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Visual Dictionary Materials, Methods, and Equipment 1
Air Barrier Paper: a sheet material used as both a vapor retarder and an air barrier   
Attic Ventilation: <ul><li>Soffit Vent: </li></ul>
Attic Ventilation: <ul><li>Ridge Vent: </li></ul>
Attic Ventilation: <ul><li>Gable Vent: </li></ul>
Attic Ventilation: <ul><li>Roof Turbine: </li></ul> 
Backhoe: is a piece of excavating equipment or digger consisting of a digging bucket on the end of a two-part articulated ...
Batter Boards: a temporary frame built just outside the corner of an excavation to carry marks that lie on the surface pla...
Brick Arches:  A wedge-shaped brick used in arches   <ul><li>Brick Arch # 1:  </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Arch </li></ul>
Brick Arches: <ul><li>Brick Arch # 2: </li></ul><ul><li>Elliptical Arch </li></ul>
Brick Arches: <ul><li>Brick Arch with Keystone: </li></ul><ul><li>Jack Arch with Keystone </li></ul>
Brick Arches: <ul><li>Centering: temporary formwork for an arch, dome, or vault  </li></ul>
Brick Bonds: an arrangement of built-up brick or other units laid so that their overlapping thoroughly ties the units toge...
Brick Bonds: <ul><li>Brick bond # 2: Stacked </li></ul><ul><li>Bricks are stacked on top of one another </li></ul>
Brick Bonds: <ul><li>Rowlocks: </li></ul>
Brick Bonds: <ul><li>Headers: </li></ul>
Brick Bonds: <ul><li>Soldiers: </li></ul>
Brick Bonds: <ul><li>Sailor: </li></ul>
Brick Bonds: <ul><li>Stretcher Rowlock (Shiners): </li></ul>
Brick Sizes: Length, Width, and Height of a Brick <ul><li>Brick Size # 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Modular </li></ul><ul><li>3 5/...
Brick Sizes: <ul><li>Brick Size # 2: </li></ul><ul><li>Roman </li></ul><ul><li>3 ½” wide X 1 5/8” tall X 11” long </li></u...
Bulldozer: A heavy, driver-operated machine for clearing and grading land, usually having continuous treads and a broad hy...
Cladding: Exterior façade of a building that carries no loads from the building itself <ul><li>Brick Clad Structure: </li>...
Cladding: <ul><li>EIFS Clad Structure: </li></ul>
Cladding: <ul><li>Stone Clad Structure: </li></ul>
Cladding: <ul><li>Wood Board Clad Structure: </li></ul>
Cladding: <ul><li>Wood Shingle/ Shake Clad Structure: strong planked wood used for siding  </li></ul>
Code Requirements: <ul><li>Egress of Bedroom Window: </li></ul><ul><li>Window meets egress requirements for a second floor...
Code Requirements: <ul><li>Stairs: This stair meets IBC code requirements  </li></ul><ul><li>Tread: 10” </li></ul><ul><li>...
Concrete Joints: an intentional, linear discontinuity in a structure or component, designed to form a plane of weakness wh...
Concrete Joints: <ul><li>Isolation Joint: Isolates wall from structural steel column. </li></ul><ul><li>used to relieve fl...
Concrete Masonry Unit: a block of hardened concrete, with or without hollow cores, designed to be laid in the same manner ...
Concrete Masonry Units: <ul><li>Different Sizes of CMU: </li></ul> 
Decorative Concrete Masonry Units: <ul><li>Split Block: </li></ul>
Decorative Concrete Masonry Units: <ul><li>Ribbed Block: </li></ul>
Doors: <ul><li>Exterior Flush Door: </li></ul>
Doors: <ul><li>Exterior Panel Door: </li></ul> Stile  Top Rail Bottom Rail  Lock Rail 
Doors: <ul><li>Transom: a small window directly above a door  </li></ul> 
Doors: <ul><li>Sidelight: a tall, narrow window alongside a door  </li></ul>
Electrical Components: <ul><li>Underground Transformer: an electrical device that changes the voltage of alternating curre...
Electrical Components: <ul><li>Service Head: entrance spot for the three wires that come from the transformer to the house...
