly • Generated biochar is dumped and absolutely 4,000 tons underutilized and can be used to produce char of biochar briquettes with high calorific value energy efficiency of 40% • Case study of a sample of garment factories (69 the garment industry that can be out of 310) show a potential for incrementing the increased up to 46% energy efficiency of the industry through by converting biochar reprocessing industrial waste into char briquette • Data about production of biochar by other calorific value demand sectors not available of char briquette 29.5 GJ/ton obtained from biochar processing 26.4 GJ/ton calorific value of traditional charcoal Source: GERES Cambodia case study 2008Analysis of biomass energy supply and demand in Cambodia | Nov 2012 | Mathieu Ruillet 17
  • 18. Alternative sourcing from biochar: actions and constraints in char briquette production LEGAL, TECHNICAL AND SOCIO- ECONOMIC CONSTRAINTS • Lack of technical knowledge (need to import machinery from neighbouring countries) ALTER • Need for frequent and expensive NATIVE maintenance due to high-pressure SOURCING operation of machinery • 3 existing factories utilizing • Uncompetitive price biochar, coconut waste and other (high operation costs) residues to produce char • Challenging briquette (Sustainable Green diffusion/commercialization Fuel Enterprise (SGFE), Khmer • No fiscal facilitation/tax Clean Charcoal (KCC) and a joint exemptions for the import of initiative between Thai and specific machinery used for the Khmer entrepreneurs production of char-briquettes • Current joint production scale • No standards/accreditation of the Policies around 80 ton/month raw materials used for the needed? • Potential for expansion of production of char-briquettes production capacity up to 200 POLICY ton/month and above FRAMEWORKAnalysis of biomass energy supply and demand in Cambodia | Nov 2012 | Mathieu Ruillet 18
  • 19. Wood/Biomass energy value chain in Cambodia: any question? 2 SUSTAINABLE CHARCOAL BALANCE PRODUCTION IS AT STAKE DEMAND 3 MANAGEMENT CHAR COAL households ALTERNATIVE (rural and urban) SOURCING 4 and household-scale BIO BIO FUEL industry CHAR WASTE WOOD energy energy supply demand CHAR BIO 1 BRIQ GAS FOREST BIO industrial MANAGEMENT GAS / commercial users others alternative sourcingAnalysis of biomass energy supply and demand in Cambodia | Nov 2012 | Mathieu Ruillet 19
  • 20. Main points and next steps • A sustainable biomass energy chain would represent a valuable way to secure a self-sufficient energy supply to one targeted sector (e.g. households and HSIs) and can be viewed as a development driver for Cambodia on the long run • Sustainable balance between biomass energy supply and demand is at stake • Focus on four main areas of intervention: 1) FOREST MANAGEMENT 2) CHARCOAL PRODUCTION 3) DEMAND MANAGEMENT 4) ALTERNATIVE SOURCING • For any of these areas there are already some projects being implemented by development agencies and constraints preventing those projects from having full positive impact on the balance between biomass energy supply and demand • Current data lack precision, comprehensiveness and updating!Analysis of biomass energy supply and demand in Cambodia | Nov 2012 | Mathieu Ruillet 20
  • 21. Thank you!Wishing you a fruitful discussion