GRAMMAR REFERENCE                                                                                                         ...
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Elementary grammar

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Elementary grammar

  1. 1. GRAMMAR REFERENCE GRAMMAR REFERENCE 01 PEOPLE AND PLACES THE VERB BE THERE IS … / THERE ARE … THE PRESENT SIMPLE REVISION The verb be is followed by adjectives (cold, hungry, Use there is / there’s with singular nouns. We use the present simple to talk about facts that are etc.) or nouns (Bruce, Germany, etc.). Use there are with plural nouns. always true and habits. Exercise 1 Hello. I’m Bruce. (= I am) There’s a nice café near here. I live in Madrid. Make the sentences negative. You’re late! (= You are) There’s some food in the kitchen. You drink a lot of coffee! 1 I like French food. He’s a doctor. (= He is) There’s a lot of traffic today. She wants to be a doctor. ……………………………………………… . She’s 21. (= She is) He goes swimming every day. 2 I’m hungry. It’s cold today. (= It is) There are a few cheap hotels in town. It rains a lot in the winter. ……………………………………………… . We’re from Venezuela. (= We are) There are some great beaches in that area. We live in the north of the country. 3 She works here. They’re our friends. (= They are) There are lots of people outside. They live in the south. ……………………………………………… . 4 They’re from this country. Negatives Negatives Notice that with he / she / it, we add -s at the end of ……………………………………………… . I’m not hungry. (= I am not) There isn’t any / much milk. the verb. However, we write he goes, she does, it has – 5 I work at the weekends. You’re not in the right class. (= You are not) There’s no milk. not he gos, she dos, it haves. ……………………………………………… . He’s not French. (= He is not) There aren’t any / many glasses in here. 6 He’s in the office today. She’s not very interesting. (= She is not) There are no glasses. Negatives ……………………………………………… . It’s not cheap. (= It is not) I don’t like the town very much. (= do not) 7 They live together. We’re not happy about it. (= We are not) Questions You don’t know my town, I’m sure. ……………………………………………… . They’re not married. (= They are not) Is there a bus stop near here? He doesn’t have any brothers or sisters. (= does not) 8 It’s cold today. Are there any good cafés in town? She doesn’t feel safe. ……………………………………………… . You can also say: You aren’t … , My dad isn’t ... , My It doesn’t snow very often. 9 There are some shops in the village. mum isn’t … , The book isn’t … , We aren’t … and Some nouns are uncountable singular nouns. We don’t go there very often. ……………………………………………… . Things aren’t… . traffic crime countryside. They don’t visit us very often. 10 There’s some sugar in the kitchen. ……………………………………………… . In normal spoken English, we use short forms. Exercise 1 Notice that with he / she / it, we use doesn’t – not Complete the sentences with there’s, there isn’t, there don’t. Exercise 2 Questions are or there aren’t. Complete the sentences in the present simple. Use Am I next? 1 ……………………………………………… lots of nice shops near my Questions short forms where possible. Are you OK? house. Where do I go now? 1 She ……………………………………………… sport. (not / like) Is he happy here? 2 ……………………………………………… any coffee in here. Where do you live? 2 There ……………………………………………… any nice shops near Is she ill today? 3 ……………………………………………… some great countryside in What does he do? there. (not / be) Is it cold outside? the north. Where does she work? 3 When ……………………… you usually ……………………… your Where are we? 4 ……………………………………………… any hospitals in the area. How much does it cost? house in the morning? (leave) Where are they? 5 ……………………………………………… a lot of crime in the town. How do we know? 4 There ……………………………………………… a bank in the village. It’s awful! Do they have any children? (not / be) Exercise 1 6 ……………………………………………… any schools in the village! 5 We ……………………………………………… English. We Re-write the sentences with the short forms of be. 7 ……………………………………………… no traffic on the roads Notice that with he / she / it, we use does – not do. ……………………… Scottish. (not / be, be) 1 I am cold. ……………………………………………… . today. It’s great! 6 ……………………… there a post office near here? (be) 2 You are in Class 1. ……………………………………………… . 8 ……………………………………………… two or three little bars Exercise 1 7 My father ……………………… a new job. (have) 3 He is not here today. ……………………………………………… . near the beach. Choose the correct words. 8 ……………………… they open today? (be) 4 She is my sister. ……………………………………………… . 1 My brother have / has three children. 9 I’m sorry. I ……………………………………………… . (not / 5 It is not very nice. ……………………………………………… . Exercise 2 2 Does he like / likes his job? understand) 6 We are on holiday. ……………………………………………… . Correct the mistake in each sentence. 3 Where do / does your grandparents live? 10 Where ……………………… she ……………………… ? (live) 7 They are late! ……………………………………………… . 1 There is no cheap hotels. 4 I doesn’t / don’t like football. 2 Not there are any jobs here. 5 It don’t / doesn’t rain much. Exercise 3 Exercise 2 3 It have a lovely river in the town. 6 She has / have / haves a boyfriend. Complete the sentences with ONE word in each gap. Complete the sentences with the correct forms of be. 4 There are lots of noise! 1 Where ……………………… you from? 1 A: Hi. How …… you? 5 There is a lot of traffics in my hometown. Exercise 2 2 Where ……………………… you work? B: I …… OK, thanks. Complete the questions. 3 My sister ……………………… two children. 2 A: Where …… you from? …… you English? 1 Where ……………………… your parents live? 4 I ……………………… 26 and my sister ……………………… 33. B: No, I …… not. I …… Irish, actually. Glossary 2 When ……………………… she finish work? 5 It’s a nice house, but it ……………………… have a garden. 3 A: How …… your parents? …… they OK? 3 How many hours ……………………… your mum work every 6 I ……………………… like shopping, but my wife loves it! B: Yes, they …… fine, thank you. awful: if something is awful, it’s very bad day? 7 My boyfriend ……………………… a teacher. He ……………………… 4 A: Where …… your boyfriend from? …… he a bar: you can buy alcoholic drinks in a bar 4 How much ……………………… this bag cost? in a school in Seville. French, too? boring: something boring is not fun or interesting 5 What music ……………………… you like? 8 ……………………… you speak English? B: No, he …… not. He …… English. 6 What ……………………… your father do? 9 He ……………………… a sister, but I ……………………… . 5 A: What …… your friend’s name? 7 Why ……………………… they like him? He’s awful! 10 ……………………… your mother work? B: Oh, I …… sorry. This …… Rachel. 8 How ……………………… it feel? 146 OUTCOMES GRAMMAR REFERENCE 147

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