Electrical Components: <ul><li>Meter: measures power usage of a house </li></ul> 
Electrical Components: <ul><li>Service Panel: Also known as a breaker panel, contains a main disconnect switch and circuit...
Electrical Components: <ul><li>Duplex Receptacle: a receptacle with more than one outlet, a place where an appliance can b...
Framing Elements: <ul><li># 1 Anchor Bolt: </li></ul>
Framing Elements: <ul><li># 2 Sill Plate: </li></ul>
Framing Elements: <ul><li># 3 Floor Joists: </li></ul>
Framing Elements: <ul><li># 4 Sub flooring: </li></ul>
Framing Elements: <ul><li># 5 Sole Plate: </li></ul>
Framing Elements: <ul><li># 6 Stud: Light gauge steel framing stud </li></ul>
Framing Elements: <ul><li># 7 Top Plate: </li></ul>
Faming Elements: <ul><li># 8 Ceiling Joist: </li></ul>
Framing Elements: <ul><li># 9 Rafter: </li></ul>
Framing Elements: <ul><li># 10 Roof Decking: </li></ul>
Framing Elements: <ul><li># 11 Sheathing: </li></ul>
Framing Elements: <ul><li># 12 Stringer: </li></ul>
Front End Loader: <ul><li>An earthmoving machine with a  hydraulic scoop  in  front for lifting and loading earthwork and ...
Gypsum Board: an interior facing panel consisting of a gypsum core sandwiched between paper faces
Heat Pump:  a device that utilizes a refrigeration cycle either to heat or cool a building by passing air or water over ei...
Heat Pumps: <ul><li>Compressor/ Condenser: a device that removes vapors like oil or water from the air stream in a compres...
Heat Pumps: <ul><li>Air Handling Unit: provides treatment for air before it is distributed </li></ul>
Insulation:  material used in the building assembly to reduce heat flow through the assembly <ul><li>Blanket/ Batt Insulat...
Insulation: <ul><li>Loose Fill Insulation: used to reduce heat flow in attic spaces. </li></ul>
Insulation: <ul><li>Foamed Insulation: used to reduce heat flow in wall cavities or window cavities </li></ul>
Insulation: <ul><li>Rigid board Insulation: used to reduce heat flow in any part of the building assembly </li></ul>
Lintel: a beam that carries the load of a wall across a window or door opening   Concrete Lintel 
Mortar: <ul><li>Mortar Joint # 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Tooled= Raked  </li></ul><ul><li>5/8” thick </li></ul><ul><li>Used on ...
Mortar: <ul><li>Mortar Joint # 2: </li></ul><ul><li>Tooled= Concave </li></ul><ul><li>5/8” thick </li></ul><ul><li>Used on...
Oriented Strand Board: a nonveneered panel product composed of long shreds of wood fiber oriented in specific directions a...
Plumbing: <ul><li>Lavatory: </li></ul>1 ½” pipe  
Plumbing: <ul><li>Water Closet: </li></ul><ul><li>3” Drainage Pipe </li></ul>
Plumbing: <ul><li>Manufactured Shower/ Tub: </li></ul>
Plumbing: <ul><li>Plumbing Roof Vent: maintains a system of plumbing drains and waste lines at atmospheric pressure by con...
Plumbing: <ul><li>Kitchen/ Bathroom Sink:  </li></ul><ul><li>Integral Sink </li></ul>
Plywood: a wood panel composed of an odd number of layers of wood veneer bonded together under pressure  Veneer: a thin la...
Radiant Barrier: <ul><li>a reflective foil placed adjacent to an airspace in roof or wall assemblies as a deterrent to the...
Rebar:  Rebar in elevator shaft #4 rebar ½” diameter Deformations/ surface ribs are better for bonding with concrete
Steep Roof Drainage: <ul><li>Gutter: a channel that collects rainwater and snowmelt at the eave of a roof  </li></ul> 
Steep Roof Drainage: <ul><li>Downspout: a vertical pipe for conducting water from a roof to a lower level  </li></ul>
Steep Roof Drainage: <ul><li>Splash back: a small pre-cast block of concrete or plastic used to divert water at the bottom...
Steep Roof Materials: <ul><li>Under-layment: a panel laid over a sub-floor or rafters/trusses to create a smooth, stiff su...
Steep Roof Materials: <ul><li>Clay Tile Roof: </li></ul>
Steep Roof Materials: <ul><li>Shingle: a thin, oblong piece of material, such as wood or slate, that is laid in overlappin...
Steep Roof Materials: <ul><li>Metal Panel Roof: generally galvanized or aluminized steel </li></ul>
Steep Roof Shapes: <ul><li>Gable Roof: </li></ul>
Steep Roof Shapes: <ul><li>Gambrel Roof: </li></ul>
Steep Roof Shapes: <ul><li>Hip Roof: </li></ul>
Steep Roof Shapes: <ul><li>Mansard Roof: </li></ul>
Steep Roof Terms: <ul><li>Ridge: the level intersection of two roof planes in a gable roof  </li></ul> 
Steep Roof Terms: <ul><li>Valley: a trough formed by the intersection of two roof slopes  </li></ul> 
Steep Roof Terms: <ul><li>Eave: the horizontal edge at the low side of a sloping roof  </li></ul> 
Steep Roof Terms: <ul><li>Rake: the sloping edge of a steep edge  </li></ul> 
Steep Roof Terms: <ul><li>Soffit: the undersurface of a horizontal element of a building  </li></ul>
Steep Roof Terms: <ul><li>Fascia: the exposed vertical face of an eave  </li></ul> 
Steep Roof Terms: <ul><li>Building w/out Fascia: </li></ul>
Stone: <ul><li>Random Rubble: </li></ul>
Stone: <ul><li>Coursed Rubble: </li></ul>------- ------- ------- -------
Stone: <ul><li>Random Ashlar: </li></ul>
Stone: <ul><li>Coursed Ashlar: </li></ul>
Vapor Retarder: <ul><li>Prevents water vapor from penetrating the insulation in the wall of a building </li></ul><ul><li>P...
Waterproofing: Rolled on waterproofing An impervious membrane applied to the outside of a foundation concrete masonry unit...
Weep Hole: a small opening whose purpose is to permit drainage of water that accumulates inside a building component or as...
Welded Wire Fabric:  The welded wire fabric grid was about 5’ x 6’
Windows: <ul><li>Window # 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Casement Window: window has a sash that rotates outward from its frame on t...
Windows: <ul><li>Window # 2: </li></ul><ul><li>Sliding Window: essentially a single hung window on its side with the advan...
Windows: <ul><li>Window # 3: </li></ul><ul><li>Single Hung: sash is kept in place by a track on the vertical sides of the ...
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Visual Dictionary

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Transcript of "Visual Dictionary"

  1. 1. Visual Dictionary Materials, Methods, and Equipment 1
  2. 2. Air Barrier Paper: a sheet material used as both a vapor retarder and an air barrier 
  3. 3. Attic Ventilation: <ul><li>Soffit Vent: </li></ul>
  4. 4. Attic Ventilation: <ul><li>Ridge Vent: </li></ul>
  5. 5. Attic Ventilation: <ul><li>Gable Vent: </li></ul>
  6. 6. Attic Ventilation: <ul><li>Roof Turbine: </li></ul> 
  7. 7. Backhoe: is a piece of excavating equipment or digger consisting of a digging bucket on the end of a two-part articulated arm
  8. 8. Batter Boards: a temporary frame built just outside the corner of an excavation to carry marks that lie on the surface planes of the basement that will be built in the excavation 
  9. 9. Brick Arches: A wedge-shaped brick used in arches <ul><li>Brick Arch # 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Arch </li></ul>
  10. 10. Brick Arches: <ul><li>Brick Arch # 2: </li></ul><ul><li>Elliptical Arch </li></ul>
  11. 11. Brick Arches: <ul><li>Brick Arch with Keystone: </li></ul><ul><li>Jack Arch with Keystone </li></ul>
  12. 12. Brick Arches: <ul><li>Centering: temporary formwork for an arch, dome, or vault </li></ul>
  13. 13. Brick Bonds: an arrangement of built-up brick or other units laid so that their overlapping thoroughly ties the units together, which enables the whole to act as a unit in resisting stresses <ul><li>Brick Bond # 1: Common </li></ul><ul><li>Every 6 th Course is a Header line </li></ul>
  14. 14. Brick Bonds: <ul><li>Brick bond # 2: Stacked </li></ul><ul><li>Bricks are stacked on top of one another </li></ul>
  15. 15. Brick Bonds: <ul><li>Rowlocks: </li></ul>
  16. 16. Brick Bonds: <ul><li>Headers: </li></ul>
  17. 17. Brick Bonds: <ul><li>Soldiers: </li></ul>
  18. 18. Brick Bonds: <ul><li>Sailor: </li></ul>
  19. 19. Brick Bonds: <ul><li>Stretcher Rowlock (Shiners): </li></ul>
  20. 20. Brick Sizes: Length, Width, and Height of a Brick <ul><li>Brick Size # 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Modular </li></ul><ul><li>3 5/8” wide X 2 ¼” tall X 7 5/8” long </li></ul>
  21. 21. Brick Sizes: <ul><li>Brick Size # 2: </li></ul><ul><li>Roman </li></ul><ul><li>3 ½” wide X 1 5/8” tall X 11” long </li></ul>
  22. 22. Bulldozer: A heavy, driver-operated machine for clearing and grading land, usually having continuous treads and a broad hydraulic blade in front
  23. 23. Cladding: Exterior façade of a building that carries no loads from the building itself <ul><li>Brick Clad Structure: </li></ul>
  24. 24. Cladding: <ul><li>EIFS Clad Structure: </li></ul>
  25. 25. Cladding: <ul><li>Stone Clad Structure: </li></ul>
  26. 26. Cladding: <ul><li>Wood Board Clad Structure: </li></ul>
  27. 27. Cladding: <ul><li>Wood Shingle/ Shake Clad Structure: strong planked wood used for siding </li></ul>
  28. 28. Code Requirements: <ul><li>Egress of Bedroom Window: </li></ul><ul><li>Window meets egress requirements for a second floor window </li></ul><ul><li>Width: 3 ½’, Height: 2 ½’, Area: 8 ¾ sq ft, Sill Height 24” AFF </li></ul>
  29. 29. Code Requirements: <ul><li>Stairs: This stair meets IBC code requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Tread: 10” </li></ul><ul><li>Riser: 7 3/4” </li></ul>
  30. 30. Concrete Joints: an intentional, linear discontinuity in a structure or component, designed to form a plane of weakness where cracking can occur in response to various forces so as to minimize or eliminate cracking elsewhere in the structure <ul><li>Control Joint: </li></ul>
  31. 31. Concrete Joints: <ul><li>Isolation Joint: Isolates wall from structural steel column. </li></ul><ul><li>used to relieve flexural stresses due to vertical movement of slab-on-grade applications that adjoin fixed foundation elements such as columns, building or machinery foundations, etc. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Concrete Masonry Unit: a block of hardened concrete, with or without hollow cores, designed to be laid in the same manner as a brick or stone <ul><li>1 CMU= 3 Brick Courses </li></ul><ul><li>CMU: usually 8”X8”X16” </li></ul>CMU is an important structural element or it can be an interior façade over structural steel.
  33. 33. Concrete Masonry Units: <ul><li>Different Sizes of CMU: </li></ul> 
  34. 34. Decorative Concrete Masonry Units: <ul><li>Split Block: </li></ul>
  35. 35. Decorative Concrete Masonry Units: <ul><li>Ribbed Block: </li></ul>
  36. 36. Doors: <ul><li>Exterior Flush Door: </li></ul>
  37. 37. Doors: <ul><li>Exterior Panel Door: </li></ul> Stile  Top Rail Bottom Rail  Lock Rail 
  38. 38. Doors: <ul><li>Transom: a small window directly above a door </li></ul> 
  39. 39. Doors: <ul><li>Sidelight: a tall, narrow window alongside a door </li></ul>
  40. 40. Electrical Components: <ul><li>Underground Transformer: an electrical device that changes the voltage of alternating current </li></ul>
  41. 41. Electrical Components: <ul><li>Service Head: entrance spot for the three wires that come from the transformer to the house and pass through to the meter </li></ul> 
  42. 42. Electrical Components: <ul><li>Meter: measures power usage of a house </li></ul> 
  43. 43. Electrical Components: <ul><li>Service Panel: Also known as a breaker panel, contains a main disconnect switch and circuit breakers that act as fuses for each electrical circuit </li></ul>
  44. 44. Electrical Components: <ul><li>Duplex Receptacle: a receptacle with more than one outlet, a place where an appliance can be connected to an electrical circuit </li></ul>
  45. 45. Framing Elements: <ul><li># 1 Anchor Bolt: </li></ul>
  46. 46. Framing Elements: <ul><li># 2 Sill Plate: </li></ul>
  47. 47. Framing Elements: <ul><li># 3 Floor Joists: </li></ul>
  48. 48. Framing Elements: <ul><li># 4 Sub flooring: </li></ul>
  49. 49. Framing Elements: <ul><li># 5 Sole Plate: </li></ul>
  50. 50. Framing Elements: <ul><li># 6 Stud: Light gauge steel framing stud </li></ul>
  51. 51. Framing Elements: <ul><li># 7 Top Plate: </li></ul>
  52. 52. Faming Elements: <ul><li># 8 Ceiling Joist: </li></ul>
  53. 53. Framing Elements: <ul><li># 9 Rafter: </li></ul>
  54. 54. Framing Elements: <ul><li># 10 Roof Decking: </li></ul>
  55. 55. Framing Elements: <ul><li># 11 Sheathing: </li></ul>
  56. 56. Framing Elements: <ul><li># 12 Stringer: </li></ul>
  57. 57. Front End Loader: <ul><li>An earthmoving machine with a hydraulic scoop in front for lifting and loading earthwork and rubble . </li></ul><ul><li>A backhoe is an excavator whose bucket is rigidly attached to a hinged pole on the boom and is drawn backward to the machine when in operation. </li></ul><ul><li>A bulldozer is a heavy, driver operated machine for clearing and grading land, usually having continuous treads and a broad hydraulic blade in front. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Gypsum Board: an interior facing panel consisting of a gypsum core sandwiched between paper faces
  59. 59. Heat Pump: a device that utilizes a refrigeration cycle either to heat or cool a building by passing air or water over either the condensing coils or the evaporating coils repeatedly <ul><li>Advantage: Heat pumps are more energy efficient. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage: Higher first cost than hot water heater. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Heat Pumps: <ul><li>Compressor/ Condenser: a device that removes vapors like oil or water from the air stream in a compressed air line </li></ul>
  61. 61. Heat Pumps: <ul><li>Air Handling Unit: provides treatment for air before it is distributed </li></ul>
  62. 62. Insulation: material used in the building assembly to reduce heat flow through the assembly <ul><li>Blanket/ Batt Insulation: used to reduce heat flow in walls </li></ul> 
  63. 63. Insulation: <ul><li>Loose Fill Insulation: used to reduce heat flow in attic spaces. </li></ul>
  64. 64. Insulation: <ul><li>Foamed Insulation: used to reduce heat flow in wall cavities or window cavities </li></ul>
  65. 65. Insulation: <ul><li>Rigid board Insulation: used to reduce heat flow in any part of the building assembly </li></ul>
  66. 66. Lintel: a beam that carries the load of a wall across a window or door opening Concrete Lintel 
  67. 67. Mortar: <ul><li>Mortar Joint # 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Tooled= Raked </li></ul><ul><li>5/8” thick </li></ul><ul><li>Used on a house: N mortar used </li></ul>
  68. 68. Mortar: <ul><li>Mortar Joint # 2: </li></ul><ul><li>Tooled= Concave </li></ul><ul><li>5/8” thick </li></ul><ul><li>Used on public building: N mortar used </li></ul>
  69. 69. Oriented Strand Board: a nonveneered panel product composed of long shreds of wood fiber oriented in specific directions and bonded together under pressure 
  70. 70. Plumbing: <ul><li>Lavatory: </li></ul>1 ½” pipe 
  71. 71. Plumbing: <ul><li>Water Closet: </li></ul><ul><li>3” Drainage Pipe </li></ul>
  72. 72. Plumbing: <ul><li>Manufactured Shower/ Tub: </li></ul>
  73. 73. Plumbing: <ul><li>Plumbing Roof Vent: maintains a system of plumbing drains and waste lines at atmospheric pressure by connecting them to outdoor air. </li></ul>
  74. 74. Plumbing: <ul><li>Kitchen/ Bathroom Sink: </li></ul><ul><li>Integral Sink </li></ul>
  75. 75. Plywood: a wood panel composed of an odd number of layers of wood veneer bonded together under pressure Veneer: a thin layer, sheet, or facing
  76. 76. Radiant Barrier: <ul><li>a reflective foil placed adjacent to an airspace in roof or wall assemblies as a deterrent to the passage of infrared energy </li></ul>
  77. 77. Rebar:  Rebar in elevator shaft #4 rebar ½” diameter Deformations/ surface ribs are better for bonding with concrete
  78. 78. Steep Roof Drainage: <ul><li>Gutter: a channel that collects rainwater and snowmelt at the eave of a roof </li></ul> 
  79. 79. Steep Roof Drainage: <ul><li>Downspout: a vertical pipe for conducting water from a roof to a lower level </li></ul>
  80. 80. Steep Roof Drainage: <ul><li>Splash back: a small pre-cast block of concrete or plastic used to divert water at the bottom of a downspout </li></ul>
  81. 81. Steep Roof Materials: <ul><li>Under-layment: a panel laid over a sub-floor or rafters/trusses to create a smooth, stiff surface for the application of finished flooring or roofing. </li></ul>
  82. 82. Steep Roof Materials: <ul><li>Clay Tile Roof: </li></ul>
  83. 83. Steep Roof Materials: <ul><li>Shingle: a thin, oblong piece of material, such as wood or slate, that is laid in overlapping rows to cover the roof or sides of a house. </li></ul>
  84. 84. Steep Roof Materials: <ul><li>Metal Panel Roof: generally galvanized or aluminized steel </li></ul>
  85. 85. Steep Roof Shapes: <ul><li>Gable Roof: </li></ul>
  86. 86. Steep Roof Shapes: <ul><li>Gambrel Roof: </li></ul>
  87. 87. Steep Roof Shapes: <ul><li>Hip Roof: </li></ul>
  88. 88. Steep Roof Shapes: <ul><li>Mansard Roof: </li></ul>
  89. 89. Steep Roof Terms: <ul><li>Ridge: the level intersection of two roof planes in a gable roof </li></ul> 
  90. 90. Steep Roof Terms: <ul><li>Valley: a trough formed by the intersection of two roof slopes </li></ul> 
  91. 91. Steep Roof Terms: <ul><li>Eave: the horizontal edge at the low side of a sloping roof </li></ul> 
  92. 92. Steep Roof Terms: <ul><li>Rake: the sloping edge of a steep edge </li></ul> 
  93. 93. Steep Roof Terms: <ul><li>Soffit: the undersurface of a horizontal element of a building </li></ul>
  94. 94. Steep Roof Terms: <ul><li>Fascia: the exposed vertical face of an eave </li></ul> 
  95. 95. Steep Roof Terms: <ul><li>Building w/out Fascia: </li></ul>
  96. 96. Stone: <ul><li>Random Rubble: </li></ul>
  97. 97. Stone: <ul><li>Coursed Rubble: </li></ul>------- ------- ------- -------
  98. 98. Stone: <ul><li>Random Ashlar: </li></ul>
  99. 99. Stone: <ul><li>Coursed Ashlar: </li></ul>
  100. 100. Vapor Retarder: <ul><li>Prevents water vapor from penetrating the insulation in the wall of a building </li></ul><ul><li>Placed on the inside of the insulation </li></ul>
  101. 101. Waterproofing: Rolled on waterproofing An impervious membrane applied to the outside of a foundation concrete masonry units. It prevents water from entering the building through concrete masonry units.
  102. 102. Weep Hole: a small opening whose purpose is to permit drainage of water that accumulates inside a building component or assembly
  103. 103. Welded Wire Fabric:  The welded wire fabric grid was about 5’ x 6’
  104. 104. Windows: <ul><li>Window # 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Casement Window: window has a sash that rotates outward from its frame on the side </li></ul>
  105. 105. Windows: <ul><li>Window # 2: </li></ul><ul><li>Sliding Window: essentially a single hung window on its side with the advantage that the track holds the sash in the frame along two sides </li></ul>
  106. 106. Windows: <ul><li>Window # 3: </li></ul><ul><li>Single Hung: sash is kept in place by a track on the vertical sides of the window. </li></ul>
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